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B^DEKER'S guide books. 

BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with 5 Maps and 13 Plans. 
Second Edition. 1871 Is. 

1 5 Maps and I 6 Plans. Fifth Edition. 1873. 5 s. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 11 Maps and 27 Plans. 
Fifth Edition. 1873 5 s. 

SOUTHERN GERMANY and AUSTRIA, including the 

EASTERN ALPS {the Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia etc .) , 
with 28 Maps and 27 Plans. Third Edition. 187 3. 

8 s. 

and AN( 

(i Maps 

Third E. 

Fourth I 

PARIS anc 
21 Plans 


Idition. 1870. 5 s. 

} Maps and 9 Plans. 
5 s. 

excursions to the 
thaffe), SARDINIA, 
laps and 8 Plans. 

5 s. 

with 2 Maps and 
Third Edition. 1872 5 s. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent portions of ITALY, 
SAVOY and the TYROL, with 22 Maps, 10 Plans 
and 7 Panoramas. Sixth Edition. 1873 . . 6 s. 

in English, German, French and Italian. Twenty- 
first Edition. 1S73 3 s. 

August 1873. 

MONEY-TABLE (comp. p. XII.) 

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and excursions to the 


With 7 Maps and 8 Plans. 

Fourth Edition, Revised and Augmented. 



Alt rights reserved. 

"Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all." 



The object of the present Handbook is to supply the 
traveller with information which will render him almost 
entirely independent of the services of guides, valets-de- 
place, and others of the same class ; to afford him some 
idea of the progress of civilisation and art among the people 
with whom he is about to become acquainted; and thus 
to enable him to realise to the fullest extent the enjoyment 
and instruction to be derived from at our in Italy. 

The Handbook is, moreover, intended to guide the 
traveller to the places and objects most deserving of notice 
with the greatest possible economy of time, money, and, it 
may be added , temper ; for in no country is the patience 
more severely tried than in some parts of Italy. The Edi- 
tor will endeavour to accompany the enlightened traveller 
through the streets of the Italian towns , and to all the prin- 
cipal edifices and works of art ; and to pilot his steps 
amidst the exquisite scenery in which Italy so richly abounds. 

With a few exceptions, the entire Handbook has been 
framed from the Editor's personal experience of the places 
described ; but , as infallibility cannot be attained , he will 
highly appreciate any bond jide information with which 
travellers may favour him. That already received , which 
in many instances has been most serviceable, he grate- 
fully acknowledges. 

The Maps and Plans , on which the most anxious care 
has been bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the 
ordinary traveller. Those who desire a more intimate ac- 
buaintance with the country than the Handbook will enable 
them to attain should purchase the admirable supplemen- 


tary sheets of G. Mayr's Atlas of the Alps ( for Central and 
Southern Italy) , which are most easily procured in Ger- 
many (price, mounted, 2 dollars each) . For Naples the map 
of the Real Officio Topografico (Naples, 1835) will be found 

Altitudes are given in English feet. 

Distances are generally given in English miles. The 
Italian 'miglio' varies. Approximately it may be stated 
that 1 Engl. M. = 6/ 7 Ital. migl. = li/u Roman miglio. 

Railways, Diligences, and Steamboats. The most trust- 
worthy time-tables are contained in the "Indicatore ufficiale 
delle strode ferrate, delta navigazione , telegrajia, e poste 
del Regno d' Italia" (with small map, price 1 fr.), published 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary so much as in Italy, 
and attempts at extortion are probably nowhere so out- 
rageous. The asterisks are therefore to be regarded as 
indicating those hotels which the Editor believes to be 
comparatively respectable, clean, and reasonable. The 
average charges stated in the Handbook will at least 
enable the traveller to form an approximate estimate of the 
demands which can be justly made. 


Introduction. p age 

I. Travelling Expenses. Monetary System ... XI 

II. Period and Plan of Tour XIII 

III. Language x ^ 

IV. Passports and Custom-houses XIV 

V. Public Safety. Mendicanc XV 

VI. Intercourse with Italians XVI 

VII. Conveyances XV 111 

VIII. Hotels XXH 

IX. Restaurants and Cafe's XXIV 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc XXVI 

XI. Postal Arrangements XXVI 

XII. Reckoning of Time XXVII 

XIII. Climate. Mode of Life XXVIII 

XIV. Dates of Recent Events XXVIII 


1. From Rome to Naples. Railway by Velletn, San Germano, 

and Capua * 

1. Alatri. Grotto of Collepardo «» 

2. Monte Casino .}> 

3. From Cancello to Benevento J U 

2. From Rome to Naples. By the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, 
Gaeta, and Capua *1 

1. Sezza. Piperno }jj 

2. Promontorio Circeo l0 

3. Sperlonga *° 

3. From Leghorn (Rome) to Naples by sea M 

4. Naples ~* 

I. Side towards the Sea d8 

Castello dell' Ovo. S. Lucia. S. Francesco di Paola. Palazzo 
Reale San Carlo. Municipio. S. Giacomo degli Spagmioh. 
Fontana Medina. Castel Nuovo. Porto Militare. Porto Grande. 
Light-house. : S. Maria del Carmine. 

II. Toledo. Capodimonte 4J 

Piazza de' Martiri. Toledo. Catacombs. Palazzo di Capodi- 
monte. Villa Regina Isabella. Observatory. 

III. The Old Town • 49 

'L'Tncoronata. Palazzo Fondi. S. Maria la Nuova. Post Office. 
-S Anna de' Lombard!. s Sta. Chiara. "S. Domenico. La 
Cappella di S. Severo. S. Anglo a Nilo. University. S. Se- 
verino e Sosio. Palazzo Santangelo. Castel Capuano. Ceme- 
teries ,: 'S Giovanni a Carbonara. 'Cathedral. "Sta. Restituta. 
S. Fil'ippo Neri. S. Paolo Maggiore. ; 'S. Lorenzo. S. Pietro 
a Maiella. Conservatory of Music. 


Route Page 

IV. The Museum 62 

V. The Posilipo 76 

'Villa Nazionale. Mergellina. Grotta di Seiano. Nisida, Grotta 
di Posilipo. Virgil's Tomb. Lago d'Agnano. Astroni. Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele. S. Martino. Castel S. Elmo. Strada dell' 
Infrascata. "Camaldoli. 

Environs of Naples 85 

5. Pozzuoli, Baiie, Misenum, Cum<e 86 

6. Procida and Ischia 99 

7. Mount Vesuvius 104 

1. Herculaneum Ill 

8. Pompeii 113 

9. Castellamare, Sorrento, and Capri 137 

1. Monte Sant' Angelo 139 

10. From Naples to Salerno, Paestum, and Amain . . . 147 

1. Corpo di Cava 148 

2. Kavello 156 

3. From Amalfi to Sorrento 157 

4. From Scaricatojo to Sorrento 157 

5. From Positano to Sorrento 157 

6. From Amalfi fo Castellamare by the Little S. Angelo . 157 

11. From Ancona to Brindisi and the Apulian Peninsula . 158 

1. Fernto 159 

2. Ascoli 159 

3. Teramo. Gran Sasso. Atri 160 

4. From Termoli to Maddaloni. Campobasso .... 161 

5. Lucera. Manfredonia 163 

6. Canosa. Andria. Ruvo 165 

7. Gallipoli 169 

8. Promontory of Leuca 170 

12. From Ancona to Naples by Foggia 170 

13. From Naples to Nola and Avellino 173 

14. From Ancona to Naples by Pescara, Popoli, Solmona. 

and through the Abruzzi 175 

1. Chieti . . . . • 176 

15. From Terni to Naples by Aquila, and through the Abruzzi 178 

1. Leonessa. Cascia. Norcia 179 

2. S. Vittorino 181 

16. From Ancona to Naples by Avezzano. Lago di Fucino 

and Valley of the Liris 181 

1. Tagliacozzo 185 

2. Arpino 186 

17. From Naples to the Coast of the Adriatic by Eboli, 
Potenza, Melfl, and Venosa 187 

18. From Bari to Taranto 190 

19. From Taranto to Reggio 193 

1. f'assano 194 

20. From Naples to Reggio 197 

1. Kicastro 200 

2. S. Stefano del Bosco 201 

3. The Aspromonte 203 


Route Sicily. Page 

General Remarks . . . 204 

Geography and Statistics .... 207 

Historical Notice . . 209 

1. Political History 209 

2. History of Civilisation and Art 213 

21. From Naples to Sicily 217 

A. To Messina 217 

B. To Palermo 219 

22. Palermo 219 

23. Environs of Palermo . . . 228 

a. Monreale. La Cuba. La Zisa. S. Martino . . 228 

b. Monte Pellegrino. The Favorita 231 

c. The Bagaria. Solanto 232 

d. S. Maria di Gesu . . . 233 

1. Ustica . 234 

24. Excursion from Palermo to Tunis 234 

1. Pantellaria .... 234 

2. Carthage 239 

25. From Palermo to Segesta, Castelvetrano, and Selinunto 240 

26. From Palermo to Segesta, Trapani, Marsala, and Castel- 
vetrano 245 

1. Motya 249 

27. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti .... 250 

28. From Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, Terranuova, 
Modica (Val d'lspica), and Palazzolo 257 

1. From Vittoria to Modica by Scoglieti 260 

2. From Modica to Syracuse by Noto 262 

29. From Palermo to Girgenti 262 

1. From Palermo to Sciacca by Corleone 265 

30. From Palermo to Catania through the interior of the island 266 

1. From Castrogiovanni to Catania by Caltagirone . . . 271 

2. From Girgenti to Castrogiovanni and Catania by Calta- 

nisetta 272 

31. From Palermo along the Coast to Messina 272 

1. Tyndaris .... 276 

2. From Termini to Leonforte 278 

32. Messina 279 

1. Excursions from Messina. Faro 284 

33. The Lipari Islands 285 

34. From Messina to Catania 289 

a. Railway via Taormina, Giarre, and Aci-Reale . . 289 

b. By Taormina, Piedimonte, and Aderno .... 294 

35. Catania 295 

36. Mount ^Etna 301 

37. From Catania to Syracuse 306 


Route Page 

38. Excursion to Malta 319 

39. Sardinia 323 

Oagliari. Pula. Iglesias 327 

From Cagliari to Sassari 330 

.Sassari. Porto Torres 332 

From Cagliari to Nuoro, with excursions into the 

Mountains of La Barbagia 334 

40. Excursion to Athens 336 

From Messina to the Piraeus 337 

From Brindisi to the Piraeus by Corfu and the Isthmus 

of Corinth 338 

Excursions from Athens. Eleusis. Cephissia. Penteli. 

Phyle. Kaesariani. Pineus 369 

Maps and Flans. 

1. Map of Italy, facing title-page. 

2. Plan of Naples, between pp. 22 and 23. 

3. Plan of the Museo Nazionale, between pp. 62 and 63. 

4. Map of the Environs of Naples, between pp. 86 and 87. 
;"). Plan of Pompeii, between pp. 114 and 115. 

6. Map of Sicily, at the end of the book. 

7. Plan of Palermo, between pp. 220 and 221. 

8. Map of the Environs of Palermo (and those of Trapani), 
between pp. 228 and 229. 

9. Plan of Girgenti, between pp. 252 and 253. 

10. Plan of Messina, between pp. 278 and 279. 

11. Map of JEetna, between pp. 300 and 301. 

12. Plan of Syracuse and Environs, between pp. 308 and 309. 

13. Map of Sardinia, between pp. 322 and 323. 

14. Plan of Athens, between pp. 340 and 341. 

15. Map of the Environs of Athens, between pp. 368 and 369. 


N. S. E. W. = north, northern, northwards — south, etc. — 
east, etc. — west, etc. 

M. = Engl. mile. R. = bedroom. B. = breakfast. 

D. = dinner. W. = wine. S. = supper. L. = light. 
A. = attendance. 

r. = right. 1. = left. hr. = hour. min. = minute. 


are employed to denote objects especially worthy of the traveller's 


"Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree ; 
< E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes 1 fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced." 

B y r o n. 

From the earliest ages down to the present time Italy has 
ever exercised a powerful influence on the denizens of more nor- 
thern lands, and a journey thither has often been the fondly 
cherished wish of many an aspiring traveller. At the present day 
this wish may be gratified with comparative facility. Northern 
Italy is now connected by a direct 'iron road' with the southern 
portion of the peninsula, as far as Naples and Brindisi, and the 
approaching completion of the great network of railways will soon 
enable the traveller to penetrate into the interior of provinces 
hitherto untrodden by the ordinary tourist. Prior to 1860 the 
peninsula possessed but few railways, and those of insignificant 
extent, and exclusively of local importance. Rapidity of locomo- 
tion is not, however, the sole advantage which has been attained 
since that period. One uniform monetary system has superseded 
the numerous and perplexing varieties of coinage formerly in use; 
the annoyances inseparable from passports and custom-houses, with 
which the traveller was assailed at every frontier, and even in 
many an insignificant town, have been greatly mitigated ; and 
energetic measures have been adopted in order to put an end to 
the extortions of vetturini, facchini, and other members of this 
irritating class. Whilst those in search of adventure and excite- 
ment will miss many of the characteristic elements of former 
Italian travel, those who desire the more rational enjoyments de- 
rived from scenery, art, or science will not fail to rejoice in the 
altered state of the country. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Monetary System. 

The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the travel- 
ler's resources and habits. Generally it may be stated that his 
expenses need not exceed those incurred in the more frequented 
parts of the continent. The average expenditure of a single tra- 
veller may be estimated at 25 francs per diem, or about half 
that sum when a prolonged stay is made at one place, while those 


who are acquainted with the language and habits of the country 
may succeed in reducing their expenses to still narrower limits. 
Persons travelling as members of a party may also effect a consi- 
derable saving. Where ladies are of the party , the expenses are 
always unavoidably greater; not merely because the better hotels, 
and the more comfortable modes of locomotion are selected, but be- 
cause the Italians assume the traveller in this case to be weal- 
thier, and therefore a more fitting object for extortion. 

In the Kingdom of Italy the French monetary system is now 
universal. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi. 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 10 silbergroschen = 35 German kreuzer = 
50 Austrian kreuzer. The silver coins in common circulation 
are Italian pieces of 1 and 2 fr., and Italian or French 5 fr. 
pieces; gold coins of the Italian or French currency of 10 and 
20 fr. are the commonest (those of 5 and 40 fr. rare). 

Since the introduction of a paper currency during the war 
of 1866, at a compulsory rate of exchange, gold and silver coins 
have almost entirely disappeared from ordinary circulation. This 
at first gave rise to great confusion, as not only the principal 
banks, but the different provinces and towns issued notes of 
their own , which were not available beyond their respective 
districts. This state of matters has been remedied to a great 
extent, but as the relative values of banknotes and the precious 
metals still differ, the traveller should endeavour to familiarise 
himself with the current rates of exchange. The notes of the 
Banca Xazionale, for 1, 2. 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100 francs, and up- 
wards, are current throughout the whole of Italy. The principal 
banks also issue notes of 1 /2 fr- > but these are not readily taken 
except within the district of their issue. Thus at Rome and in 
the environs the papal notes and those of the Banca del Po- 
polo , at Naples and throughout S. Italy those of the Banca di 
Napoli, and in Sicily those of the Banca di Sicilia are confined 
to local circulation. Gold and silver are worth 5 — 6 per cent, 
more than paper ; those who pay in gold are therefore entitled to 
decline receiving banknotes in exchange, unless the difference in 
value be taken into account. The traveller who exchanges gold 
for banknotes at a money-changer's should stipulate for notes of 
convenient value and of the bank of the district he intends 
visiting. The purses employed in most other countries are of course 
unsuitable for carrying large bundles of notes; one of those 
adapted for the purpose may be purchased in Italy for l ] / 2 — 2 fr., 
in addition to which a strong pouch for copper will be found 

In some parts of Italy the old currency is still employed 
in keeping accounts, and the coins themselves are occasionally 
seen : e.g. the francesconi and crazie of Tuscany, the scudi 
and bajocchi of the former States of the Church, the piastri and, 


grani of Naples, and the uncie and tari of Sicily. An acquaint- 
ance with these now nearly obsolete currencies is, however, not 
essential unless the traveller diverges from the beaten track, in 
which case the Handbook will afford him sufficient information. 
Before entering Italy, the traveller should provide himself 
with French O'nlil (one Napoleon = 21 — 21 '/■> fr. in paper), which 
is to be obtained in England, France , or Germany on more ad- 
vantageous terms than in Italy. Sovereigns (equivalent to 2(3 — 27 fr. 
in paper) are received at the full value by most of the prin- 
cipal hotel keepers , but not in the less frequented districts. 
The Circular Notes issued by the principal English banks will be 
found convenient for the transport of large sums. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 

The season selected must of course depend on the traveller 
himself, but the colder months are usually preferred. The ma- 
jority of travellers bound for the South cross the Alps in Sep- 
tember or October , and arrive in Rome about the beginning 
of November. Rome is a favourite winter-residence of strangers 
until the Carnival, but at the beginning of Lent the city is deserted 
by many for the gayer scenes of Naples. At Easter it is again 
inundated by visitors desirous of witnessing the ecclesiastical 
pageantry of the 'Holy Week'. After their curiosity has been 
gratified, some then proceed to Naples, Florence, or other parts 
of Italy ; but the majority prepare to leave the country before the 
beginning of summer. In this vast and ever-varying influx of 
travellers the English element is always greatly predominant. 

No month in the year can be pronounced absolutely unsuitable 
for travelling in Italy , but the seasons recommended are the late 
autumn (loth Sept. to loth Nov.), and the months of April and 
May. The rainy winter season , which is less favourable for a 
tour , may be most profitably spent in one of the larger cities, 
of which Rome offers by far the most numerous and varied at- 
trections. June , July , and August should also , if possible , be 
avoided. The scenery indeed is then in perfection, and the long 
days are hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller, but 
he will soon experience the enervating influence of the fierce rays 
of an Italian sun. This effect is produced, not so much by the 
intensity, as by the protracted duration of the heat, the sky 
being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of rain falling for several 
months in succession , until the first showers of autumn again 
refresh the parched atmosphere about the end of August. 

The Plan of a tour in Italy must be framed in accordance 
with the object which the traveller has in view. Florence, Rome, 
and Naples are the principal centres of attraction ; but the less 
frequented parts of the interior also present inexhaustible sources 
of interest. The traveller who desires more than a superficial 


acquaintance with Italy must not devote his attention to the larger 
towns exclusively. The farther he diverges from the beaten 
track, the better insight he will obtain into the characteristics 
of this fascinating country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on 
the study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds 
on his journey. It is quite possible to travel through Italy 
without a knowledge of Italian or French, but in this case the 
traveller cannot conveniently deviate from the beaten track, and 
is moreover invariably made to pay '<z££« Inylese', by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. A 
knowledge of French is very useful , as the Italians are extre- 
mely partial to that language , and speak it on every available 
opportunity , but those who desire to confine their expenditure 
within reasonable limits, a slight acquaintance with the languagef 
of the country is indispensable. 

Nowhere more than in Italy are persons ignorant of the lan- 
guage debarred from the thorough enjoyment of travelling , and 
from the opportunity of forming an independent opinion of the 
country, its customs, history, literature, and art. 

IV. Passports and Custom-houses. 

Passports are virtually abolished in Italy, but it is unwise 
not to be provided with one of these documents , as it may oc- 
casionally prove useful. Registered letters, for example, are not 
delivered to strangers unless they exhibit a passport as a gua- 
rantee of their identity. In the remote districts, too, where the 
public safety still demands rigorous supervision, especially in the 
southern provinces , the traveller who cannot show his creden- 
tials is liable to detention. — The Italian police authorities will 
be found uniformly civil and obliging. 

The examination of luggage at the Italian custom-houses 
is usually very lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles most 
sought for. Each traveller, however, is allowed a hundred 
cigars free of duty. If possible, luggage should never be sent 
to Italy by goods' train, and then only through the medium of a 

t 'Baedeker's Manual vf I'oncersalion in four Languages (-English, 
French, German, and Italian) with Vocabulary etc." (19th Edit.) will 
he found serviceable ior Una purpose. With the addition of a pocket-dic- 
tionary, the traveller may safely encounter the difficulties of the situation. 
— In addressing persons of the educated classes 'lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always he rmployed (addressing several at once, 'loro 1 with 
the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi 1 is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' 
by Ihosij only who are proficient in the language. 'Yoi* is the commonest 
mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is generally regarded 
as inelegant or uncourteous. 


trustworthy goods' agent, to whom the keys must be forwarded. 
As a rule the traveller will And it advisable, and less expensive, 
never to part from his luggage, and to superintend the custom- 
house examination in person. — The 'dazio consumo' , or mu- 
nicipal tax levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, 
seldom of course requires to be paid by ordinary travellers. An 
assurance that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty ge- 
nerally suffices to prevent detention. 

V. Public Safety. Mendicancy. 

Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of Fra Diavolos 
and Rinaldo Rinaldinis , an impression fostered by tales of 
travellers and sensational letters to newspapers ; but the fact 
is, that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly atten- 
ded with greater hazard than in any of the northern European 
countries , while Southern Italy cannot now be regarded as unsafe 
exept in its most remote recesses. The traveller may , however, 
be reminded of the danger of seeking quarters for the night in 
inferior or little frequented inns in large towns. Rome and 
Naples, for example, are notorious for inns of doubtful reputation. 
Even in the most secure districts temporary associations of free- 
booters are occasionally formed for some predatory enterprise, but 
the attacks of such bands are generally directed against wealthy 
inhabitants of the country , who are known to be travelling 
with large sums of money , and seldom against strangers , with 
whose movements and finances such marauders are not likely to be 
acquainted. Strangers , however , especially when accompanied 
by ladies , should not neglect the ordinary precaution of re- 
questing information respecting the safety of the roads from the 
gensdarmes ('carabinieri' , generally respectable and trustworthy) 
and other authorities. 

The Brigantaggio, properly so called , is a local evil, which 
it is always easy to avoid. Owing to the revolution of 1860 it 
had increased in the Neapolitan provinces to an alarming extent. 
The Italian Government has done its utmost to remove this 
national scourge, and its efforts have in a great measure been 
successful ; but the evil still resembles the smouldering of an 
imperfectly extinguished conflagration, which from time to time 
bursts forth anew. The demoralisation of the inhabitants of 
the southern provinces is still deplorably great, and the brigan- 
dage there is not only fostered by popular discontent and a 
pretended sympathy for the Bourbons, but is actually carried on 
as a speculation by landed proprietors. These 'gentry' frequently 
equip and harbour gangs of banditti, with whom they share the 
spoil ; or they at least aid and abet them, on condition that 
their own property is respected. The evil is moreover favoured 
by the mountainous character of the country , into the remote 


recesses of which troops cannot easily penetrate. The most no- 
torious districts are now the Basilicata and Calabria. Sicily has 
also of late years been much infested by brigands, especially the 
provinces of Palermo and Girgenti ; but even in the most dan- 
gerous localities those who adopt the ordinary precautions may 
travel with tolerable safety. Weapons cannot legally be carried 
without a licence. For the ordinary traveller they are a mere 
burden, and in the case of a rencontre with brigands they only 
serve greatly to increase the danger. 

Mendicancy, which was countenanced and encouraged by the 
old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
Begging in Italy is a trade rather than a genuine demand for 
alms. The best mode of getting rid of their importunities is 
to bestow a small donation, a supply of the smallest coin of the 
realm being kept ready for the purpose, or else to decline giving 
with — 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. A beggar, 
who on one occasion was presented with a donation of 2 c. and 
thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another 
presented with 50 c. ; but this act of liberality, instead of being 
gratefully accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended 
tone : 'ma signore e molto poco !' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

Travelling in Italy differs essentially in some respects from 
that in France , Germany , and Switzerland , chiefly owing to the 
almost universally prevalent practice of bargaining. The system 
of fixed prices is, however, being gradually introduced. 

The traveller is regarded by landlords, waiters, drivers, por- 
ters, and others of the same class, as their natural and legitimate 
prey. Deception and imposition are conidered very venial of- 
fences by Italians of the lower class, who regard a successful 
attempt as a proof of superior sagacity. The traveller who com- 
placently submits to extortion is therefore less respected than 
he who stoutly resists barefaced attempts upon his credulity. 
Amon"; the Swiss Mountains the judicious traveller knows well 
when to make the tender of his cigar-case or spirit-flask ; but in 
this country such amiable manifestations are only calculated to 
awaken greater cupidity and discontent. 

On the principal routes, and especially in Naples, the insolence 
of this mercenary fraternity has attained to such an unexampled 
pitch, that the traveller is often tempted to doubt whether such 
a thing as honesty is known in Italy; but a more intimate acquain- 
tance with the people and their habits will satisfy him that his 
misgivings apply to the above classes only, and not to the com- 
munity generally. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 


than will ultimately be accepted is universal; but a knowledge 
of the custom , which is based upon the presumed ignorance of 
one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the evil. 
Where tariffs and fixed charges exist , they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases where an average price is established by 
custom, the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect 
to the service to be rendered, and never rely on the equity of 
the other party. The preliminaries of a bargain once adjusted, 
the traveller will often find the people with whom he has to 
deal more trusworthy than the anticipated. 

Individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty , or who , as rarely happens, are offended by 
manifestations of distrust, may well be answered in the words of 
the proverb , 'patti chiari, amicizia lung a . In the following 
pages the average prices of hotel accommodation and other items 
are stated with all possible accuracy , and although liable to 
fluctuation , will often prove a safeguard against gross extortion. 
The Editor may also venture to offer the homely hint, that the 
equanimity of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist him 
if involved in a dispute or bargain, and that no attention whatever 
should be paid to vehement gesticulations or an offensive de- 
meanour. The slighter his knowledge of the Italian language 
is, the more careful should he be not to involve himself in a war 
of words, in which he must necessarily be at great disadvantage. 

It need hardly be observed that the representations of drivers, 
guides, and others of a similar class, with whom even the in- 
habitants of the place often appear to act in concert, are unworthy 
of the slightest reliance. Thus in Naples the charge for a single 
drive is 60 c, and yet the driver would find no difficulty in 
summoning twenty individuals to corroborate his assertion that 
the proper fare was 5 fr. In such cases the traveller may ge- 
nerally rely on the data in the Handbook. Where farther in- 
formation is required, it should be sought from printed tariffs, from 
fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, respectably dressed persons present, 
occasionally from landlords, but seldom or never from waiters. 

The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are incessantly in demand. Drivers, guides, porters, and donkey- 
attendants invariably expect , and often demand as a right , a 
gratuity (buona mano, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), 
varying according to circumstances from 2 — 3 sous to a franc or 
more, in addition to their hire. The traveller need not scruple 
to limit his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
is often a fruitful source of annoyance and embarrassment. The 
bestowal of half-a-franc when two sous would have sufficed may 
be fraught with disagreeable results to the injudicious traveller ; 
the fact speedily becomes known, and he is besieged by a host 

B-edekee. Italy III. 4th Edition. 1, 


of other applicants whose demands it becomes utterly impossible 
to satisfy. It may be laid down as a rule, that the exercise of 
;i certain degree of parsimony, however repugnant to the feelings 
of the traveller , will greatly conduce to his comfort and en- 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives should be 
somewhat modified in accordance with their various local charac- 
teristics. The Italians of the north resemble the inhabitants of 
the south of France, and those nf Italian Switzerland. The 
character of the Tuscans is more effeminate, their language and 
manners more refined. The bearing of the Roman is grave and 
proud. With these, however, the stranger will find no difficulty 
in associating; and acts of civility or kindness will not be mis- 
placed, even when conferred on persons of the lower ranks. 
With the class of Neapolitans with whom the traveller generally 
comes in contact the case is entirely different, and one is tempted 
to believe that they designedly conspire to embitter one's en- 
joyment of their delightful country. It is to be hoped, however, 
that a more auspicious era is dawning under the present regime, 
and that the 'policy' of honesty will at length begin to penetrate 
the Italian mind. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Railways. The principal lines with their respective rami- 
fications are four in number : Ferrovie dell' Alta Italia, Romane, 
Meridionali, and Calabro-Sicule, each of which belongs to a diffe- 
rent company. The greatest speed of the trains is extremely 
moderate. "Si cambio convoglio' means 'change carriages'. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his 
luggage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to 
guard against imposition. No luggage is allowed free, except 
what is taken by the passe nger into his carriage , which must 
not exceed 20 kilogrammes (about 44 lbs. Engl.) in weight. 
Travellers will therefore find it desirable to limit their 'im- 
pedimenta' so as to be able to avail themselves of this per- 
mission. Porter:; who convey luggage to and from the carriages 
are sufficiently rewarded with a few sous where there is no 
fixed tariff. 

In the larger towns railway tickets may be obtained at the 
agent's office before going to the station. By a law passed on 1st 
Oct. 1806, a tax of f> c. is imposed on each railway-ticket. It 
is a wise precaution to be provided with the exact fare before 
taking tickets. 

The most trustworthy information with respect to hours of 
departure, fares, etc. is given by the 'Indicatore Ufficiale delle 
strtide ferrate' (see Preface), with which the traveller should 
provide himself. The local time-tables of the Tuscan, Roman, 


and Neapolitan lines , which may be procured at the railway- 
stations for a few sous, will also be found useful, 

Through tickets and excursion-tickets at considerably reduced 
rates are issued at many of the principal towns in Germany and 
Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, and each 
passenger is allowed 55 lbs. of luggage free. Excursion-tickets 
to the principal towns in Italy and back, available sometimes 
for 50 days, are issued in Italy at a reduction of 45 per cent. 
Farther particulars will be found in the time-tables, or at the 
'agenzia', or office of the railway. Tickets from Italy to Switzer- 
land, Germany, etc. must be partly paid for in gold. Travellers 
about to cross the frontier in either direction are strongly re- 
commended to superintend the custom-house examination of 
luggage in person. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
almost inseparable from a tour in Italy and Sicily, apart from 
the fact that the latter can be reached by water only. If the 
vessel plies near the coast, the voyage is often entertaining; 
and if the open sea is traversed, the masiiificent Italian sunsets, 
lighting up the deep blue water with their crimson rays, present 
a scene not easily forgotten. Hough weather is not very often 
to be apprehended in summer. 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the 
office of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's 
name and destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of 
departure. Fares, duration of voyage, etc. are stated in each in- 
stance in the following pages. First and second class family- 
tickets, for not fewer than three persons, are issued by all the 
companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the fare, but not on 
the cost of food. A child of 2 — 10 years pays half-fare, but in 
this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two children are 
entitled to a berth for themselves. The tickets of the Messageries 
.Maritimes are available for four months, and the voyage may be 
broken at the passenger's discretion. It may here be remarked 
that the rival French companies Fraixsinet and Vale'ry sometimes 
reduce their fares from 20 to 30 per cent, according to bargain, 
but as their vessels usually stop to discharge their cargoes during 
the day, and proceed on their voyage at night, their progress is 
often very slow. 

The saloons and berths of the first class are comfortably and 
elegantly fitted up, those of the second tolerably. Passengers 
of the second class have free access, like those of the first, to 
every part of the deck. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 100 kilogrammes 
(=2 cwt.), second-class 60 kilogr. (=135 lbs.), but articles 
not intended for personal use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is included in the 



first and second-class fares (except in the vessels of the Florio 
Co.), the difference between that provided for first and for 
second-class passengers being inconsiderable. Dejeuner U la four- 
chette , served at 10, consists of 3 — 4 courses, tolerable table 
wine, and coffee. Dinner is a similar repast between 5 and 6 
o'clock. At 7 p. m. tea is served in the first, but not in the 
second class. Passengers who are too ill to partake of these 
repasts are furnished with lemonade, etc., gratuitously. Refresh- 
ments may of course be procured at other hours on payment. 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12 — 24 hrs., 
but more if the passenger has made unusual demands upon him. 
Emburcation . Passengers should be on board an hour be- 
fore the advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance 
to the steamboat (usually 1 fr. for each person with luggage) are 
fixed by tariff at all the sea-ports, and will be found in the 
Handbook. Passengers should therefore avoid all discussions on 
the subject with the boatmen, and simply direct them to row 'al 
Vaticano', 'alia Bella Venetia', or whatever the name of the vessel 
may be. On the way, the boatmen often make demands extra- 
vagantly in excess of the tariff, such as, 'Signore, sono cinque 
lire!' — to which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti ! ' On 
arriving at the vessel, payment should not be made until the 
traveller with all his luggage is deposited on deck. The wild 
gesticulations of the boatman, who has perhaps calculated upon 
the credulity of his passenger , but receives no more than his 
due (which is ample remuneration), may be enjoyed with 
serenity from the deck, as on that 'terra sacra' disputes are 
strictly prohibited. 

On board the passenger gives up his ticket, receives the 
number of his berth, superintends the stowing away of his lug- 
gage, and finally repairs to the deck to observe the progress of 
the vessel as it quits the harbour, of which a fine view is gene- 
rally obtained. 

Diligences. Corrieri are the swifter conveyances which carry 
the mails, and accommodate two or three passengers only at 
high fares. Diiujenze, the ordinary stage-coaches, convey tra- 
vellers with tolerable rapidity, and generally for the same fares 
as similar vehicles in other parts of the continent. They are in 
the hands of private speculators, and where several run in com- 
petition the more expensive are to be preferred. When ladies 
are of the party the coupe (one-third dearer) should if possible 
be secured. The drivers and ostlers generally expect a trifling 
fee (a few soldi) at the end of each stage. 

Vetturini. The communication between many Italian towns 
is maintained by Vetturini, who convey travellers neither very 
comfortably nor rapidly, but at moderate cost. The ordinary 
tourist, however, will rarely have occasion to avail himself of a 


mode of conveyance now rapidly becoming obsolete. Inside places 
are somewhat dearer than those in the cabriolet. The driver 
receives a trifling fee , the ostler 1 soldo , and for removing or 
replacing the luggage 2 soldi. The vetturini are generally respec- 
table and trustworthy , and show no less zeal for the comfort 
and safety of their passengers than for the condition of their 
cattle. With three horses and a vehicle to accommodate six 
passengers 35 — 40 M. are accomplished daily. At midday a 
halt of several hours is made. The vetturini also engage to 
provide the traveller with hotel accommodation , which , when 
thus contracted for , is considerably less costly than when the 
traveller caters for himself. "Where such a bargain is made, it is 
advisable to draw up a carefully worded contract , to which the 
vetturino affixes his signature or mark. This should also be made 
to include the gratuity (tutto compreso) ; and, if satisfaction is 
given, an additional fee may be bestowed at the termination of 
the journey. The entire vehicle, or the interior only, may be 
engaged. It should be distinctly arranged before starting, where 
the night is to be passed, and where breakfast and dinner are 
to be taken. The agreement concluded, the vetturino gives the 
traveller a small sum as earnest-money (caparra), by which both 
parties are bound. 

A single traveller may also bargain with a vetturino for one 
seat, the charge for which varies. The back-seats are 'i primi 
posti', which are generally secured by the first comers, who are 
first consulted with regard to the arrangement of the journey. 
For a single traveller a written contract is hardly necessary. A 
previous understanding should, however, be made with regard 
to the gratuity ; and a separate room (stanza separata) at the 
inns should be stipulated for, otherwise the traveller will run 
the risk of being compelled to share the apartment of his tra- 
velling companions. 

Besides the above-mentioned conveyances, carriages may be 
hired everywhere (with one horse about 65 c. per Engl. M.) 

Fedestrianism. An Italian never walks if he can possibly 
drive ; to him it is an inscrutable mystery how walking can 
afford pleasure. The remark has been frequently made to the 
Editor, Hei e signore e va a piedi?!' In the more frequented 
districts, such as the environs of Rome, the inhabitants are ac- 
customed to this mania of strangers, who wander in the Cam- 
pagna, and among the Sabine and Alban Mts., without exciting 
much surprise. "Walking excursions in other parts of Italy also 
possess their peculiar attractions, and among other advantages 
that of procuring for the pedestrian the enviable reputation of 
being a pittore, or needy individual from whom little is to be 

Prolonged walking-tours and fatiguing excursions, such as are 


undertaken in more northern climates, will be found wholly 
impracticable in Italy. Cool and clear weather should if possible 
be selected, and the sirocco studiously avoided. The height of 
summer is totally unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro, Neapol. ciucio ; Sicil. 
vettura, applied to both animals), between which the difference 
of expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant and cheap mode 
of travelling, especially in mountainous districts, where the attend- 
ant (pedone) also acts as a servant for the timebeing. A bargain 
should be made previously, tutto compreso , a gratuity being 
added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VIII. Hotels. 

In point of cleanliness Italy is in arrear of the age. Per- 
haps in the opinion of the natives the brilliancy of their southern 
climate neutralises dirt. The traveller , however , will rarely 
suffer from this shortcoming in hotels and lodgings of the best 
class. Those who quit the beaten track , on the other hand, 
must be prepared for privations. In the villages the pig (ani- 
niale nero) appears as a domestic animal and privileged inmate 
of the houses, to which the poultry also have free access. Iron 
bedsteads should if possible be selected, as affording less ac- 
commodation to the enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere 
di Persia, or Keating's) or camphor somewhat repels their ad- 
vances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, 
and even of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows 
should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced 
into the room. Light muslin curtains (zanzariera) round the beds, 
masks for the face , and gloves are employed to ward off the 
ttacks of these pertinacious intruders. 

At all the more frequented places there are good hotels of 
the first class . the landlords of which are often Swiss or Ger- 
mans. Rooms 2'/2 — 5 fr., bougie 75 c. — 1 fr., attendance 1 fr., 
table d'hote 4 — 5 fr., and so on. Charges have risen in some 
respects since the introduction of the compulsory rate of ex- 
change in 1866. Families, for whose reception the hotels are 
often specially fitted up, should make an agreement with the 
landlord with regard to pension (10 — 12 fr. each per day). 
Strangers are expected to dine at the table d'hote, otherwise 
the price of their rooms is raised, or the inmates are given to 
understand that their apartments are engaged by other travellers. 
French is spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture of French and 

The second-class inns are thoroughly Italian, and rarely very 
clean or comfortable; charges about one-half the above; no table 
d'hote , but a trattoria is generally connected with the house, 
where refreshments a la carte may be procured at any hour. 


These establishments will often be found convenient and econo- 
mical by the 'voyageur en garcon', but are of course less suitable 
for ladies. 

In hotels of the Italian type, especially in the smaller towns, 
it is advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. 
If exorbitant demands be made, they may generally be reduced 
without difficulty to reasonable limits. An extortionate bill may 
even be reduced although no previous agreement has been 
made, but this is never effected without long and vehement 

The best hotels have fixed charges , and attendance , ex- 
clusive of boots and commissionaire, is charged in the bill , but 
this is not the case in the smaller inns, where 1 fr. per diem 
is usually divided between the waiter and the facchino , or 
less for a prolonged stay. Copper coins are never despised by 
such recipients. 

Hotels Garnis are recommended to persons whose stay at a 
place extends to 10 — 14 days and upwards, as affording greater 
quiet and independence than the public hotels, and being moreover 
considerably less expensive. Attendance about 1/2 f r - P er diem. 

Lodgings of various degrees of comfort and accommodation 
may also be procured where a prolonged residence is contemplated. 
A distinct agreement respecting the rent should be entered into 
before-hand. Where a whole suite of apartments is hired , a 
written contract should be drawn up with the aid of some one 
acquainted with the language and customs of the place (e. g. 
a banker). For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard 
to attendance, linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle 
for coal, etc., will generally suffice. 

A few hints may here be added for the benefit of the less experienced : 

If a prolonged stay is made at a hotel the hill should be demanded 
every three or four days , in order that errors , whether accidental or 
designed , may more easily be detected. When the traveller intends 
starting early in the morning , the bill should be obtained over night, 
but not paid until the moment of departure. It is a favourite practice to 
withhold the bill till the last moment, when the hurry and confusion render 
overcharges less liable to discovery. 

The mental arithmetic of waiters is apt to be exceedingly faulty, 
though rarely in favour of the traveller. A written enumeration of the 
items charged for should therefore be required, and accounts rejected in 
which, as not unfrequently happens, 'colazione, pranzo, vino, etc.' figure 
in the aggregate. 

Information obtained from waiters, and others of a similar class can 
rarely be relied upon. Enquiries should be addressed to the landlords, and 
even their statements received with caution. 

IX. Restaurants and Cafes. 

Restaurants (trattorie) are chiefly frequented by Italians, 
and travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtained 
a la carte at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., for l'/ 2 — 4 fr. 
The waiters expect a gratuity of 2 — 4 soldi. The diner who de- 



sires to confine his expenses within reasonable limits should re- 
frain from ordering dishes not included in the bill of fare. 

The following list comprises most of the commoner Italian 
di shes : — 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 

Gallotta, turkey. 

Umidi, meat with sauce. 

Stufatino, ragout. 

Erbe, vegetables. 

Carcioft, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Frutta , or Oiardinetto , fruit- 

Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind 
of pastry. 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Pera, pear. 

Persiche, peaches. 

Uva, bunch of grapes. 

Limone, lemon. 

Portogallo, orange. 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Pane francese, bread made with 
yeast (the Italian is made 

Formaggio, cheese. 

Vino neTO, red wine ; bianco, 
white ; asciutto, dry ; dolce, 
sweet; nostrale, table-wine. 
Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. Cafe' noir (caffe nero) 
is most commonly drunk (15 — 20 c. per cup). Caffe latte is coffee 
mixed with milk before served (20 — 30 c.) ; or caffe e latte, i. e. 
with the milk sersed separately, may be preferred (30 — 40 c.j. 
Mischio is a mixture of coffee and chocolate (15 — 20 c), considered 
wholesome and nutritious. The usual viands for lunch are ham, 
sausages, cutlets, and eggs (uova da here, soft ; toste, hard ; uova 
nl piatto, fried ). 

Minestra, or Zuppa, soup. 
Consume, broth or bouillon. 
Zuppa alia Santh , soup with 

green vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with 

Risotto, a species of rice pud- 
ding (rich). 
Maccaroni al burro, with butter ; 

al pomidoro, with tomatas. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritti, fried meat. 
Arrosti, roasted meat. 
Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscietto, loin. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Testa di vitello, calt's head. 
Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Costoletta alia minuta, veal-cutlet 

with calf's ears and truffles. 
Palate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 

Sfoglia, a species of sole. 
Principi alia tavola, or piattini, 

hot relishes. 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too 

Presciutto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 


Ices (gelato) of every conceivable variety are supplied at the 
cafe's (30 — 90 c. per portion) ; a half portion (mezza) may always 
be ordered. Oranita, or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons ; 
aranciata of oranges), is chiefly in vogue in the forenoon. The 
waiter (bottega), who expects a sou or more , according to the 
amount of the payment, occasionally makes mistakes in giving 
change if not watched. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the 
larger cafes, the English rarely. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5 fr. 
per diem, the employer distinctly specifying the services to be 
rendered. They are generally trustworthy and respectable , but 
implicit reliance should not be placed on their statements re- 
garding the places most worthy of a visit, which the traveller 
should ascertain from the guide-book or other source. Their ser- 
vices may always be dispensed with, unless time is very limited. 
Travellers are cautioned against employing the sensali, or commis- 
sionaires of an inferior class, who pester the stranger with offers 
of every description. 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open till noon, and usually again from 4 to 7 
p. m. ; some of the most important, the whole day. Visitors 
may inspect the works of art even during the hours of divine 
service, provided they move about noiselessly, and keep aloof 
from the altar where the clergy are officiating. The verger (sa- 
grestano, or nonzolo) receives a fee of !/ 2 &• or upwards, if his 
services are required. 

Theatres. The performances in the large theatres begin at 
8, and terminate at midnight or later. Operas and ballets are 
exclusively performed ; the first act of an opera being usually 
succeeded by a ballet of 3 or more acts. Verdi is the most po- 
pular composer. The pit (platea) is the usual resort of the men. 
A box (palco) must always be secured in advance. — A visit to 
the smaller theatres, where dramas and comedies are acted, is 
recommended for the sake of habituating the ear to the language. 
Performances in summer take place in the open air , when 
smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the usual evening resort of 
the Italians, by whom profound silence is never observed during 
the performance of the music. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price demanded should be offered. The same rule 
applies to artizans, drivers, and others. l Non volete?' (then you will 
not?) is a remark which generally has the effect of bringing the 
matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should never be made 
by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de-place. These 
individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the 


purchase-money, which of course comes out of the pocket ot the 

Cigars in Italy (Sicily excepted) are a monopoly of Govern- 
ment, and bad; those under 3 — 4 soldi scarcely smokable. The 
Sicilian cigars are cheaper, but not better. The same remark 
applies to the Maltese cigars. 

XI. Postal Arrangements. 

The address of letters (whether poste restante or to the tra- 
veller's hotel), should, as a rule, be in the Italian or French 
language, and in all cases distinctly legible. Postage-stamps 
are sold at all the tobacco-shops. 

Letter of 15 grammes (Y2 oz -) to N. America 55 c. ; Ger- 
many, Austria, Holland 40 c; Russia 70 c, Sweden 60 c, Denmark 
50 c, Norway 65 c. ; letter of 10 Grammes (!/ 3 oz.) to France or 
Belgium 40 c, Switzerland 30 c, Spain 50 c, Greece 60 c. ; letter 
of 7^2 grammes Q]± oz.) to Great Britain and its colonies 60 0. 

— Registration fee to Switzerland, Germany, Austria 30 c. ; 
Scandinavia, Russia 40 c. ; America, France, Netherlands 50 c. ; 
England 60 c. 

Letters by town-post 5 c. ; throughout the kingdom of Italy 
20 c. prepaid, 30 c. unpaid. Registration fee 30 c. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 9 a. m. 
to 10 p. m. (on Sundays and holidays also). 

Telegram of 20 words to Great Britain 9 fr., France 4, 
S. Germany, 4 1 /2, N. Germany 6, Switzerland 3, Austria 3 or 4, 
Belgium 5, Denmark G l / 2 , Russia 11, Norway 8!/ 2 , Sweden 8 fr. 

— To America 10 words 50 fr. 

In Italy, 15 words 1 fr., with special haste 5 fr. ; each addi- 
tional word 10 or 50 c. — Registered telegrams may be sent at 
double charges. 

XII. Beckoning of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused 
in all the larger towns, except by the lower classes, but is still 
almost universally employed in the country, especially in Sicily. 
The ordinary reckoning of other nations is termed ora francese. 

The moment of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 
'half past 23 o'clock'; the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after 
which it is '24 o'clock', or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' 
is rung. The following hours are usually termed 'un ora di notte' 
'due ore di notte', etc. This troublesome mode of calculation 
would necessitate a daily alteration of every time-piece in the 
kingdom, but it is thought sufficiently accurate to alter the 
hour of Ave Maria by a quarter of an hour about once a fort- 
night. The following table shows the Italian compared with the 
ordinary hours. 



By Ital. time 

By Ital. time 

S'° 3 

£ 3 



^~t = 






i,oi „ 



f^Oi CO 



< 3 














18»| 4 









18i| 2 

6i |, 












16 : '(4 












1- 5. 





1— 5. 









17i| 4 








17 1| 2 

5i| 2 

6" | 2 



5>( 4 








5i( 4 

















i 3 |4 



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XIII. Climate. Mode of Life. 

Travellers from the north must in some degree alter their 
mode of living whilst in Italy, without, however, altogether 
adopting the Italian style. Strangers generally become unusually 
susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be 
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Carpets and 
stoves, to the comforts of which the Italians generally appear 
indifferent, are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect is an 
absolute essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the 
robust. Colds are most easily caught after sunset and in rainy 
weather. Even in summer it is a wise precaution never to wear 
very light clothing. Flannel is strongly recommended. 

Exposure to the summer sun should be avoided as much as 
possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and foreigners 
(Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, and spectacles of coloured glass (grey concave glasses to 
protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage 
when a walk in the sun is unavoidable. Repose during the hot- 
test hours is advisable, and a siesta of moderate length refresh- 
ing. Windows should be closed at night. 

English and German medical men are to be met with in the 
larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a very 
high reputation in the rest of Europe. German and English che- 
mists, where available, are also recommended in preference to the 
Italian. It may, however, sometimes be prudent, in the case of 
maladies arising from local causes, to employ native skill. Fo- 
reigners frequently suffer from diarrhuea in Italy, which is ge- 



nerally occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice and rice are two 
of the commonest remedies. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor 
may also be mentioned. In such cases, however, thorough repose 
is the chief desideratum. 











Au %. 
































































XIV. Dates of Recent Events. 

Accession of Pius IX. 

Insurrection at Milan. 

Charles Albert enters Milan. 

Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. 

Radetzky's victory at Curtatone. 

Radetzky's defeat at Goito. Capitulation of Peschiera. 

Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

Radetzky's victory at Milan. 


Assassination of Count Rossi at Rome. 

Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

Republic at Rome. 

Charles Albert proclaims an armistice (ten days' cam- 

Radetzky's victory at Novara. 

Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto, July 16th) 
Victor Emmanuel II. 

Haynau takes Brescia. 

Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 

Garibaldi conquers the French under Oudinot, 

Capitulation of Rome. 

Conclusion of peace between Austria and Sardinia. 

Capitulation of Venice. 

Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

Sardinia takes part in the Crimean war. 

Congress of Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

Skirmish at Montebello. 

Battle of Magenta, 

Battle of Solferino. 

Meeting of the Emperors at Villafranca. 

Peace of Zurich. 

Annexation of the Emilia (Parma , Modena, Roinagua). 

Annexation of Tuscany. 

Cession of Savoy and Nice to France. 

Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

Taking of Palermo. 

Battle of Milazzo. 

Garibaldi enters Naples. 

Battle of Castelfidardo. 

Ancona capitulates. 

Battle of the Volturno. 

Plebiscite at Naples. 

Gaeta capitulates after a siege of four months. 

Victor Emmanuel proclaimed King of Italy. 

Convention between France and Italy. 

Battle of Custozza. 

Cession of Venice. 

Naval Battle of Lissa. 

Battle of Mentana. 

States of the Church occupied by Italian troops. 

Rome taken and shortly afterwards proclaimed the 
Capital of Italy. 

1. From Rome to Naples. 

Railway by Velletri, San Germano, and Capua. 

Two main roads lead from Rome to Naples : one along the coast by 
Terracina (R. 2), the ancient Via Appia ; the other through the valley of 
the Sacco and Garigliano, the Via Latina; both uniting near Capua. 

The Railway (finest views generally to the 1.), completed in 1862 (140 31. 
in length), is now the most important means of communication between 
Central and Southern Italy. Duration of journey 7'|j — 9'J2 hrs. ; fares by 
the through trains : 1st cl. 33 fr. 35 c, 2nd cl. 22 fr. 85 c. ; by the slow 
trains: 28 fr., 19 fr. 40, 13 fr. 60 c. — There are two quick trains from 
Rome to Naples daily (making short stoppages at the principal stations 
only), and one ordinary train. Another train leaves Rome for Ceprano 
(formerly the frontier stat., see p. 3), and one also leaves Naples for the 
same destination ; there are also three trains daily from Naples to Capua. — 
Return-tickets from Rome to Naples, available for ten days : 42 fr. 45, 
29 fr. 10, and 17 fr. 45 c. — During the height of the travelling season 
those who have luggage should be at the station i| 2 hr. before the train 
starts. — The finest views are generally to the left. 

On leaving the city, the train passes S. Maria Maggiore, and 
diverges from the Civita Vecchia line; to the 1. is the Porta S. 
Lorenzo, to the r. the arches of the Acqua Felice and the ancient 
Aqua Marcia, beyond them the tombs of the Via Appia. The Sabine 
and Alban mountains rise on the 1. ; at the base of the latter 
stands Frascati. Beyond stat. Ciampino, where the line to Frascati 
diverges to the 1., the Alban Mts. are approached. Stat. Marino 
lies on a chain of hills to the 1. ; above it, on the mountain, Rocca 
di Papa , to the r. of which is the Monte Cavo with the white 
walls of the monastery. A cutting is now passed through ; then 
to thel., on an olive-planted eminence, Castel Gandolfo becomes 
visible ; immediately afterwards Albano and Ariccia are seen in 
the distance to the 1., connected by a viaduct, 400 ft. in length. 
Stat. Albano is 2 M. from the town (Excursion to the Alban Mts. 
see Baedeker's Central Italy"). To the r. a glimpse of Monte Circello 
(1770 ft.) (p. 13), rising abruptly from the sea; nearer are the 
Volscian Mts. Next stat. Civita Lavinia, the ancient Lanuvium; 
then Velletri (*Locanda Campana, and *Gallo, both with Trattoria), 
which stands on the height to the 1., whilst the line passes between 
Monte Artemisio and Ariano (Alban Mts.) on the 1. , and Monte 
Santangelo and Lupino (Volscian Mts.) on the r., and turns E. 
towards the valley of Monte Fortino, where it reaches Stat. Val- 

B.edekee. Italy III. 4th Edition. 1 

2 Route 1. ANAGNI. From Rome 

montone, a small town situated on an isolated volcanic eminence, 
and possessing a handsome chateau of the Doria Pamflli family. 

The line now enters the valley of the Sacco, the ancient 
Trerus or Tolero, and skirts its left bank, running parallel with 
the Via Latina. The well-cultivated valley, hounded on both sides 
by mountains upwards of 4000 ft. high, was anciently the terri- 
tory of the Hernici (see below). To the r. Monte Fortino, with 
picturesquely cultivated slopes ; farther on, to the r. on the 
heights, the venerable Segni (stat.), the Signia of the Romans, 
a fortress founded by the last Tarquin for the purpose of keep- 
ing the Volsci and Hernici in check ; huge remnants of the an- 
cient walls and gateways still exist. The station is about 7 M. 
from the town. 

On the height to the 1. farther on, 6 M. from the station, lies 
Anagni (*Locanda d'ltalia), once a nourishing town, and in the 
middle ages frequently a papal residence (omnibus 1 fr.). Here, 
on Sept. 7th, 1303, Pope Boniface VIII., then considerably ad- 
vanced in years , was taken prisoner by the French knight 
Guillaume de Nogaret, acting in concert with the Colonnas, by 
order of King Philippe le Beau, but was set at liberty by the 
people three days afterwards. The *Cattedrale di S. Maria, of the 
11th cent., is in a good state of preservation and of a pure style, 
with a crypt, and a mosaic pavement by Cosmaz. The treasury 
contains among other relics vestments of Innocent in. and Boni- 
face VIII. Anagni is best visited from the next stat. Sgurgola, 
from which it is 41/2 M. distant. The next towns, -with the im- 
posing ruins of their ancient polygonal walls, are also situated 
on the hills at a considerable distance from the line. This is 
the territory of the Hernici, with the towns of Anagnia, Ale- 
trium, Ferentinum, and Verulae, for a long period allied with 
Rome and Latium, but subjugated by the Romans after the in- 
surrection of the Latins, B. C. 306. The environs of these towns 
are also extremely picturesque. Longer excursions among the 
mountains are not recommended, owing to the still unsettled 
state of the country. 

The village of Sgurgola, from which the station takes its 
name, lies on the hill to the r., above the Sacco; still higher 
is Carpineto. Next stat. Ferentino. The town of that name lies 
on the hill (1450 ft.) to the 1., 3 M. from the line. 

Ferentino (Hotel des Etrangers), the ancient Ferentinum. a 
town of the Volsci, afterwards of the Hernici, destroyed in the 
2nd Punic war, subsequently a Roman colony, has now about 
6000 inhab. The ancient polygonal town-wall may still be traced 
in almost its entire circumference; a gateway on the W. side 
especially deserves notice. The castle, whose walls now form the 
foundation of the episcopal palace, occupies the highest ground 
within the town. The cathedral is paved with remnants of an- 

to Naples. CEPRANO. 1. Route. 3 

cient marbles and mosaics. The font in the small church of 
S. Giovanni Evangelistu is ancient. Interesting antiquities and 
inscriptions will also be observed in other parts of the town. 

Higher up among the mountains, 9>|4 M. from Ferentino, and about the 
same distance from Frosinone (see below) and Anagni, lies the town of 
Alatri, the ancient Aletrium, picturesquely situated on an eminence, and 
affording an admirably preserved specimen of the fortifications of an an- 
cient city. The "walls of the castle, constructed of huge polygonal 
blocks, are still entire ; the gateway attracts special attention on account 
of the stupendous dimensions of the stones of which it is composed. The 
tnwn with its gates occupies the exact site of the ancient town. Below it 
the direction of the walls may be traced. The town and castle were pro- 
vided with an aqueduct, recently discovered and about to be restored. This 
work testifies to the skill in hydrodynamics attained in ancient times, for 
the water must have been forced upwards from the valley from a depth 
of 330 ft. 

At a distance of 3 31. is the celebrated ' Grotta di Collepardo, extending 
upwards of 2000 ft. into the limestone rock, with beautiful stalactites. 
One mile farther, at the base of the mountain-range which formerly bounded 
the papal dominions, an extensive depression of the soil is observed, termed 
II Pozzo (TAnluno, >js 31. in circumf. and 200 ft. in depth, overgrown with 
bushes and underwood. 

About 6 31. from Alatri, towards the Neapolitan frontier, is situated 
Veroli, the ancient Verulae, on a beautiful hill. A road leads thence to 
Isold and Sora (see R. 16). 

Next stat. Frosinone. The town (Locanda de Matteis), situated 
on the heights, 2'/ 2 M. from the railway, is the capital of a 'dele- 
gation', and has a popul. of 8000. It is identical with the ancient 
Volscian Frusino, conquered by the Romans B. C. 304. Relics of 
antiquity (walls, amphitheatre) are inconsiderable; the situation 
is strikingly beautiful. 

Stat. Ceccano. The village is picturesquely situated on the 
mountain slope, on the r. bank of the Sacco, the valley of which 
now contracts. At the base of the mountain, to the 1. of the 
river, once lay the ancient Fabrateria Vetus, numerous inscriptions 
from which are built into the walls of the church by the bridge. 
A road leads from Ceccano over the mountains to Piperno and 
Terracina (p. 14). 

Stat. Ciittro Pofi ; then Ceprano, formerly the frontier station 
(halt of 20 min. ; refreshment -room, D. 4 fr.). Outside the 
station a pleasing glimpse is obtained of the valleys of the Liris 
and the Tolero. The town of Ceprano (Locanda Nuova) is 2 1 /.) M. 
from the station. 

The line now crosses the Liris, which descends from the N., 
from the vicinity of the Lago Fucino (R. 16), forming the old 
boundary of the States of the Church. The small village on the 
r. is Jsoletta. In the vicinity, on the r. bank of the Liris, towards 
S. Giovanni in Carico, once lay the ancient Fregellae, a Roman 
colony founded B. C. 328, a point of great military importance, 
as it commanded the passage of the river. It was destroyed by 
the Romans B. C. 125, in consequence of an insurrection, and 
Fabrateria Nova was founded in its place. A number of antiquities 


4 Route 1. AQUINO. -From Rome 

have been found in the Giardino Cairo, at the village of S. Gio- 
vanni in Carico, 3 M. from the station. 

The line now traverses the broad and fertile valley of the 
Liris, or Garigliano, as it is termed after its union with the 
Sacco. Stat. Rocca Secea. Diligence hence to the Valley of the 
Liris and Lago Fucino, see R. 16. The picturesque town on the 
hills to the 1., the birthplace of Thomas Aquinas, is (stat.) 
Aquino, the Aquinum of the ancients, also celebrated as the 
birthplace of the satirist Juvenal (under Domitian). The illustrious 
'doctor angelicus ', son of Count Landdulf, was born in 1224 in 
the neighbouring castle of Rocca Secca, and educated in the 
monastery of Monte Casino (p. 5). The Emperor Pescennius Niger 
was also a native of Aquinum. 

The now insignificant town is situated on a mountain stream, 
in a beautiful and salubrious district. By the side of the Via 
Latina the relics of the ancient Roman town may be distinguished : 
inconsiderable fragments of walls, a gateway (Porta S. LoTenzo), 
a theatre, remnants of temples of Ceres (S. Pietro) and Diana 
(S. Maria Maddalena), and a triumphal arch. Near the stream are 
the ruins of a asilica of the 11th cent., S. Maria Libera, commonly 
called II Vescovado, occupying the site of an ancient temple. It 
consists of handsome nave and aisles ; above the portal a well- 
preserved Madonna in mosaic. — On the Garigliano, about 3 M. 
to the S., is situated Pontecorvo, formerly an 'enclave' of the 
States of the Church, conferred by Napoleon on General Berna- 
dotte in 1806. 

Beyond Aquino, on a bleak mountain -ridge to the 1., the 
celebrated monastery of Monte Casino (p. 5) becomes visible. At 
its base, 8/4 M. from the railway (carr. 1/2 fr-)> * s situated 

San Germano, or Casino, as it is now usually termed (Villa 
Rapido, indifferent ; *Trattoria Casino, on the way to the amphi- 
theatre ; near it, Loc. dei Giurati, clean), on the site of the 
ancient Casinum. 

A visit to the latter, as well as to the neighbouring monastery (p. 5) 
may easily be accomplished within a stay of 24 hrs. (Luggage may either 
lie forwarded direct from Rome to Naples, or left at the S. Germano stat.) 
An excursion to Jlonte Casino may be pronounced safe, if made by day- 
light, although the vicinity of S. Germano is occasionally infested by ban- 
ditti. On arriving by the train the traveller, having taken the precaution 
to procure some refreshment in the town, may either first explore the ruins 
of Casinum (for which, however, he would have time on the following 
day), or proceed at once to the monastery of Jlonte Casino (li/ 2 hr. ; don- 
key I 1 2 fr.). The excursion should be so arranged that the traveller may 
return to the town a considerable time before sunset ; at the same time it 
should be borne in mind that visitors are strictly excluded from 12 to 3. 
30 o'clock. The monastery, justly noted for its hospitality, affords good 
quarters for the night (ladies of course are admitted to the church 
onlv), although the fare is sometimes of a very frugal description. No 
payment is demanded, but the traveller will of course give a handsome 
Lratnitv. (For a lengthened stay persons of moderate requirements arc 
accommodated 'en pension'.) French and German are spoken by some of 

to Naples MONTE CASINO. 1. Route. 5 

the brothers. Early in the morning on Sundays and holidays the church 
and courts of the monastery are crowded with country-people from the 
neighbouring districts, whose characteristic physiognomies and costumes 
will be scanned with interest by the traveller. Those who return to S. Ger- 
mano to pass the night should allow 5 hrs. for the whole excursion. 

San Germano, picturesquely situated in the plain on the small 
river Rapido (Lat. Vinius), and commanded by a ruined castle, 
occupies nearly the same site as the ancient Casinum, colonised 
by the Romans B. C. 312, and afterwards a flourishing provincial 
town. On its ruins sprung up San Germano during the middle 
ages. Pillars of great antiquity are still to be seen in the 
churches. Here, too, courts have been held by popes and emperors. 
Here in 1230 Gregory IX. formed an alliance with Frederick II. 
The foggy climate of this locality is alluded to by the ancients. 
After traversing the somewhat uninteresting town, the traveller 
enters to the 1. the road which approaches from the N. and 
coincides with the Via Latina. About '/a M. farther, to the r. 
are situated the colossal remains of an * Amphitheatre, which, 
according to an inscription preserved at Monte Casino, was erected 
at her own expense by Ummidia Quadratilla, mentioned by Pliny 
in his letters (VII. 24) as a lady of great wealth, who up to a 
very advanced age was an ardent admirer of theatrical repre- 
sentations ('Ummidia C. F. Quadratilla amphitheatrum et templum 
Casinatibus sua pecunia fecit')- Farther on and in a higher si- 
tuation stands a massive square monument, with 4 niches, and 
surmounted by a dome, now converted into the church *del 
Crocefisso (custodian 3 — 4 soldi). On the opposite bank of 
the Rapido lay the villa of M. Terentius Varro, where, as we 
are informed by Cicero (Phil. II. 40), M. Antony afterwards in- 
dulged in his wild orgies. The path leading back to the town 
from Crocefisso is probably the ancient Via Latina ; traces of the 
ancient pavement are occasionally observed. From this path, by 
keeping to the high ground to the left, the traveller may pro- 
ceed to M. Casino without returning to the town. 

The monastery of * Monte Casino, situated on a lofty moun- 
tain in the rear of the town, is reached in l l j 2 hr. The path, 
which cannot be mistaken, affords exquisite views of the valley 
of the Garigliano and the surrounding mountains. The monastery 
was founded by St. Benedict (see below) in 529, on the site of 
an ancient temple of Apollo, to which Dante alludes (Parad. 
XXII. 37), and from its magnificent situation alone would be 
entitled to a visit, were there no other inducements to the en- 
lightened traveller. Immediately on arriving, those who desire to 
remain for the night should apply to the padre forestieraio for 
permission (p. 4). Letters of introduction should if possible be 

procured previously. 

The extensive edifice, the interior of which resembles a castle rather 
than a monastery, is entered by a low passage through the rock, where 
St. Benedict is said to have had his cell. Several courts are connected by 

6 Route 1. MONTE CASINO. From Rome 

arcades. The central one has a fountain of very good water, adorned with 
statues of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. On a square space 
higher up, enclosed by columns from the ancient temple of Apollo, stands 
the Church, erected in 1727 to replace the ancient and dilapidated edifice 
founded In- St. Benedict. The fortunes of the abbey are recorded in Latin 
above the entrance of the hall. The principal door of the church is of 
bronze and is inscribed with a list, inlaid in silver, of all the possessions 
of the abbey in 1066. It was executed at Constantinople by order of the 
Abbot Desiderius, afterwards Pope Victor III. The interior is richly de- 
corated with marble, mosaics, and paintings. On either side of the high 
altar is a mausoleum; one to the memory of Pietro de' Medici (p. 19), who 
was drowned in the Garigliano in 1503, executed by Francesco Sangallo by 
order of Clement VII. ; the other that of Guidone Fieramosca, last Prince 
of Jlignano. Beneath the high altar, with its rich marble decorations, re- 
pose the remains of St. Benediet and his sister St. Scholastica. The sub- 
terranean chapel contains paintings by Marco da Siena and Mazzaroppi. 
The choir-stalls are adorned with admirable carving (by Coliccio, 1696), 
and the chapels adjoining the altar with costly mosaics. Above the doors 
and on the ceiling are frescoes by Luca Giordano (1677), representing the 
miracles of St. Benedict and the foundation of the church. The organ is 
one of the finest in Italy. In the refectory the 'Miracle of the loaves' by 

At a very early period the Library was celebrated for its MSS. , the 
labours of the brethren. To the Abbot Desiderius of the 11th cent, we 
are probably indebted for the preservation of Varro and perhaps of other 
authors. The handsome saloon at present contains a collection of about 
10,000 vols., among which are numerous rare editions published during the 
infancy of the printing art. The MSS. and documents are preserved in the 
archives, in the passage leading to which a number of inscriptions are built 
into the wall, most of them rescued from the ruins of the ancient Casinum. 
Among the MSS. are : the commentary of Origen on the Epistle to the 
Humans, translated by Rufus, dating from the 6th cent. ; Dante with mar- 
ginal notes, of the 14th cent, (the archives contain an interesting portrait 
of the poet) ; the vision of the monk Alberic, which is said to have sug- 
gested the first idea on which Dante founded his work ; various classical 
authors, the original MSS. of Leo of Ostia and Riccardo di San Germano. 
The 'Archives comprise a still rarer collection : about 800 documents of 
emperors, kings, dukes, etc., the complete series of papal bulls which 
relate to Monte Casino, commencing with the 11th cent., many of them 
with admirable seals and impressions. 

Monte Casino has ever been conspicuous amongst the monasteries 
of Christendom for the admirable manner in which its higher duties 
have invariably been discharged. Hosts of travellers have partaken 
of the hospitality of its inmates. They are the intelligent keepers 
of one of the most precious libraries in the world, and form the 
zealous Chapter of their cathedral. The Abbot is virtually the Bishop 
of an extensive diocese. They educate 250 students. In 1865, on 
the 600th anniversary of the foundation of the monastery, they 
edited and printed by their own unassisted labour a facsimile of 
their splendid manuscript of Dante, as an offering to their new 
Capital. The Benedictines of Mte. Casino have for many years 
occupied a peculiar position in the ecclesiastico-political world. 
Long before the events of 1859, Monte Casino was the refuge 
of liberal and constitutional principles. Whilst under the dark 
rule of the Bourbons the clergy of Naples generally acquiesced 
in their despotic rule, the Abbey of Monte Casino maintained a 
noble independence, incurring thereby both danger and annoyance 

to Xaples. TEANO. 1 . Route. 7 

from the existing government. Tosti, the historian of literature, 
the life and soul of the convent, is one of the most accomplished 
scholars in Italy, and one of the most enlightened and liberal 
of modern divines. 

This monastery, though, like all the other monastic establish- 
ments in Italy, condemned to dissolution, -will probably be per- 
mitted to continue to exist in the form of an educational 

The monastery commands a magnificent prospect in all di- 
rections, which the visitor should not omit to enjoy from the 
different points of view. To the W. and S. extends the broad 
valley of the Garigliano with its numerous villages, separated 
from the Gulf of Gaeta by a range of hills ; the sea is occasionally 
distinguishable. To the E. is the valley of S. Germano, com- 
manded by the rocky summits of the Abruzzi. To the N. a wild 
mountainous district. Close to the monastery rises Monte Giiro, 
upwards of 5000 ft. in height, which may be ascended from this 
point in 3 — 4 hrs., an excursion, however, hardly to be recom- 
mended during the present unsettled state of the country. The 
view from the summit is considered one of the finest in Italy, 
extending from M. Cavo in the Alban range to Camaldoli near 

Continuation of Journey to Naples. To the 1. beyond 
S. Germano, the traveller perceives the villages of Cervaro, 
S. Vittore, and S. Pietro in Fine. Stat. Rocca d'Eoandro. The 
train quits the valley of the Garigliano, and enters a richly cul- 
tivated defile, beyond which the country towards the r. grows 
flatter, and stat. Mignano becomes visible. Beautiful views of 
the distant mountains. 

The line now intersects in a S. direction a barren, un- 
dulating tract, which separates the Garigliano from the Voltumo. 
Stat. Presenzano (the village lies on the slope to the 1.) ; then 
Caianello Vairano, whence a high road leads through the Abruzzi 
to Pescara on the Gulf of Venice (R. 14), and to Aquila and Terni 
(R. 15). Stat. Rinrdo. 

Stat. Teano (Locanda dell' Italia); the town (5000 inhab.) lies 
at some distance to the r., at the base of the lofty Rocca Mon- 
fina, an extinct volcano (3400 ft.). The very extensive, but 
dilapidated old castle was erected in the 15th cent, by the dukes 
of Sessa. Ancient columns in the cathedral, inscriptions, remnants 
of a theatre, and other antiquities are the sole remains of the 
venerable Teanum Sidicinum, once the capital of the Sidicini, 
conquered by the Samnites in the 4th cent. B. C. , then subjugated 
by the Romans, and in Strabo's time the most flourishing inland 
city of Campania after Capua. 

From Teano the line turns to the r. towards stat. Sparanisi, 
a village whence a road leads to Gaeta (p. 17). On the hill, to 

8 Route 1. CAPUA. From Rome 

the 1. of the station, is situated Calvi, the ancient Cales, the 
wine of which (vinum Calenum) is praised by Horace. It now 
consists of a few houses only, but contains some interesting anti- 
quities, a temple, and a theatre (most conveniently visited from 
Capua; carr. there and back 2 — 3 fr.). Stat. Pignataro. The train 
now traverses the plain of the Volturno, the principal river of 
S. Italy, 90 M. in length, and reaches stat. 

Capua (Locanda clella Posta, tolerable; Cafe Italia). The 
town, of whose ramparts and churches a glimpse only is obtained 
in passing, lies on the 1. bank of the river, by which the greater 
part of it is surrounded. It was erected in the 9th cent., after 
the destruction of the ancient Capua, on the site of Casilinum, 
a town which was conquered by Hannibal after an obstinate re- 
sistance, and fell to decay in the time of the emperors. It now 
contains a popul. of 10,000, is an archiepiscopal residence, and 
is strongly fortified. In the Piazza dei Giudici is the Arco di S. 
Eliyio, with ancient inscriptions. The * Cathedral possesses a 
handsome entrance court with ancient columns. The interior is 
a basilica consisting of nave and aisles. A chapel on the 1. con- 
tains a Madonna della Rosa of the 13th cent. On the r. a 
Madonna with two saints by Silvestro de' Buoni. The Crypt, 
dating from the Norman epoch, contains mosaics from the former 
pulpit, a Roman sarcophagus with a representation of the Hunt 
of Meleager, and a Holy Sepulchre, attributed to Bernini. — A 
Museum in course of formation, by the church of S. Antonio, 
contains Campanian inscriptions and antiquities. — The modern 
town presents no attractions. 

The bridge across the Volturno, restored in 1756, is adorned 
with a statue of St. Nepomuc; beyond it is an inscription to the 
memory of the Emperor Frederick II. , the statue belonging to 
which has disappeared. The Torre Mignana within, and the 
Cappella de' Morti without the town commemorate the sanguin- 
ary attack made on Capua by Cssar Borgia in 1501, on which 
occasion 5000 lives were sacrificed. 

On the Volturno, near Capua, King Francis II. was defeated 
by the Piedmontese, Oct. 1st, 1860, after which the fortress 

About 3'/2 M. beyond Capua, stat. Santa Maria di Capua 
Vetere, or Santa Maria Maggiore, is reached (Roma, a new hotel 
in the Piazza; Albergo di Oaetano Aran, in the principal street; 
Caff'e di Mola). This prosperous town occupies the site of the 
celebrated ancient city of Capua. 

Capua, founded by the Etruscans and afterwards occupied by Sabellian 
tribes, entered into alliance with the Romans B. C. 343, for the sake of 
protection against the attacks of the Samnites. At an early period its 
power and opulence became developed in this luxuriant district, but it soon 
became noted for its effeminacy and degeneracy. When in the zenith of its 
prosperity it was the largest city in Italy after Rome and had a popul. of 

to Naples. SANTA MARIA DI CAPUA. 1. Route. 9 

300,000. In the 2nd Punic war, after the battle of Cannse (B. C. 216), it en- 
tered an alliance with Hannibal, who took up his winter-quarters here. 
That his army had become so enervated by their residence at Capua as no 
longer to be a match for the Romans, is doubtless a mere hypothesis. 
Certain, however, it is, that the Romans soon regained their superiority, 
and after a long siege reduced the town B. C. 214. Its punishment was'a 
severe one ; the inhabitants were entirely deprived of all civic privileges. 
It was rescued from its abject condition by Csesar, and under his successors 
regained its ancient splendour. It continued to prosper until the wars of 
the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards. In the 8th cent, it was destroyed by 
the Saracens, and the inhabitants emigrated to the modern Capua (p. 8).' 

The most remarkable of the ruins is the *Amphitheatre (situ- 
ated outside the town, on the road to modern Capua ; gratuity 
i /i fr. for 1 — 2 pers.), constructed of travertine, reputed to be the 
most ancient in Italy, and said to have been capable of contain- 
ing 100,000 spectators. Three of its passages are tolerably well 
preserved, but two only of the 80 entrance arches. The key- 
stones are decorated with images of gods. The arena, with its 
substructions, passages, and dens for the wild animals (to which 
a stair descends from the passage to the 1.), is, like that of 
Pozzuoli, better denned than that of the Colosseum at Rome. 
The passages contain remnants of ancient decorations, fragments 
of columns, bas-reliefs, etc. To the r., near the entrance, the 
visitor may ascend to the upper portion of the structure, whence 
the ruins themselves, as well as the spacious surrounding plain, 
may be surveyed. Extensive schools were once maintained at 
Capua for the training of gladiators, and it was here that the 
dangerous War of the Gladiators under Spartacus the Thracian 
broke out in B. C. 73, which was with difficulty quelled by 
Crassus two years later. — In the vicinity, on the road to the 
modern Capua (l 1 ^^- i carr. 1 fr.), are the ruins of a Triumphal 
Arch. — Above Capua rises Mom Tifata, once the site of a 
temple of Jupiter, now crowned by a chapel of S. Nicola. At 
the base of the mountain, about 3'/ 2 M. from S. Maria, lies the 
interesting old church of S. Angelo in Formis (with frescoes of 
the 12th cent.) , occupying the site of a celebrated temple of 
Diana, around which a village has established itself. 

The high road from Capua to Maddaloni (p. 10) by S. Maria 
and Caserta presents a scene of brisk traffic ; excursions by car- 
riage through this garden-like district are therefore preferable to 
those by railway. The road to Caserta, 2 M. distant (one-horse 
carr. li/ 2 — 2 fr.), passes two handsome Roman tombs. Near Capua 
the spacious plains of the ancient Campania (now Terra di Lavoro) 
begin to expand. They are, like the Campagna di Roma, of vol- 
canic origin, but incomparably superior in fertility, and admirably 
cultivated. The district, one of the most luxuriant in Europe, 
in addition to the produce of the dense plantations, is capable of 
yielding two crops of grain and one of fodder in one season. 
The railway turns to the 1. to 

10 Route 1. CASERTA. From Rome 

Caserta (*Albergo Vittoria; Villa Reale near the station; 
Crocelle, well spoken of; * Stella cT Italia; Cafe d' Italia), the 
Versailles of Naples, is a clean and well built town (11,000 
inhab.), with several palaces and handsome barracks, and the re- 
sidence of the prefect of the Terra di Lavoro. It was founded 
in the 8th cent, by the Lombards on the slope of the mountain, 
but the modern town is in a lower situation. The rail.-stat. lies 
opposite the palace, permission to visit which (9 — 4 o'clock, 
gardens open till sunset) should be obtained from the royal inten- 
dant at the Palazzo Reale (p. 40) in Naples, although not absolut- 
ely essential (attendant 1 fr., sacristan of the chapel 25 c). 

The * Royal Palace of Caserta was erected in 1752 by King 
Charles III., under the superintendence of Vanvitelli, in the 
richest Italian palatial style. It forms a rectangle. The S. side 
is 830 ft. long and 133 ft. high, with 37 windows in each story. 
The courts of the palace are traversed by a colonnade, from the 
centre of which the staircase ascends. The Chapel is lavishly 
decorated with marble, lapis lazuli, and gold. It contains a 
•Presentation in the Temple ' by Mengs, five paintings by Conca, 
and an altar-piece by Bonito. The Theatre is adorned with 
16 Corinthian columns of African marble from the temple of 
Serapis at Pozzuoli, and contains 40 boxes besides that appro- 
priated to the royal family. The palace is at present unoccupied. 
The Garden contains magnificent fountains and cascades, and 
handsome statues. The grand terrace above the cascade affords 
beautiful points of view. The Casino Reale di S. Leuci, in the 
park, about 2 M. to the N., commands a still finer prospect. 
— Caserta is a station on the Naples and Foggia line ( R. 12). 

Stat. Maddaloni; the town (17,798 inhab.) lies to the 1., 
witli an extensive deserted palace of the Caraffa family, and 
commanded by a ruined castle. On the Foggia line, 2t/ 2 M. 
distant, is situated the Ponti della Valle, a celebrated aqueduct 
constructed by Vanvitelli to supply the gardens of Caserta with 
water (see p. 173), and usually visited from Maddaloni. 

Stat. Cancello, whence a branch line diverges to Nola and 
San Severino (R. 13). 

From Cancello to Benevenlo (27 51.) (railway from Caserta to 
Benevento see R. 12). Since the opening of the railway the high road has been 
employed for the local traffic only. It skirts the base of the hills, passes 
through S. Felice, and enters the valley where the long village of Arienzo 
nestles amidst gardens and groves of olives and oranges. It then leads through 
a narrow defile, considered by many to be identical with the Furcul* Cau- 
(linse, which proved so disastrous to the fortunes of Rome, and ascends to 
the village of Arpaia (the ancient Cavdium according to some) ; it then 
traverses a well-cultivated valley, and reaches the small town of Monte- 
sarchio (poor locanda), with its extensive castle, once the residence of the 
(VAvalos family. This edifice has recently served as a state prison in 
which, among others, the well-known Poerio (d. 1867) was confined. 'To- 
wards the N. rises the lofty chain of Monte Taburno. From this point a 
path leads by the base of Monte Vergine to Avellinn. a walk of 4 hrs 

to Naples. ACERRA. 1 . Route. 11 

The traveller then crosses the Sarrelella by a Roman bridge, and ap- 
proaches Benevento through an avenue of poplars ; the road crosses the 
Sabato, with fields and gardens on either side. Benevento, see p. 171. 

To the 1. Monte Somma becomes visible, concealing the cone 
of Vesuvius, which lies beyond. Stat. Acerra (11,000 inhab.) 
was the ancient Acerrae, to which the Roman citizenship was 
accorded as early as B. C. 332. The train next passes by the 
trenches of the Regi Lagni, destined to drain the marshes of 
Pantano dell' Acerra, the ancient Clanius, now I'Ayno, and 
forming the boundary between the provinces of Terra di Lavoro 
and Naples. The last station before Naples is Casalnuovo ; to 
the 1. Vesuvius becomes visible. The station at Naples is at 
the S. E. extremity of the town. Arrival in Naples, see p. 21. 

2. From Rome to Naples. 

By the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, Gaeta, and Capua. 

This road, until recently the principal route between Central and 
Southern Italy, is the most ancient in Italy. During the Samnite war, 
B. C. 312, the Via Appia from Rome to Capua (p. 1) was constructed by 
the censor Ap. Claudius ; the present road is nearly identical with the 
ancient Via. It skirts the W. side of the Alban mountains, passes Albano, 
Genzano, and Velletri, intersects the plain on the coast, of which the 
Pontine marshes form a portion, and reaches Terracina, on the old 
frontier of the States of the Church. It then turns inland and traverses the 
mountain chain of Itri, which bounds the Gulf of Gaeta on the N. \V. It 
reaches the gulf near Formia, skirts it for a short distance, and then 
again proceeds by S. Agata towards the interior, where it unites at stat. 
Sparanisi (p. 7) with the former route, 5 M. above Capua. 

In consequence of the opening of the railway this road is now used 
for the local traffic only, but it is still strongly recommended to the notice of 
the traveller as one of the most beautiful in Italy, traversing a singularly at- 
tractive district. The journey by carriage from Rome to Naples is also pre- 
ferable to that by railway in this respect, that the transition from the one 
city to the other is thus rendered less abrupt. The lonely mountainous 
districts of the papal dominions, and the hilly region above Gaeta were 
formerly favourite haunts of brigands, but since the annexation of the 
States of the Church to Italy their bands have been dispersed. No appre- 
hensions need therefore now be entertained, especially if the traveller 
takes the diligence, which still runs regularly. To Velletri (p. 1) by rail- 
way ; thence daily (8 a. m.) a diligence to Terracina in 8 hrs. (fare 7 fr.), 
from Terracina another diligence (5 a. m.) runs by Formia to stat. Sparanisi 
in $1J2 hrs. (fare 8 fr. 75 c). Thence to Naples by railway: 1st cl. 5 fr. 70, 
2nd cl. 3 fr. 65, 3rd cl. 2 fr. 5 c. — The entire journey occupies 3 — 4 
days : 1st. To Terracina (visit Theodoric's palace) ; 2nd. To Formia 
(excursion to Gaeta) ; 3rd. To Naples. — The hotels at Terracina 
and Formia are tolerably comfortable. The journey may also be accom- 
plished by diligence as far as Velletri (office near the Teatro Argentina), 
but this requires an additional day, which might probably be better em- 
ployed. The malaria which prevails in the marshy districts in summer 
is considered especially noxious during sleep. The diligence conductors 
regard tobacco smoke as the most effectual antidote to the poison of the 
atmosphere. — No risk need be apprehended during the colder seasons. 

The high road (Via Appia Nuova) issues from Rome by the Porta 
S. Giovanni, at first running parallel to the ancient Via Appia, and 
then uniting with it at the 11th migl., by the Osteria Le Fratocchie, 
beyond which it proceeds to Albano. Thence to Ariccia by the 

12 Route -2. PONTINE MARSHES. From Rome 

great viaduct; the Chigi palace is passed on the 1. ; two more 
viaducts are crossed, and Genzano and Velletri reached. Here, 
31 M. from Rome, the railway turns to the 1. towards the moun- 
tains, whilst the high road descends to the plain to the r., and, 
l ] /-2 M. from Cisterna. again unites with the ancient Via Appia. 
The extensive oak forests here were once a notorious haunt of 
banditti. On the height to the 1. are perceived the villages of 
Cori and Norma, frequently visited from Velletri (by diligence, 
see Baedeker's Central Italy). 

Further on , below Norma, stands Sermoneta on an emin- 
ence, with an ancient castle of the Gaetani family, who thence 
derive their ducal title. Towards the sea to the r. rises the 
isolated Monte Circello (p. 13). Cisterna (La Posta), 9'/ 2 M. 
from Velletri , is a small town with a castle of the Gaetani, 
situated on the last hill before the Pontine marshes are reached. 
It was called Cisterna Neronis in the middle ages, and is be- 
lieved to occupy the site of the ancient Tres Tabernae. 

Torre tre Ponti , 21 M. from Velletri, a solitary post-house, 
where the diligence halts for an hour and changes horses, affords 
miserable accommodation. Terracina is 28 M. distant. Sermo- 
neta, 6 M. distant from Torre tre Ponti, may be visited thence. 
About l /-2 M. farther the road crosses the Ninfa by an ancient 
bridge, restored, as the inscription records, by Trajan. 

Here begin the Pontine Marshes (Paludi Pontine), varying 
in breadth, between the mountains and the sea from 6 — 12 M., 
and from Nettuno to Terracina 36 M. in length. A very small 
portion only is cultivated. They, however, afford extensive 
pastures ; the most marshy parts being the favourite resort of the 
cattle. Towards the sea the district is clothed with forest (macchia). 
In summer the malaria is a dreadful scourge. Anciently, accord- 
ing to Pliny (Hist. Nat. III. 5), it was a fertile and well-cul- 
tivated plain, comprising 24 villages, but towards the close of the 
republic it gradually became a neglected marsh, owing to the 
decline of agriculture. A want of fall in the surface of the soil 
is the cause of the evil. The streams and canals are totally 
inadequate to carry off the excess of water which descends from 
the mountains during the rainy season, and its escape is further 
impeded by the luxuriant vegetation of the aquatic plants. At- 
tempts to drain the marshes have been successively made by the 
censor Ap. Claudius, B. C. 312 (so tradition alleges), by the 
consul Cornelius Cethegus 130 years later, by Cfesar, Augustus, 
Nerva, Trajan, and finally by Theodoric, king of the Goths, all 
of which were of temporary benefit only. Similar operations were 
undertaken by the popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V. 
and Pius VI. To the latter is due the present admirably con- 
structed road across the marshes, the cost of which amounted to 
1,622,000 scudi. 

to Xaples. PIPERNO. :'. Route. 13 

For some distance the road is identical with the ancient Via 
Appia. skirting the Canal delle Botte , constructed before the 
time of Augustus, and on which Horace performed part of his 
journey to Brundisium (Sat. I. 5). 

About 4'/ 2 M. from Torre tre Ponti lies Foro Appio, the 
ancient Forum Appii, described by Horace as 'differtum nautis 
cauponibus atque malignis'. Here, and at Tres Tabernw, the 
Apostle Paul met his friends from Rome (Acts, 28). 

The road pursues a perfectly straight direction, shaded by a 
double or quadruple avenue of stately elms. But for the moun- 
tains to the 1., where Sezza has for some time been visible, the 
traveller might imagine himself transported to a scene in Holland. 

A conveyance in correspondence with the diligence from Velletri runs 
from Foro Appio to Sezza, the ancient Volscian Sella, which produced a 
favourite wine. It is situated above the marshes on a hill which the old 
road to Naples skirted. The fragments of the old walls and of a so-called 
Temple of Saturn are still to be seen. Before ascending the hill of Sezza, 
the road skirts its base and leads to 

Fiperno (6 31.), the ancient Privernum of the Volsci, which long with- 
stood the attacks of the Romans, subsequently a Roman colony, the traces 
of which are seen 3 /t 31. to the N. in the plain, on the way to Frosinone. 
This plain is enclosed by lofty mountains, surmounted by ruined castles 
and villages : Rocca Gorga, Maenza, Rocca Secca, Prossedi, etc. About 3 31. 
farther, in the valley of the Amaseno, is situated the Cistercian monastery 
of Fossa Nuova, where Thomas Aquinas died in 1274, whilst on his way to 
the Council of Lyons. Sonnino, 4 ] j2 31. distant, and San Lorenzo, in the 
valley of the Amaseno, about 9 31. distant, are both celebrated for the 
picturesqucness of the women's costume, and notorious for the audacity 
of the beggars. 

The high road pursues a straight direction on a raised em- 
bankment, leading to Bocca di Fiume and Mesa. 

At the entrance of the post-house at Mesa are two ancient 
mile-stones of Trajan ; in the vicinity are the ruins of a tomb 
on a square basement of massive blocks of limestone, obtained 
from the neighbouring Volscian mountains. 

Ponte Maggiore is the next post-station. Beyond it the road 
crosses the Amaseno, into which the TJfente empties itself some- 
what higher up. 

The locality is next reached which Horace mentions as the 
site of the grove and fountain of Feronia (Sat. I. 5, 23), but 
no traces of either are now visible (they were more probably in 
the vicinity of S. Martino). On the slope of the contiguous moun- 
tains is a beautiful olive plantation, the property of Count Antonelli. 
The new road now quits the Via Appia and approaches the 
mountains to the 1., where palms and pomegranates, interspersed 
with orange groves and aloes, apprise the traveller of his en- 
trance into Southern Italy. 

To the r. towards the sea the Fromontorio Circeo, or Circello (1770 ft.), 
visible even before Velletri was reached, now becumes more conspicuous. 
This was the Cireeii of the ancients, the traditional site of the palace and grove 
of the enchantress Circe, daughter of the sun, described by Homer. It is an 
isolated limestone rock, and may be attained in 3 hrs. from Terracina by a 
good path along the shore. On the summit, near 8. Felice towards the S. 

14 Route 2. TERRACINA. From Rome 

and Torre di Paola towards the AV., some fragments are perceived of the 
ancient town of Circeii, captured by Coriolanus, and still existing in Cicero" s 
time. Cicero and Atticus, Tiberius and Domitian frequently resorted to 
this spot, attracted doubtless by the beauty of the situation and the excel- 
lence of the oysters. The Grotia delta Maga, a stalactite cavern, deserves a 
visit. In spring and autumn the rocks are frequented by innumerable birds 
of passage. 

lerraciua {Grand Hotel Royal, at the 8. entrance to the town, 
with view of the sea at the back ; Locanda Nazionale, in the 
Piazza, less expensive), situated conspicuously on a rocky emin- 
ence (Hot. Sat. I. 5, 26), the Anxur of the ancient Volsci. 
and the Tarracina of the Romans, was formerly on the confines 
of the papal dominions, and may still be regarded as the natural 
frontier town between Central and Southern Italy. It is an 
ancient episcopal residence, and, on account of its situation, one 
of the most attractive places in Italy. The high road intersects 
the extensive but thinly peopled quarter of the town which was 
founded by Pius VI., while the old town is built on the slope 
of the hill. Above the latter extend the ruins of the ancient city, 
crowned by the remains of the palace of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. 

The *Cattedrale S. Pietro is believed to occupy the site of 
a temple of Jupiter Anxurus. The vestibule rests on 10 ancient 
columns, at the bases of which are recumbent lions. To the r. 
a large antique sarcophagus, which, according to the inscription, 
was once employed in torturing the persecuted early Christians. 
The beautiful fluted columns of the canopy in the interior once 
belonged to the ancient temple. The pulpit, with its ancient mo- 
saics, rests on columns with lions at their bases. The Clock 
Tower (ascended by 91 steps) commands an extensive prospect 
over the sea as far as the Ponza islands and Ischia; to the r. 
to Monte Circello, to the 1. over the marshes. 

The view is far more extensive and picturesque from the 
summit of the promontory, which may be attained directly from 
the new town in 3 / 4 hr., but more conveniently from the old, 
part of the way by an ancient road passing remains of tombs 
and ancient walls, and then to the r., traversing olive planta- 
tions. The whole excursion requires about 3 hrs.; guide un- 
necessary. The *Palace of Theodoric, subsequently converted 
into a castle, occupies the summit. A corridor of 12 arches 
opens towards the sea on the S. side. The purposes of the 
different parts of the structure cannot now be ascertained. The 
various points of view are worthy of notice. Towards the W. 
the view embraces the plain as far as the Alban Mts., then the 
Monte Circello; towards the S. are the Pontine or Ponza Islands, 
the N. W. group of which comprises Ponza (Pontife, once a 
Roman colony), Palmarola (Palmaria), and Zannone, all of vol- 
canic origin, and the S. group Ventotene and S. Stefano ; between 
the groups lies the small island of La Botte. The islands are 
still employed, as in ancient times, as a place of detention for 

to .\aple<. FONDI. 2. Route. 15 

criminals. Ventotene is the well known Pandataria of melancholy 
celebrity, to which Augustus banished his abandoned daughter 
Julia, and Tiberius relegated Agrippina, the daughter of Julia, 
and where Nero is said to have caused his divorced wife 
Octavia to be put to death. Towards the E. the plain of Fondi 
is visible; the village on the sea is Sperlonga (p. 16); farther 
off is the promontory of Gaeta with the Torre d'Orlando (p. 18), 
and finally the island of Ischia. 

The Harbour of Terracina, still recognisable by the break- 
water, was of great importance during the Roman period, but 
is now entirely filled with sand. A new Molo affords indif- 
ferent shelter to coasting vessels. The galley-slaves at the bagno 
here are partly employed in the harbour works, and partly in 
the quarries. 

At the entrance to the town rises a picturesque mass of rock 
on the roadside, on which a hermit formerly dwelt. 

From Terracina the course of the Via Appia, flanked by 
remnants of ancient tombs, is pursued, skirting the moun- 
tains, which approach so near the sea as occasionally to leave 
barely space for the road. This pass was the ancient Lautulae. 
Here, B. C. 315, the Romans fought a battle with the Sam- 
nites, and in the 2nd Punic war Fabius Maximus here kept 
Hannibal in check. On a hill about 1/2 M - to tne L is situated 
the monastery of Eetiro, on the site of the villa in which the 
emperor Galba was born. Then to the r. the Lake of Fondi, 
the Lacus Fundanus or Amyclanus of the ancients , so called 
from the town of Amyclae which is said to have been founded 
here by fugitive Laconians. The village towards the E. on the 
slope facing the sea is Sperlonga. 

The Roman frontier was formerly at Torre dell' Epitafia. The 
gate-way of the tower de' Confini, or La Portella, formerly 
the Neapolitan douane, 4 1 /. 2 M. from Terracina, is next reached. 
On a height to the 1. the village of Monticelli; by the road-side 
fragments of tombs. The traveller now enters the Terra di Lavoro 
(p. 9), one of the most beautiful and fertile districts in the 
kingdom. The next place is (14 M. from Terracina) Fondi 
(5000 inhab.), the ancient Fundi, where Horace derides the 
pride of a civic official 'with broad purple border and coal- 
shovel' (Hor. Sat. I. 5, 34). Change of horses, and halt of 
!/ 4 hr. (inn poor). The chateau, part of which adjoins the 
inn, is in a miserably dilapidated condition. Some of the 
window - frames and decorations in the most tasteful Renais- 
sance style testify to its ancient splendour. In the 16th cent, 
it belonged to the Colonnas. In 1534 it was occupied by the 
beautiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga, who narrowly escaped being 
captured during the night by the audacious pirate Haireddin 
Barbarossa, who purposed conveying her to the Sultan Soliman II. 

16 Route?. ITRI. From Rome 

Exasperated by his failure, he wreaked his revenge on the 
town, as an inscription in the church records. The town was 
again destroyed by Turks in 1594. In the vicinity is the church 
of 5. Maria in the Italian Gothic style. The interior, sadly 
disfigured by whitewash, possesses an ancient pulpit adorned 
with mosaic, and on the r. a Madonna by Silvestro de' Buoni. 
A chapel is shewn in the Dominican monastery in which Thomas 
Aquinas once taught theology. Considerable remnants of the 
ancient town-walls are preserved. The principal street coin- 
cides with the ancient Via Appia. In other respects the town 
is dull and uninteresting, and like Itri (see below) was for 
centuries a haunt of brigands. 

Beyond Fondi the road traverses the plain for 3 M., after 
which it ascends Monte S. Andrea through mountain ravines, 
where additional horses are necessary. It then descends to the 
poor town of Itri, with a ruined castle, once notorious for the 
robberies there committed. Here it was that the robber-chief 
Marco Sciarra promised a safe conduct and protection to the poet 
Tasso ; Fra Diavolo (whose real name was Michele Pezza) was 
also a native of Itri. He was at last captured by the French 
near Salerno and executed. Anecdotes are still related of this 
daring brigand, and Washington Irving's sketch ' The Inn of 
Terracina', the foundation of Auber's opera, has greatly contri- 
buted to maintain their interest. 

A mountainous path, to the r. of Itri, leads in 2>|4 hrs. to the fishing 
village of Sperlonga, situated on a sandy promontory, and deriving its name 
from the grottoes (speliincae) in the neighbouring rocks. In one of these, 
as Tacitus informs us (An IV. 59: 'vescebantur in villa cui vocabulum 
Speluncse, mare Amycleeum inter et Fundanos montes, nativo in specu"), 
Sejanus saved the life of Tiberius, which was imperilled by a falling rock. 
On the way to the grotto Roman ruins are observed , and the grotto itself 
contains benches and stucco ornaments. The excursion may best be made 
by boat from Gaeta, from which Sperlonga is about 9 M. distant. 

From Itri the road descends for some distance on galleries, 
and finally between woods and vineyards towards the coast, re- 
vealing an exquisite view of the bay of Gaeta, with its glittering 
villas and other edifices; in the distance are Isehia and Procida; 
still further off rise the mountains which enclose the bay of 
Naples and the well-known outline of Mt. Vesuvius. 

As the traveller proceeds he will perceive to the r., in the 
middle of a vineyard, on a square base, a massive round tower, 
believed to be Cicero's Tomb. It was in this neighbourhood, not 
far from his Formianum, that the proscribed orator, who sought 
to elude the pursuit of the triumvirs Octavian, Antony, and 
Lepidus, was murdered by the tribunes Herennius and Popilius 
Lrenas, Dec. 7th, B. C. 43, in the 64th year of his age. On a 
height above the road may be traced the foundations of a temple 
of Apollo, said to have been founded by Cicero. Numerous re- 
lics of ancient buildings are still extant on the whole bay, which 
like the bay of Naples, was a favourite resort of the Roman nobles 

to Naples. FORMIA. 2. Route. 17 

and -was covered with the most sumptuous villas. Tradition has 
assigned several of these to Cicero, but without the slightest 
historical foundation. The road now descends to 

Formia [*H6tel de VEurope on the coast, R. l 1 /^ fr-> P re ~ 
ferable to the inns at Gaeta), the ancient Formiae. The town, 
which has a popul. of about 8000, was termed Mola di Oaeta 
under the former regime. The beauty of its situation constitutes 
its sole attraction. The mountain-range on the N. side of the 
bay rises abruptly from the sea, the lower slopes being clothed 
with gardens of lemons, oranges, and pomegranates, and with 
vineyards and olive-plantations. One of the most delightful points 
is the so-called Villa of Cicero, or Villa Caposele, above the town, 
formerly the property and a favourite residence of the kings of 
Naples. It now belongs to Sign. Gaetano Rubino (permission to 
visit it obtained by leaving a canl at his palazzo opposite the 
prefecture; boy to act as guide */2 ft*0- At the entrance are 
ancient inscriptions and statues. The lower part of the garden 
contains considerable remains of an ancient villa, conjectured to 
have belonged to Cicero. Among the vaulted halls is one with 
eight columns and a semicircular apse, now converted into offices. 
During the siege of Gaeta General Cialdini established his head- 
quarters here. The upper terrace commands an uninterrupted 
survey of the charming bay , Gaeta , Ischia , the promontories 
of the Bay of Naples, and the mountain range S. of the Liris, 
which separates the latter from the region of the Volturno. 

A busy traffic is carried on between Formia and Gaeta, 
6 M. distant. Seat in public conveyance J /2 fr-; one-horse 
carr. there and back, according to tariff, 2 fr., or with a stay 
of some hours 3 fr., a drive of 3 / 4 hr.; by boat somewhat longer, 
3 — i fr. From 4 to 5 hrs. should be devoted to the excursion. 

The road ascends through Formia, and beyond it descends 
to the coast, which it then skirts. Numerous remains of villas, 
which the Romans weie in the habit of building out into the sea 
as far as possible, are passed. Among them a spot is pointed 
out as the scene of the assassination of Cicero (see above). Scenery 
attractive. Outside the town extends a long row of houses, termed 
the Borgo. The road next passes the fortifications, which still 
bear traces of the bombardment of i860. An entire street, de- 
stroyed by the explosion of a powder-magazine, is still in ruins. 
The traveller is then set down in the Piazza. 

Gaeta (Albergo Italia : Gaeta ; Caffi ISazionale), the ancient 
Portus Caieta. with 14,200 inhab., is an important fortress, but 
insignificant as a commercial town. The promontory of Gaeta 
resembles that of Misenum, presenting from a distance the appear- 
ance of a gigantic tumulus. Tradition has therefore pointed it 
out as the tomb of Caieta, the nurse of ./Eneas, and Munatius 
Plancus accordingly erected a conspicuous and imposing monu- 
B^deker. Italy III. 4th Edition. 2 

IS Route -2. GAETA. From Rome 

meat on its summit. From this eminence projects a lower rock 
which bears the citadel and the town. 

The strength of the place was first put to the test during the bar- 
barian immigrations. Gaeta successfully resisted the attacks of Teutonic 
invaders, and with Amain and Naples constituted one of the last strong- 
holds of ancient culture. It subsequently became a free city, presided over 
by a doge, and carried on a considerable trade with the Levant. It bade 
defiance to the assaults of the Lombards and Saracens, and preserved its 
freedom down to the 12th cent., when with the rest of Southern Italy it 
was compelled to succumb to the Normans. The fortress was extended and 
strengthened at various periods by the Arragonese , by Charles V., and 
especially by the last Bourbon monarchs. In 1501 it surrendered to the 
French, in 1504 to the Spaniards under Gonsalvo de Cordova, in 1734 to 
the Spaniards again, and in 1798 to the French. In 1806 it was gallantly 
defended by the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal, who, aided by the Eng- 
lish fleet, held out fur nearly six months against a powerful French army 
under Masse'na. In Nov., I860, Francis II. of Naples, the last of the Bour- 
bon kings, sought refuge here, and his queen Mary, Duchess of Bavaria, 
took a prominent part in the defence of the fortress, but the town was at 
length compelled to capitulate by the Italian fleet on Feb. 23rd, 1861. The 
king was conveyed to Rome by a French man-of-war. Pope Pius IX. when 
banished in Nov., 1848, also sought an asylum here, and remained at 
Oaeta until his return to Rome in April, 1860. 

The Cattedrale di S. Er'.ismo possesses a remarkable campa- 
nile ; at the entrance are four ancient columns and relics of ancient 
sculptures. Interior modernised. At the back of the high altar 
(covered) is the banner presented by Pope Pius V- to Don John 
of Austria, the hero of Lepanto, representing the Saviour with 
S.S. Peter and Paul. Outside, opposite the principal portial. is 
a sculptured Gothic column resting on four lions. Among the 
antiquities may be mentioned the remains of an amphitheatre, 
theatre, etc.: also a column bearing the names of the 12 winds 
in Greek and Latin. 

The chief object of interest, however, is the so-called *Torre 
d'Orlando, or tomb of Munatius Plancus, the contemporary of 
Augustus, and founder of Lyons (B. C. 43), situated on the 
summit of the promontory. The traveller ascends from the 
Piazza to the Gothic church of S. Francesco, begun by Fer- 
dinand II. in 1849, seriously damaged in 1860, and since com- 
pleted, and then turns to the 1. through an open garden gate 
and reaches the Torre by a good winding road in 25 min. 
The tomb consists of a huge circular structure of travertine 
blocks, resembling that of Caecilia Metella at Rome. Round 
the top runs a frieze with warlike emblems. On the N\ side is 
the inscription: L. Munatius L. f. L. n. L. pron. Plancus 
cos. cens. imp. iter. VII vir epulon. triump. ex Raetis , aedem 
Saturni fecit de mnnibis, ngros divisit in Italia Beneventi, in Gallia 
colonias deduxit Lugudunum et Rauricam. A more magnificent 
site for such a monument cannot well be conceived. The **view 
towards the N.W. embraces the entire coast as far as Mte. Circeio, 
to the W. the sea with the Ponza Islands, to the E. and S. the bay 
of Gaeta. Ischia, Procida, Capri, and the mountains by Misenum. 

The road now turns into the plain of the Garigliano, the 

to Naples. SESSA. 2. Route. 19 

Litis of the ancients (conip. p. 185). a river 85 M. in length, 
which falls into the Bay of Gaeta. To the 1. before the bridge 
is reached, is seen a long series of arches of the ancient aque- 
duct ; then nearer the road, by the post-house, remnants of the 
theatre and amphitheatre of the venerable city of Minturnae, 
on the ruins of which the small town of Traetto, to the 1. on 
the height, has sprung up. In the plain towards the Liris are 
situated the marshes where Marius once sought to elude the 
pursuit of the hirelings of Sulla. On the r. bank of the Gari- 
gliano, Dec. '27th, 1503, Don Gonsalvo de Cordova fought the 
decisive battle with the French which placed Naples in his power. 
Pietro de' Medici, who, having been banished from Florence, 
had gone over to the French, endeavoured to escape to Gaeta in 
a. boat with four field-pieces. The boat, however, sank, and all 
its crew were drowned. Pietro was buried at Monte Casino (p. 6). 

The suspension-bridge over the Garigliano (972 M. from 
Formia), constructed in 1832, is the oldest in Italy. Before 
it is reached the present road quits the Via Appia, whi h is 
distinctly traceable on the r. bank as far as Mondragone, near 
the Sinuessa of Horace (destroyed by the Saracens in the 10th 
cent.), where on his journey (Sat. I. 5, 39) to his great joy he 
was met by his friends Plotius, Yarius. and Virgil. Horace then 
crossed the Savo (Savone) by the Pons Campanus and proceeded 
to Capua. The present road, however, turns to the 1. towards 
the heights of Sant' Agata (change of horses, halt of '/4 hr.), 
a busy post-station, where it is crossed by a road leading from 
Sessa to Mondragone. Here the volcanic peaks of the Cam- 
pagna Felice first become visible, among which the lofty Kocea is only 6 M. distant, and may be easily visited from this 
point. On the way thither, '/2 M. from Sant' Agata, on a volcanic 
eminence, lies Sessa, the ancient Suessa Aurunca, with interesting 
ruins of a bridge, amphitheatre, etc. Other relics are preserved 
in the ancient cathedral and the churches of S. Benedetto and 
S. Giovanni. In the principal street are memorial stones with 
inscriptions in honour of Charles V., above which is an old 
crucifix with mosaic cross. From the hills of Sessa to Mondragone 
towards the S., extends Monte Massico, whose wines Horace and 
Virgil have immortalised. In the vicinity, towards the Volturnus, 
was the Ager Falernus, where an excellent wine is still produced. 

On the road from Sant' Agata to Sparanisi the village of 
Cascano, celebrated for the beauty of its women, is passed. The 
same reputation might indeed be fairly extended to the entire 
district around the Bay of Gaeta. About 3'/ 2 M. farther a path 
to the 1. leads to Teano (see p. 7). The road then crosses the 
Savone, in the vicinity of the picturesque castle of Francolisi, 
and (l'/'2 M.) reaches the railway-station of Sparanisi (see p. 7), 
whence Naples is reached by railway via Capua in about 2 hrs. 



3. From Leghorn (Rome) to Naples by sea. 

Steamboat communication along the W. coast of Italy is maintained 
by the vessels of the Italian Societa Peirano Danovaro e Comp. and the 
French firms of VaUry Freres et Co. and Marc Fraissinet Pere et Fils. 
Three Italian vessels, one of them only touching at Civita Vecchia, and 
three or four French steamers leave Leghorn for Naples weekly. The direct 
voyage occupies 26 — 28 hrs., that by Civita Vecchia about 10 hrs. more. 
The departure of the vessels is generally made known by placards at the 
hotels. Most of these vessels lie in the harbours for the purpose of loading 
and unloading during the day, and proceed on their way at night, so that 
much of the charm of the coast voyage is thus necessarily lost. When a 
French and an Italian vessel are advertised to start about the same hour, 
the competition generally enables the traveller to stipulate for about 
20 per cent, reduction on the fare. Tickets should always be purchased 
by the traveller in person , and not through a commissionaire. Offices at 
Florence in the Piazza della Signoria , that of the Societa Peirano in the 
Piazza S. Margherita, adjoining the Badia. At Rome the agent for Valery 
is Rosati, Via Condotti 91 ; for Fraissinet, Sebasti, Piazza Nicosia 43 ; for Pei- 
rano, Freeborn, Via Condotti 11. Offices at Civita Vecchia near the harbour. 

Fiacre at Leghorn from the station to the quay 1 fr. ; embarcation with 
luggage 1 fr., or if the steamer be in the outer harbour (porto nuovo) l 1 ^ fr. 
Icomp. Baedeker's N. Italy). From Rome to Civita Vecchia 3 trains daily 
in 2 — 3 hrs. ; express fares 12 fr., 8 fr. 5 c, ordinary S fr. 95, 6 fr. 30, 
4 fr. 50 c. One-horse carr. from the station to the quay 50, with luggage 
75 c. : omnibus to the town 25 c; for each box carried into the town 40, 
thence to the quay 25 c; embarcation 50, box 50, travelling bag 2S c, 
according to tariff. Lower rates may be bargained for by a party of several 

On emerging from the harbour the steamer affords a beautiful 
retrospect of the town. Towards the W. rises the island of 
Gorgona. The vessel steers towards the S. and soon comes in 
sight of the island of Capraja, while the dark outlines of Cor- 
sica are visible in the distance. The Italian coast continues 
visible on the E., and to the N. E. rise the Apennines. The 
steamer next proceeds between the island of Elba with the 
Porto Longone , the islands of Palmajola and Cerboli, and the 
Punta di Piombino, a beautiful passage, affording a fine survey 
of the small rocky islets, as well as of the coast, with its numer- 
ous promontories provided with lighthouses. Farther on is the 
island of Pianosa; more towards the S. are Oiglio and Argentaro, 
with the picturesquely shaped Monte Argentario rising abruptly 
from the sea. Then the islet of Giannutri. 

The coast becomes flat, and Civita Vecchia, picturesquely 
situated at the base of an eminence, at length comes in sight. 

To the S. of Civita Vecchia the coast of the ex-papal domi- 
nions is somewhat monotonous; a few hills excepted, spacious 
plains extend as far as the horizon. In clear weather the dome 
of St. Peter's at Rome is said to be visible. In the bay to the 
*. of Capo Linaro lies S. Severa. and beyond it Palo with its 
palace. At the influx of the Tiber, Fiumicino and Ostia; 
farther on Porto d'Anzio, in the background the Alban and. 
Volscian mountains. The dreary aspect of the Pontine marshes is 
relieved by the conspicuous Monte Circello or Circeo (p. 13), 

NAPLES. 4. Route. 21 

rising abruptly from the sea. To the S. W. the Ponza islands 
(p. 14), Ponza and Zannone. 

The steamer now proceeds seawards, leaving the coast with 
the bays of Terraeina and Gaeta to the E. The first land which 
again becomes visible is the island of Ischia (p. 100) to the S. — 
Entrance into the gulf and arrival at Naples, see below and p. 22. 

4. Naples. 

Arrival, a. By Railway. The station is situated at the S. E. ex- 
tremity of the town (PI. G. 3). The formalities of the municipal douane 
are speedily terminated on the declaration of the traveller that his luggage 
contains no comestibles liable to duty. Hotel omnibuses i 1 , 1 ^ fr. ; Public 
omnibus 20 c, luggage 20 c. each box (not recommended). Fiacre (those 
with two horses are nearest the entrance, those with one, the 'carrozzelle', 
are farther distant) to the town 60 c, from midnight to sunrise 1 fr. ; two- 
horse carr. 1 fr. 20 c, at night l 1 ^ fr. Small articles of luggage free, each 
box 30 c. The one-horse vehicles do not generally accommodate more than 
1 pers. comfortably. The facchini who transport the luggage to the car- 
riage are paid according to tariff, 10 c. for a travelling-bag or hat-box, 
20 c. for heavier articles; but a few soldi in excess of the tariff are usually 
bestowed. The serious annoyances to which travellers were formerly ex- 
posed at the Naples station have been in a great measure remedied by re- 
cent police regulations ; but extortion is still practised more extensively in 
Naples than in any other European capital, and the traveller is therefore 
recommended to be on his guard. In case of necessity protection may- 
be obtained from the first policeman (carabinieri, blue coat with three-cor- 
nered hat ; or the municipal gttardia di pubblica sicurezza, a dark uniform 
with military cap). The traveller should also keep a watchful eye on 
his luggage, and decline the assistance profferred by unauthorised bystanders. 
Pocket picking , too , is not unfrequently practised. 

b. By Steamboat. The steamers lay to outside the Porto Grande. 
As soon as permission is granted to disembark, a small boat (1 fr. for each 
pers. with or without luggage; the traveller should of course disregard the 
absurdly extortionate demands usually made) conveys the passengers to the 
Dogana (PI. 24, F. 5), where luggage is examined. This done, one of the 
'facchini della dogana 1 places the luggage on the fiacre or other conveyance 
.(40 c. for each box under 200 lbs., 10 c. for smaller articles). 

Arrival by Land. The drive from the station to a hotel 
on the Chiaia (p. 23) or at S. Lucia affords the traveller an 
idea of the topography of the town (comp. the plan). Driving 
towards the harbour, the carriage soon turns to the r. into the 
cross-street del Carmine with the church of that name, where 
Conradin is interred, and enters the Piazza del Mercato. This 
is left to the r. ; the carriage drives past the church del Car- 
mine , crosses a small square, and by the Porta del Carmine 
reaches the harbour. Here a view is obtained of the S. side of 
the bay, of M. Somma and Vesuvius, at the base of which lie 
Portici, Eesina, and Torre del Greco, so close together as almost 
to be united ; beyond is the peninsula of Sorrento with the 
lofty Monte Santangelo, which separates the bay from that of 
Salerno to the S. ; opposite the harbour lies the grotesquely- 
shaped rocky island of Capri. In front of the traveller extends 
the long line of 1 uildings which skirt the harbour, bounded 

22 Roule i. NAPLES. Arrival. 

by the hill Posilipo and commanded by Fort S. Elmo. The car- 
riage now proceeds along the Strada Nuova, on the gay and busy 
quay. Further on, diverging to the 1. and passing round the Porto 
Piccolo or small-boat harbour, the traveller reaches the Porto 
Grande, enclosed by breakwaters. Contiguous to it, separated by 
a molo, is the naval harbour, with the arsenal and Castel Nuovo.. 
Thence to the r., through the broad Strada del Molo, enclosed 
on the 1. by the fort and to the r. by a number of theatres, 
booths, etc. The Piazza del Municipio (formerly Largo dell Castello) 
i;- next traversed in its entire length. Adjoining it is the Strada 
S. Carlo, with the royal palace and garden in front of it. and 
farther on is the theatre of S. Carlo. The square in front of the 
latter is the focus of the traffic of the city : in a straight direc- 
tion from it runs the Strada delta Chiaia, to the r. the Toledo,. 
the principal street, recently named the Str. Roma. To the 1. 
the large Piazza del Plebiscito (formerly Largo del Palazzo Reale) 
is entered; to the 1. the palace, to the r. the church of <S. Fran- 
cesco di Paola surmounted by a dome and approached by a semi- 
circular portico ; in front of it the equestrian statues of Charles III. 
and Ferdinand I. of Bourbon. Hence by the Strada del Oigante, 
below which to the 1. is the arsenal, the quay is again reached 
(to the 1. Hotel de Rome). The picturesque Strada S. Lucia, 
above which towers the rocky height of Pizzofalcone, is now 
traversed, leading to Chiatamone at the foot of Pizzofalcone, 
where to the 1. the Castel dell' Ovo projects into the sea. Thence 
to the Largo delta Vittoria, near which is the entrance to the 
Villa Reale , the principal promenade of Naples, extending a 
considerable distance along the coast. The street parallel to the 
promenade is the Riviera di Chiaia, usually termed Chiaia, the 
continuation of which, the Mergellina, leads to the Posilipo and 
beyond it to Pozzuoli. 

Arrival by Sea. The approach from the sea affords the 
advantage of at once revealing to the traveller the bay in all its 
beauty and grandeur. The scene on a fine summer day is one 
of unparalleled loveliness. Those, therefore, who have arrived by 
railway, which is the most convenient and least expensive means 
of conveyance from Rome, should not omit to make an excursion 
by boat, in order to see the bay to the best advantage, or in 
summer by one of the small steamers which ply between Naples 
and Ischia, Sorrento, and Capri. 

"The strait, which is bounded by the low island of Procida 
on the r. and Capo Miseno on the 1., is the channel by which 
the bay of Naples is entered in this direction, — the portal to 
what has been termed a 'fragment of heaven to earth vouchsafed '. 
Capo Miseno is a rocky eminence, connected with the mainland 
by a long narrow isthmus; a grey, deserted tower of weird aspect 
occupies the summit. The white houses of Procida, with their 

fist v£d- TPagncr.T'arrzsTOidb; 

Get. i: H.Kveppr 

Hotels. NAPLES. 4. Route. 23 

flat roofs glittering in the sunshine, remind one of a troop of 
pilgrims toiling up the ascent." 

The author of the work from which the above extract is made 
also strongly recommends the visitor to Naples to approach it from 
the sea. The impression, as he justly observes, which is pro- 
duced by a rapid transition by land from majestic Rome to squa- 
lid Naples is inevitably disappointing, whilst the traveller arriv- 
ing from the sea is at once introduced to all the fascinating 
charms of the beautiful bay. 

Hotels. Those patronised by strangers are situated principally in the 
Riviera di Chiaia, facing the sea and extending as far as S. Lucia. The 
charges are highest in spring, before and after Easter, when the influx of 
visitors is at its height. Families visiting the city at this season will do 
well to secure rooms by letter, some time previously to their arrival. In 
summer the principal hotels are comparatively empty and accordingly re- 
duce their charges. — * Washington (PI. a) , with garden towards the 
sea. adjoining the Castel dell' Ovo, recently erected on the site of a royal 
Casino. ::: Yittoria (PI. b) , *d'Amerique (PI. c) , ::: de Naples (PI. d) , all 
well situated in the Largo della Yittoria, opposite the Villa. 'United 
States (PI. ej , Chiatamone 7, with fine view. Adjoining it, "Hotel des 
Etrangers (PI. f), Chiatamone 9. "Delle Crocelle (PI. g) , Chiatamone 
32, view from the upper rooms only. On the Chiaia, opposite the Villa, 
with a view of the latter and of the sea, Gran Bretagna (PI. h), No. 276, 
and d'Angleterre (PI. i) 271 , du Louvre (PI. k) 225, and 'he la Ville 
(PI. I) 127, the latter quiet, but somewhat remote (pension 8 — 10 fr.). These 
are establishments of the highest class, comfortably fitted up, and with cor- 
respondingly high charges: R. 4 — 5 fr.. table d'hote 4—5 fr., etc. — The 
following hotels in S. Lucia are worthy of commendation, although less 
pretend ingand less fashionablv situated: Hotel de Rome (PI. m|, close to 
the sea; 'Hotel de Kcssie (PI. n), comfortable, R. 3—4 fr., A. I, D. 4>| 2 
fr.. L. 80 c. — The views from S. Lucia of Sorrento, Capri, and Jit. Ve- 
suvius are beautiful, and an insight into the habits and national peculiarities 
of the Neapolitans may be best acquired here, hut unfortunately sleep is 
too often banished by noisy nocturnal pleasure-seekers. In all these hotels 
visitors are expected to dine at the table d'hote ; otherwise the charge 
for apartments is increased. — Hotels of the 2nd class , situated in noisy 
streets in the interior of the town, cannot be recommended to the traveller 
in search of enjoyment and comfort, and are frequented chiefly by men of 
business. Of these may be mentioned: "Hotel de Geneve (PI. o), in the 
Strada Medina, R. 3, I). 4 fr. •, Hotel Central (PI. p), a similar house; 
Hotel Cavour, Strada Fontana Medina 54, well spoken of; 'Hotel Milano 
(PI. q) , near the harbour;' Hotel Montpellier (PI. r) ; Europa , Strada 
Nardones 118; Speraxzella, in the street of that name, near the Toledo; 
Hotel du Globe, near the Fontana Medina; Bella Venezia, Vico S. Anna 
di Palazzo; Albergo dei Fiori, Largo Fiorentini. 

Hotels Garnis. For a stay of some duration the traveller will find the 
accommodation at a private hotel or pension less expensive , and in some 
respects more comfortable. Charges vary with the season , attaining their 
culminating point on unusual occasions , such as an eruption of Mt. Ve- 
suvius, which invariably attracts crowds of visitors. The rooms are ge- 
nerally large and fitted up for two persons: with one bed 2^2 — 4. with 
two beds 4—6 fr. per diem. The number of days for which the room is 
engaged should be distinctly stated, otherwise the visitor may be required 
to leave unexpectedly. With respect to charges (e. g. : A. >J 2 fr., L. 30 c. 
per diem) a distinct understanding beforehand is the only means of pre- 
venting excessive extortion. Breakfast may usually be obtained in the house, 
but better at a cafe. A few of these establishments are here enumerated. In 
the Chiaia: *Nos. 114, 118, and 61, Pension Anglaise (7—10 fr.)-, No. 211, 
Anglo- American; No. 36, Pension Snez. Then Nos. 84, 144. 155, 257, 263. 
Near the Riviera di Chiaia, Madame Stanford, Vico Carminello a Chiaia 

24 Route 4. NAPLES. Restaurants. 

Su. 49. Pension de VEurope, Str. Sta. Teresa a Chiaia 10. Farther on, 
Mergellina villa Barbaia 23. — In S- Lucia (but very inferior to those 
on the Chiaia): No. 71, Bellevue; 31 and 28, Mew York, formerly the well 
known Casa Combi, with different proprietors on the different floors. All 
of these afford a view of the sea and Vesuvius or Capri. 

For a longer residence suites of apartments in the town, or for the 
summer months in one of the surrounding villas, may be engaged 
through a house-agent. They are frequently advertised by means of bills 
posted at the corners of the streets. Most of the houses in the Chiaia 
have a S. aspect and enjoy the pure sea-air. The climate in summer as 
well as winter is more equable than that of Rome or Florence. February 
and March generally very changeable. Invalids should consult an experi- 
enced medical man as to the period of their visit and the locality of their 
apartments. — S. Lucia is exposed in winter to the N.E. and E. winds. 
The air is often poisoned by the drains which flow into the sea here ; 
the lower apartments should therefore be avoided. 

The water is bad, and if drunk without being iced is apt to cause 
diarrhoea. Change of air (an excursion of 1 — 2 days) and ice are the most 
effectual remedies. 

Foreign visitors are particularly cautioned against spoiling their plea- 
sure by allowing themselves to lose temper or be irritated by the rude 
manners of the people. The cab-drivers, often mere children, have a most 
provoking way of trying to attract customers , and the waiters at the 
eating-houses are anything but obliging. Those who do not like to be 
imposed upon or to quarrel after dinner will do well to ask for La Lisia 
(where the price of each article is marked), previous to giving the order; 
and if it is not forthcoming , as frequently happens , to leave the place 
in spite of the waiters sneers or loud talking. In short, the best advice 
to travellers in this part of Italy is — not to be put out by anything 
which reminds them that they are not at home. 

Eestaurants ( Trattorie) very numerous. Italian cuisine. Dinners usually 
a la carte •, 3 dishes with fruit and wine 2 — 3*12 fr. ; iced water (acqua 
gelata) 5 c. ; good table-wine per bottle (caraffa) 50 c. •, bread, generally 
indifferent, 15 c. (pane francese of finer and better flour) ; gratuity 15 c. 
Smoking universal ; ladies, however, may visit the better of these establish- 
ments. Most of them are situated in the Toledo (now Str. Roma), on the 
first-floor, entrance generally from a side -street. On the W. Side: Gran 
Caff'e del Pal. Reale, D. at 5 o'cl. 4 fr. , a handsome and expensive" 
establishment. Restaurant du Cafe de I Eur ope , above the cafe of that 
name, at the corner of the Strada di TlhTaia ' and the Toledo, dear. "Du 
Nord in the next street, Nardones 118, spacious apartments. "Villa di 
Parirji, Toledo 210, entrance in the Str. Sergente Maggiore, not expensive, 
U. of 3 — 4 courses 1 fr. 70 c. — Corona di Ferro , Toledo, entrance Via S. 
Sepolcro 109, D. at 2'|2 and 5>|2 o'el. 3 fr. , or a la carte; Restaurant du 
Louvre, entrance Vico Tre Re 60; Trattoria Centvale, Toledo 289, also a 
'birraria'. — On the E. side of the Toledo: Antica Trattoria dei Giardini 
di Torino, entrance Vico Campano 70, moderate. Then No. 198 (entr. S. 
Brigida 2), "Villa di Napoli, an old-established trattoria, visited by strangers 
as well as Neapolitans. Ercole , Toledo 143 ; Villa di Torino . Vico della 
Concezione, near the Questura, viands good, rooms indifferent , one of the 
oldest trattorie in Naples, formerly the usual resort of strangers. "Hosier's 
German Restaurant, Vico Baglivo Uries 38 (to the N. of S. Giacomo, bet- 
ween the Toledo and the Piazza del JIunicipio) , moderate. Zepf -Weber, 
(also a cafe), Str. del Molo 2. ' Armonia , Str. di Chiaia 134. Trattoria di 
Genua ro, Str. Vittoria a Chiaia. The maccaroni of Naples is celebrated, but 
generally somewhat hard ; it should therefore be ordered 'ben cotti'. It is 
usually flavoured with pomi d'oro (tomatas), to which the Neapolitans arc 
extremely partial. Sea-fish excellent, also a species of lobster (ragusta). 
Shell-fish-soup (zuppa di vongole), a good but indigestible dish. Oysters 
(ostrich?) : ostriche di Castello, a smaller kind, 8 — 12 soldi per doz. ; the 
larger kind 1 — H[ a fr. Good fish may also be procured at the Trattoria 
di CainpayiiH , by the Posilipo , close to the sea; also at the Trattoria 
delta fjcltiara, Trattoria del FiijU di Pietro , in the Mergellina; then the 

Cafes. NAPLES. 4. Route. 25 

Antica Trattoria dello Scoglio di Frisio , much frequented, especially on 
summer evenings (high charges); above it the Trattoria al Pergoluto dello 
Scoglio di Frisio. Boats are generally in waiting for the return -journey : 
to the Villa 1, to the town 2—3 fr. 

Wine. The varieties produced in the environs are generally of excellent 
quality, 50 — 60 c. per bottle (una caraffa), such as Gragnano , Vino di 
Procida, del Monte (Malvasia, a sweet wine, 15—20 soldi per bottle in the 
Jesuits' cellar), Falerno , whereas Marsala, Capri, and Lacrimal Christi 
are generally adulterated. Wine-stores: Str. Pace 9; Str. di Chiaia 136, 
146j.Vico Concezione a Toledo 42. 

Cafes. Smoking allowed everywhere. At the larger cafes dejeuner a 
la fourchette, more expeditious than at the trattorie. On summer evenings 
they are crowded with ice-eaters ; in the morning granita only. The average 
charges are: cup of cafe noir 15 — 20 c, 'caffe bianco' or 'caffe latte' 40, 
'granita di cafie , or frozen coffee (refreshing in hot weather) 40, chocolate 
80, bread or cake 15—50 c, 2 fried eggs (due uova al piatto) 40 — 60 c. ; 
steak or cutlet 1 fr. to 1 fr. 20 c. The list of ices sometimes contains a 
great variety : granita 40 — 50 c, gelato 60 c. and upwards ; half-portions of 
the former may be obtained. Gratuity 1 soldo or more. The Gran Ciif> 
del Palazzo Reale , in the Piazza del Plebiscite, opposite the palace, 
is the best and most frequented. Adjacent, in the Str. di Chiaia, Europa, 
with restaurant. ' • Benvenuto , Str. di Chiaia 140, excellent ices. '■' Caf* 
deir Italia Jferidtonale, Str. di Chiaia 83, moderate. Gran d' Italia, 
Str. Toledo 216, oppos. S. Giacomo, and in the Villa. Gran Cafe Maffei. 
Str. Principessa Margherita a Marina. Commereio , by the Fontana Me- 
dina. Globo , Str. Mnlo 112, etc. — Visitors to the museum will iind a 
convenient cafe opposite to it , at the corner of the Piazza Cavour. — 
Beer generally dear and bad. The best at the Birraria, Toledo 289 (35 
c. per glass). Munich beer at Hasler's German Restaurant (see above). 
At other places the slightly effervescing beer of the country (50 c. per 
bottle) is usually drunk. — Confectioners : Cnjlish , Toledo 255 \ Ferroni, 
S. Brigida 3; Salzano , S. Brigida 51. Boulaiigerie Francaise , Largo S. 
Ferdinando 51. 

Money. Besides the franc currency, the old Neopolitan system is still 
sometimes used by the lower classes in keeping accounts : 1 piastra (pezza) = 
12 carlini = 5 fr. 10 c. ; 1 ducato = 10 carlini = 4 fr. 25 c. ; 2 carlini = 
85 c. ; 1 carlino = 10 grani = 45 c. ; 1 grano = 4'| 2 c. — The old coins 
occasionally seen are piastres, half-piastres, carlini, and 2-carlini. Strangers 
should be careful not to take 2-carlini pieces for francs, or carlini for 
J j2 francs. 

Money Changers , employed by the bank for public convenience, 
are stationed at several of the most frequented parts of the streets. Small 
notes (5 — 10 fr.) may here be exchanged for copper, either gratuitously, or 
at a charge of 1 c. per 5 fr. ; the change should of course be counted. The 
exchange-offices (Cambia Valuta) where a placard containing the current rate 
of exchange is exhibited , should be selected for the purpose of exchang- 
ing gold or foreign notes into the paper of the country. Besides the notes 
of the Banca Nazionale (see Introd. 1.), those of the Bancadi Xapoli , of 
'J2 fr. and upwards , are current throughout S. Italy, but not in Sicily. An 
ample supply of the smallest notes will always be found useful. The, pre- 
mium on the exchange of gold is 1 — 2 per cent, lower in S. Italy and 
Sicily than in Xaples itself. 

Bankers. Iggulden and Son , at the entrance of the Villa Reale. 
Tt". J. Turner el Camp. , S. Lucia 64. A. Levy et Comp. , Toledo , Palazzo 
Cavalcante. Meurkoflre et Comp. Piazza del Municipio 52 ; Rogers Brothers 
and Banca Anglo-ftalinna in the same Piazza. Sorvillo , Str. Montoliveto 
37. Bills of exchange must be stamped on presentation for payment with 
a l bollo straordinaiio." 

Consulates. American : Piazza del Municipio 52. British : Montoliveto 70. 
French: Monte di Dio 1. German: Strada Medina 47. Belgian: Monte 
Oliveto 86. Russian: Via Carlo Poerio 34. Danish and Swedish: Vico 
Piliero 1. Spanish: Toledo 256. Sieiss: Piazza del Municipio 52. 

English Church in the Str. S. Pasquale, at the back of the Str. di 

26 Routed. NAPLES. Carriages. 

Chiaia, on the site presented to the English residents by Garibaldi when 
dictator in 1860; Service on Sundays at 11 a. m. and 3 p.m. — Presbyterian 
Church (Chiesa Scozzese) S. Cappella vecchia \ Service on Sundays at 11 a. m. 
and 3. 30 p. m., on Wednesdays at 7. 30 p. m. — Italian Service of the 
Waldensian Church, Monte Calvario, also on Sunday evenings in the Scotch 
church. — French and German Protest. Church, Str. Carlo Poerio, Piazza 
dei Martiri. 

Street Traffic. The stranger is beset and importuned in the principal 
streets by numbers of hawkers, of whom trifling articles may occasionally 
be purchased. Gross imposition is of course practised on those who are 
unacquainted with the prices. As a rule one-third of the sum demanded 
should be offered, and all discussion avoided. 

Newspapers, 5. c. per number, rarely contain much foreign intelligence, 
but may be perused with advantage by those who desire to become better 
acquainted with the language and customs of the country. The evening 
' II Piccolo* and the popular ' II Pungolo* have a very extensive circulation 
(il pungolo = a goad for driving cattle ; 'e usci '1 pung' =i e uscito il 
Pungolo, is a call everywhere heard about 9 p. m.). In the morning appear 
the Roma, the Oiornale di Napoli, and many others of less importance. 

Shoe-blacks, whose knocking is intended to attract the attention of 
passers-by, 5 c. 

Matches. A box of vestas (cerini, 10, or two boxes 15 c.) is a desirable 
acquisition, as matches are never provided at the hotels. 

Vendors of iced water (aqnaiaoli) carry on a very brisk traffic in 
summer. They are usually provided with two large tubs filled with snow, 
in which the water is cooled, and a supply of lemons, etc. Iced water 2 c. 
per glass; with lemon or anisette 5 c, with amarena 10 c. — There are 
also several mineral springs in the town, containing sulphur, iron, and 
carbonic acid gas ; the best known is at S. Lucia. Women and girls offer a 
draught to passers-by (5 c). The water has a slightly medicinal effect, and 
the smell is disagreeable. 

Carriages. The distances in Naples are so great, carriage-fares are so 
moderate, and walking in the hot season is so fatiguing, that there is little 
inducement for pedestrianism. A private two -horse carr. for excursions 
costs 20 — 25 fr. per diem ; in the town 15 fr. and gratuity. They are to be 
hired at the hotels, at S. Lucia 31, etc. The fares of the public vehicles 
are considerably lower : two-horse carr. per drive during the day 1 fr. 20 c, 
from midnight to sunrise 1 fr. 50 c. ; by time, 2 fr. for the first hr., 1 fr. 
40 c. for each successive hr. ; at night 3 fr. for the first, 2 fr. for each 
successive hr. — One horse carr. (carrozzella) per drive 60 c, at night 
1 fr. ; by time (generally disadvantageous). 1 fr. 40 c. for the first, 1 fr. 
for each successive hr. ; at night 2 fr. and 1 fr. 40 c. respectively. Each box 
fiom the station to the town 30 c, smaller articles free. In hiring by 
time, any fraction above an hour is charged as '|2 hr. In order to avoid 
imposition, the best course is to pay the exact fare, and not a single soldo 
in addition. Those who are disposed to pay liberally are sure to be victi- 
mised. In case of disputes, application should be made to the nearest police- 
man, or at the office of the f'orso Pubblico on the first floor of the JIunicipio; 

In order to avoid difficulties, the stranger should be acquainted with 
the principal boundaries of the town. In the line of the Chiaia it extends 
as far as the commencement of the Mergellina, and beyond it as far as Vir- 
gil's Tomb at the entrance to the grotto of Posilipo ; towards the N.W., 
S. Gennaro dei Poveri (Catacombs), crescent with the stairs of Capodimonte 
(Tondo di Capodimonte), farther on, S. Efremo vecchio, Albergo dei Poveri 
in the Str. Foria, and on the sea-shore Ponte della Maddalena (beyond the 
Sebeto). Tariff, for one-horse and two-horse carr. respectively, for the 
following excursions : Villaggio di Posilipo 1 fr. 50 and 2 fr. 25 c. ; Villaggio 
di Fuorigrotta 1 fr. 20 and 1 fr. 75 c. ; Bagnoli and Lago d'Agnano 2 
and 3 fr. ; Yomero, Antignano, Arenella, Villaggio di Capodimonte 1 fr. 50 
and 2 tr. 25 c. ; Portici 1 fr. 75 and 2 fr. 50 c. ; Resina 2 and 3 fr. ; Torre 
del Greco 2 fr. 50 and 3 fr. 75 c. ; Barra 1 fr. 75 and 2 fr. 50 c. — These 
irf the fares from the stands nearest to the respective points. Unless 
a special bargain be made , the fares from other stands are 60 c. to I fr. 

Baths. NAPLES. 4. Route. 27 

20 c. in excess of the above. For longer excursions, an agreement should 
be made with the driver beforehand. He should be informed of the distance 
and dxiration of the drive. In answer to his demand, the hirer offers what 
he considers a fair sum, and if the driver remonstrates, quietly withdraws. 
This course seldom fails to prove satisfactory. On Sundays and holidays 
the fares are somewhat higher. 

Omnibuses afford a convenient opportunity, especially to a single tra- 
veller , of visiting the Museum, and of making short excursions in the en- 
virons. Principal lines : A. From S. Ferdinando by the Palazzo Reale (fare 
15 c, after dusk 20 c.) every 10 min. by the Strada del Molo, the Marina 
and the Strada di Lavinaja to the Albergo dei Poveri, Strada Foria. 2. By 
the Toledo to the Museum (carr. marked 'Yilla-Porta S. Gennaro') and to 
the Albergo dei Poveri. 3. By the Strada di Chiaia and the Riviera di 
Chiaia to the Mergellina. 4. By the Toledo, diverging by S. Pietro Majella 
to the Vicaria (Palais de Justice) near Porta Capuana. — B. From the Largo 
Yittoria by the Villa Nazionale, every 20 min. (fare 20 c), by the Strada di 
Chiaia and Toledo to the Museum. — C. From the Piazza del Municipio 
every ]| -j hr. to the station (fare 20 c); also to Portici by Ponte della Mad- 
dalena and S. Giovanni near the Palace (fare 40c). In the evening, and on 
the less frequented routes, the time of starting sometimes depends on the 
number of passengers who present themselves. 

Boats. Charges vary according to circumstances. A boat with 4 rowers 
about 15 fr. per diem. Excursion to Portici with 2 rowers 5 fr. A row in 
the harbour 1 — l 1 f 2 fr. for the first, 1 fr. for each successive hour. A previous 
agreement should invariably be made. Boats to the larger steamers, see 
p. 21. The charges for conveying passengers to and from the smaller steam- 
boats which ply in the bay only (to Sorrento, Ischia, etc.) is 4 soldi. 
Unless something be given in excess of the tariff the boatmen are of 
course dissatisfied. 

Commissionaires receive 5 fr. per diem ; for a single walk 1 fr. Those 
who are desirous of making purchases are recommended to dispense with 
their services. — Johann Huber, a Swiss, whose address may be learned 
at Zepf-Weber's or at Hasler's (p. 24), arranges excursions in the environs. 

Baths. ITora 1 fr. 10 c, gratuity 10 e., subscription-prices lower: 
Strada della Pace, near Chiatamone •, by the Hotel de Rome S. Lucia; 
Vico Belle Donne a Chiaia 12; Calata S. Marco a Fontana Medina 6. — 
Sea-Bathing in summer beyond the Villa Reale, and at the Posilipo near 
the Villa Monplaisir. immediately beyond the precincts of the city. Large 
cabinet (preferable) 85 c. with towels , small cabinet 40 c. ; fee 5 c. Re- 
gular bathers may arrange to be admitted to the former at a charge of 
50 c. On entering the water, bathers should take care to observe the 
number of their cabinet. — The baths by S. Lucia and the Marinella cannot 
be recommended to strangers. — Lien.r d'Aisance 10 c. in the Villa, by 
the egress towards the sea ; also in the Str. Chiaia, on the first landing 
of the stair to Pizzofalcone. 

Booksellers. Detken <k Bocholl , Piazza del Plebiscito ; circulating li- 
brary, newspapers , etc. Vorant, English Reading room Riviera di Chiaia 
267. " Pellerano , Riv. di Chiaia 60. French, Diifresne , Strada Medina 61; 
Italian, Dura, Str. di Chiaia 10. Bookbinder , Str. di Chiaia 65. Litho- 
grapher, Riehter, Colonnade of S. Francesco di Paola. 

Physicians. JJr. Schrorn, professor of anatomy at the university, Str. 
Egiziaca 87. Dr. PincoffsAWv. di Chiaia 267. Dr. Stamm, Riv. di Chiaia 118. 
Dr. Arnoldo Car. C/uitani, director of the Clinica Medica at the univer- 
sity, Palazzo Tarsia. Dr. ('. Vittorelli , Str. Taverna Penta 10. Dr. Wi/att, 
S. Caterina a Chiaia, Pal. Calabritta. — Dentist: G. Cavalieri, dentist to the 
King. — Surgical Bandage-maker: Dr. Oteri, P. del Municipio. 

Chemists. Kenot. Str. S. Carlo, oppossite, the Opera. English, Riv. 
di Chiaia 258. G. Finizio, Largo Fiorentini 17. Valentino- Saggesi , Largo 
Garofalo a Chiaia. 

Teachers of languages: Messrs. Feldnuinn , S. Anna a Palazzo 29; 
Fonlques, Monte OHveto 86: Padua, Vico lungo Avvocato : Paynier, Conte 
di Nola a Toledo; Christ, Kramer, and many others, whose addresses 
maybe obtained at the booksellers. 

25 Route 4. NAPLES/ Theatres. 

Pianoforte-Makers (instruments on hire): Eppler, Strada Nardones 95; 
Helzel , Strada S. Caterina a Chiaia 138; Mach , Piazza dei Martiri 33; 
Sierers , Str. di Chiaia , Pal. Francavilla ; Schmidt, Str. Kardones 51; Bret- 
schneider, Chiaia. — Music at Detken's, Italian at GirardTs, Largo S. Fer- 
dinando 49, and at Clausetti's , Str. S. Carlo 18. The names of some of 
the numerous music-masters may he easily ascertained. 

Photographers : ' Sommer d- Be/des , Strada S. Caterina a Chiaia 5, 
where views of every part of Italy may be purchased; "Rive, same street, 
No 1 ; Bernoud, Toledo 256 ; Grillet, Chiatamone 6. 

Tailors: Lennon (English), Str. S. Catarina a Chiaia 2; Kieper, Str. 
Montoliveto 61 (nearly opposite the post-office); Mackenzie, Piazza dei Mar- 
tiri ; Schulze, Largo S. Caterina a Chiaia 19; Devallier, Str. di Chiaia 204. 

— Hatter: Manimolino, Toledo 258. 

Shoemakers : Finoja , Str. Alobardini 53 — 54 : Burrington , Largo Cap- 
pello55; Di Martino , Str. Cavallezza 13; Be A'otaris , Str. Chiaia 189; 
Chatissures de Paris, Toledo 256. 

Watchmakers : Guticenger, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 66 (opposite the 
Capella Vecchia); Eberhard, Largo S. Ferdinando 2. — Optician: Heine- 
mann, Toledo 213. 

Neapolitan Wares. Gloves, coral , tortoise-shell , and lava ornaments 
may be mentioned as specialities of Naples. — Bargaining is absolutely 
necessary in order to prevent extortion. Those who know something of 
the language will of course by most successful. 

G I ores: Bossi, Toledo 179: Cremonesi, Largo S. Ferdinando 50; Bou- 
dillon, Chiaia 198; Sungioranni, Chiaia 176; Montagna, Toledo 294 ; Cuosta, 
Str. di Chiaia 137 ; Magliola , Toledo 105 ; 1'ellerano . Str. S. Caterina a 
Chiaia 70. 

Perfumers: Zempt, Str. di S. Caterina 6; Bellet <£■ Co., Toledo 180; 
Ridolfi, Largo del Vasso. 

Coral and Lav a ornaments: 'Achille Squadrilli, Str. Pace 7 , in the 
Palazzo Nunziante, 1st floor, entrance by the court ; beautifully executed 
brooches in lava 12 fr. 50 c. ; ear-rings 10 fr. ; bracelets 2 1 |'> fr. and upwards ; 
fixed prices, but 5 per cent discount allowed. Casnlta , Piazza dei Mar- 
tiri 7. Bolten, Largo S. Caterina a Chiaia, Palazzo Partanna. Bolzano, Largo 
Vittoria 10. Circelli , Largo A'ittoria 47. Landi , S. Lucia 69. Palchetti, 
Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 1. if. Ardore , Piazza del Municipio 24 (cheap). 

— Defective articles, as specimens, may be purchased of Stef. Esposito, 
S. Lucia 73 — 74. 

Imitations of Etruscan Vases and Terracottas are also 
peculiar to Naples: Del Vecchio, No. 4; Giustiniani , 10 — 16 (and Str. del 
Gigante 20); Colonese , 21, all in the Strada Marinella. — Antiquities: 
Baron e , Str. Trinita Maggiore 6, 1st floor, nearly opposite S. Chiara. 

— Coins: G. Riceio , Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 72, 2nd floor. 
Theatres. The performances usually commence about 8 and last till 

nearly midnight. "S. Carlo (p. 40), one of the largest theatres in Europe, 
and celebrated in the annals of Italian music, contains 6 tiers of boxes, 32 
in each. Operas and ballet only. Parterre (pit) 4 fr. 50 c. (arm-chair 8 fr.) ; 
boxes, 1st tier (parterre) 40 fr., 2nd tier 50 fr., 3rd 32fr., the other at lower 
prices. — Mercudante (late Fondo) , in the Str. del Molo, dramas and 
comedies, and in summer operas. Pit 2 fr. (arm-chair 4 fr.) ; boxes, 1st 
tier 15 fr., 2nd tier 20 fr., etc. — Fiorentini , in the street of that name. 
Dramas. Pit 1 fr. 50; boxes, 1st tier 11 fr. 75 c, 2nd tier 12 fr. 75 c, 
etc. — Teatro jS'uovo , Strada nuova. Comic operas. Pit 1 fr. ; boxes 
7 fr., 8 fr. 50 c, etc. — Fenice Goldoni , Giardino , d'Inverno, at the en- 
trance of the Villa P.eale ; operas, ballet, etc. — San Carlino , Piazza del 
Municipio, where the visitor may become acquainted with 'Pulcinella', the 
'Punch and Judy" of the Neapolitans, to whom the spectacle is an unfailing 
source of amusement. These representations (twice daily) are said to derive 
their origin from the ancient Oscan comedy of Atella. Those who have some 
knowledge of the Neapolitan dialect will find them not beneath their 
notice. Pit 85 c; boxes 6 fr. 40 c. — Teatro Partenope, similar to the last, 
Piazza Cavour. 

National and Religious Festivals. These are inseparably connected, 
and, though inferior in magnificence to the church-festivals of Home ex- 

Railway*. NAPLES. 4. Route. 29 

hibit the most joyous and animated phase of Neapolitan life. The principal 
pilgrimages take place in summer. The carriages are decked with wreaths 
and banners; tambourines and lungs are plied most lustily; the horses, 
especially in the Chiaia, are driven at a furious pace. The political changes 
of late have deprived many of these festivals of their former significance 
the more important , however , are still extremely interesting. 

The Festival of the Vergine di Piedigrotta, a small church at the Po- 
silipo, near the entrance of the grotto, was formerly the greatest of all, and 
is said to have been instituted by Charles III. to commemorate the victory 
he gained over the Austrians at Velletri in 1744. On Sept. 8th in the follow- 
ing year, a great review took place; the court drove to the church, amid 
the acclamations of the people, to celebrate the religious portion of the cere- 
mony, after which the Villa Reale was thrown open to the public, where 
thousands of people spent the remainder of the day and night in the most 
boisterous merriment. — At the present day music, songs, and the celebrated 
Tarantella dance constitute the principal entertainments , which are in- 
dulged in still more unrestrainedly at Whitsuntide, in the vicinity of the 
shrine of the Madonna di Monte Vergine near Arellino (p. 175). The latter 
festival is prolonged during three days, when the surrounding population 
assembles from all quarters in carriages and on foot, tricked out in all the 
magnificence they can command. The Neapolitans then return to the town 
by Nola in a procession which vies with those of the Bacchanalians of old. 
On the following day they proceed to celebrate the festival of the Madonna 
deir Arco, 6 31. from Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma, from which they 
again return in procession in the most exuberant spirits. A similar scene 
of popular rejoicing takes place on Aug. loth, at the feast of Capodimonte. 
Other festivities are celebrated at Christmas, on which occasion the bagpi- 
pers (zampognari) of the Abruzzi perform their sweetest strains before the 
images of the Virgin, and mangers (presepi) in the churches form the prin- 
cipal feature of tableaux of the Holy Family. At Easter, on Ascension-day, 
the festivals of Corpus Christi (Fete de Dieu), of St. Antony, when the 
cattle are blessed, and especially of S. Januarius in May and September, 
similar characteristic scenes may be witnessed, although on these occasions 
the ceremonies partake more of a religious nature. 

The Festival of the Constitution (la Festa dello Statuto), of more recent 
origin, is celebrated on the first Sunday of June throughout the entire 
Italian dominions. In the forenoon military parade ; the garrison consisting 
of the elite troops (3 grenadier regiments, 1 bataillon of bersaglieri, marines, 
carabineers, and several squadrons of 'guides 1 and artillery) are drawn up 
in the Piazza del Plebiscite, and the National Guard along the Toledo as 
far as S. Carlo air Arena. In front of S. Francesco mass is celebrated, ac- 
companied by the thunder of the guns from the vessels of war and the 
harbour-batteries. Concerts are given at different places in the evening, 
and fireworks are displayed, especially at the Villa Nazionale. The Gairbaldi 
hymn invariably elicits the wildest applause. 

The Tombola, which is previously announced by placards, attracts a 
large concourse of spectators. 

Post and Telegraph-Office in the Palazzo Gravina, Strada Montoliveto. 
Letter-boxes in different parts of the town are destined for the reception 
of letters prepaid or otherwise. Postage stamps may be purchased at the 
tobacco shops. Other post-offices are in the Largo S. Caterina a Chiaia, 
the railway station, and S. Carlo all' Arena, Str. Foria, 77. Letters should 
be posted at the branch-offices 1 hr., at the general post-office 2 hrs. before 
the departure of the mail-train. — The office for the diligences to Gaeta 
and Terracina (R. 2), Avezzano (R. 16), Termoli (R. 11), Reggio in Calabria 
(R. 20), and Potenza (R. 17) is at the general post-office, or the counting- 
houses of the neighbouring goods-agents. For Rome, Succursale delle 
Ferrovie dell' Italia Meridionale. Str. S. Brigida 15. — Telegram of 15 
words to any part of Italy 1 fr.; 20 words to S. Germany 3 1 12. N. Germany 
6, etc. ; chief office on thehfirst floor of the Palazzo Gravina ; branch offices 
Str. S. Teresa a Chiaia 6, Vico Concezione a Toledo 16. and Str. Foria 108. 

Railways. There are still two stations in the Str. fuori Porta No- 
lana, the Central Station (at present used only for the lines to Rome, 

30 Route 4. N.-VPLUS. Steamboats. 

Foggia, and Cancello-Xola-I.aura-Sanseverino), being some distance beyond 
that for Castellamare and Salerno. A. To Borne two through-trains in 8 hra., 
one at 2. 5 p. m., the other at 10. p. m. ; to Caserta by the Roman 
line 7 times daily, and also 5 times via Aversa (see p. 1). The office at 
Sta. Brigida, 15, undertakes to transmit luggage to the station. To Ceprano, 
on the former frontier 4, to Capua 8, to Nola and Laura 4 trains daily : 
to Benevento 4, to Foggia 3 trains daily (quick train at 4 p. m., in 5'-;s 
hrs.). — B. To Portici, Torre del Greeo, and Torre Anmiziata 14, to Castel- 
lamare 9, to Pompeii, Eboli, and Salerno 5 trains daily. In winter the 
number of trains is diminished. 

Steamboats. Most of the offices are situated on the quay, Str. Pi- 
liero. Fares including provisions : Civita Vecchia, 1st cl. 54, 2nd" cl. 41 fr. ; 
Leghorn 89 or 64 fr. ; Genoa 120 or 86 fr. ; Marseilles 181 or 128 fr. ; Messina 
or Palermo 38>|2 or 22'|s fr. (the last-named fare is exclusive of provisions, 
breakfast 2, dinner 4 fr. extra). The Vapori Postal/ ltaliani of Peirano 
Danovaro A- Co., Str. Piliero 33, start 3 times weekly (touching once a 
week at Civita Vecchia, K. 3) at 2 p. m. for Leghorn and Genoa ; voyage to 
Civita Vecchia 13 — 14 hrs., to Leghorn 28, Genoa 54 hrs., including stop- 
pages i once weekly to Messina, Catania, and thence to Corfu, Brindisi, 
and Ancona, touching at the principal harbours on the coast (comp. E. 19). 
— The Messageries Maritimes de France (formerly Messageries Imperiales), 
the vessels of which are preferable to those of all the other companies on 
account of their superior cleanliness and regularity, have recently (but, it 
is said, only temporarily) discontinued their service on the Italian coast 
(office Strada Molo 23). They formerly started every Sunday evening direct 
for Messina, in communication with Oriental steamers ; and every Tuesday 
afternoon for Marseilles by Civita Vecchia and Leghorn. — Vessels of the 
French companies Valerit Fr'cres et Cie., Piliero 1, and Marc Fraissijiet 
Pere et Fils, Piliero 3, start twice weekly for Civita Vecchia, Leghorn, 
Genoa, and Marseilles. These companies convey passengers at '(4th or even 
'lard less (according to previous bargain) than the fares above mentioned, 
but the voyages are tedious and the service unpunctual, as the vessels are 
employed chiefly for goods traffic (comp. p. 20). — Vapori Siciliani Comp. 
Florio (chief office at Palermo), Str. Piliero 5, three times weekly to Pa- 
lermo direct, and twice weekly to Messina and Catania, corresponding once 
weekly with a steamer for Malta. — Vapori ltaliani Comp. Bubattino it Co., 
Str. Piliero 15, once monthly to Cagliari in 30 hrs. — Embarcation of each 
passenger 1 fr. incl. luggage, comp. p. 21. 

Principal Attractions. ""Museum (p. 62) daily 9 — 3 o'clock, admission 
1 fr., Sundays gratis. — "Catacombs daily, admission 1 fr. — Palaces: 
Eeale (p. 40), Capodimonte (p. 47), Fondi (p. 50), Santangelo (p. 56), Castel 
Nuovo (p. 42). — C/iurches: "Cathedral, best seen about noon (p. 58), :: Sta. 
Chiara (p. 51), S. Donienico 7 — 11 a. m. (p. 53), : 'S. Anna de 1 Lombardi 
(p. 51), L'Incoronata early in the morning (p. 49), "cloisters of S. Severino 
(p. 55), S. Giovanni (p. 57), S. Maria del Carmine (p. 44), S. Lorenzo 
(p. 61), S. Paolo Moggiore (p. 60), ! S. Martino (p. 81). — Views: '"Camaldoli 
(p. 84), Sant' Elmo (p. 82), "Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 77) ; 'Villa Nazio- 
nale, in the evening (p. 76). 

Naples, the most populous city in Italy, containing nearly 
half a million inhabitants f , is almost unrivalled in the beauty 
of its situation. The magnificent bay has from the most ancient 
times been the object of enthusiastic admiration, and it is an- 
nually visited by thousands of strangers in quest of enjoyment 
or health. In historical interest this portion of the Italian pen- 

t According to the census of 1861 the population was 449,050 souls. The 
official statistics are not framed on a topographical, but a political and 
administrative basis. The populations given in the Handbook are (unless 
the contrary be stated) those of the respective 'communes', i. e. of the 
towns with the suburbs and villages around them. — The province of 
Naples has a population of 867, 983, and is 4200 sq. M. in area. 

Geography. NAPLES. 4. Route. 31 

insula is remarkably deficient. Nature, it would appear, has so 
bountifully lavished her gifts on this favoured spot, that the 
energy and strength of the most powerful nations have invariably 
succumbed to its alluring influence. Greeks, Oscans, Romans, 
Goths, Byzantines, Normans, Germans, and Spaniards have in 
succession been masters of the place ; yet it has never attained 
even a transient reputation in the annals of politics, art, or lite- 
rature. Those who have witnessed in Florence the focus of the 
Italian renaissance, in Rome the metropolis of a bygone age, in 
Venice and Genoa, and even in Pisa and Siena, the splendour 
of mediieval republics, cannot but experience a feeling of pro- 
found disappointment on beholding Naples. The dearth of hand- 
some buildings and works of art creates a void, for which the 
magnificent discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii with their 
matchless treasures of antiquity alone in some measure com- 
pensates. The domestic architecture of Naples, the narrow, dingy 
streets, the high, confined, and badly constructed houses, with 
balconies in front of every window and flat roofs, are far from 
attractive. The never-ceasing noise, the interminable clatter of 
wheels at all hours of the day and night, the cracking of whips, 
braying of donkeys, and shrill shouting of hawkers render Naples 
extremely distasteful, especially to those whose stay is limited. 
To these annoyances are added the insolent importunities of 
drivers, guides, street-vendors, beggars, etc., who often combine 
the most cringing manners with the grossest attempts at ex- 
tortion. In justice, however, be it said, that of late years there 
has been some slight improvement in these respects. 

With respect to the duration of the visitor's stay it is difficult 
to offer a suggestion ; the taste and inclination of the individual 
must here more than in almost any other locality decide that 
question. Suffice it to observe that within a period of 10 days 
all the most interesting points may be visited, whilst many 
months may be delightfully spent in exploring the incomparable 
beauties of the environs. Where time is limited, it should be 
devoted almost exclusively to the latter, as the town contains 
few objects of interest, with the exception of the Museum and 
one or two of the churches. Those to whom the town is unbear- 
ably distasteful may succeed in obtaining accommodation in 
the vicinity. The most agreeable season at Naples is spring and 
the early part of summer, when the freshness of the vegetation 
imparts a most fascinating charm to the scenery. March is 
occasionally a pleasant month, but winter should never be the 
season selected, for in a few places is bad weather a greater 
trial of patience than at Naples. In hot summers it is the 
pleasantest of all the Italian capitals. About 10 a. m. a cool 
sea-breeze generally rises, tempering the parched atmosphere 
with a grateful freshness. 

32 Routed. NAPLES. History. 

History and Art. 

The former kingdom of Naples, according to the census of Jan. 1st, 1861, 
contained 7,061,952 inhab. (including Benevento), and was divided into 16 
provinces. In ancient times it embraced the tribes of the Volsci, Samnites, 
Oscans, Companion*, Apulians, Lucanians, Calabrians, Bruttians, Siculians, 
and a number of others of less importance, all of whom were characterised 
l.v the most marked peculiarities of language, custom, and political consti- 
tution. On the S. and S.W. coast, and especially in Sicily, Greek colo- 
nists settled in such numbers that the S. portion of the Italian peninsula 
received the name of Magna Graecia. After the war against Pyrrhus, king 
of Epirus, in the 3rd cent, before Christ, the Romans became masters of 
the land, but the Greek language and customs continued to predominate 
until an advanced period in the Christian era. That this was the case in 
the time of the early emperors has been distinctly proved by the character 
of the antiquities of Herculaneum and Pompeii. After the fall of the 
Western Empire this district was occupied by Ostrogoths and Lombards, 
then by Romans from the E. Empire, who in their turn were constantly 
harassed by Arabian bands which attacked them by sea, and finally suc- 
cumbed in the 11th cent, to the Norman settlers. The Hohenstaufen family 
next held the country from 1194 to 1254. In 1265 Charles of Anjou gained 
possession of Naples and established his dominion, which was secured by the 
cruel execution in 1268 of Conradin, the lawful heir, but being reduced in 
extent by the Sicilian Vespers, May 30th, 1282, soon declined in consequence 
of the crimes and degeneracy of the royal family and of disastrous wars with 
Sicily, then in the possession of the Arragonese. Charles VIII. of France, 
as heir of the Anjou family, undertook a campaign against Naples and 
gained possession of the kingdom in a few days, but was unable to re- 
tain it. His successor Louis XII. allied himself with Ferdinand the 
Catholic of Spain with a view to conquer Naples, but in consequence of 
dissensions was compelled to abandon his enterprise after the victory of 
Gonsalvo de Cordova on the Liris. Naples, like Sicily and Sardinia, then 
yielded to the power of Spain, which maintained her dominion till 1713. 
Oonsalvo de Cordova was the first of the series of Spanish viceroys, many 
of whom, such as Bon Pedro de Toledo under Charles V. (1532 — 54), con- 
tributed greatly to promote the welfare of the country. The rule of others, 
especially during the 17th cent., was such as to occasion universal distress 
and dissatisfaction, a manifestation of which was the insurrection under 
Masaniello at Naples in 1647. At the peace of Utrecht in 1713 Philip V. 
of Spain, of the house of Bourbon, ceded Naples and Sicily to the house 
of Hapsburg, but after prolonged conflicts they reverted to his son Charles 
in 1734, under the name of the 'Kingdom of the Two Sicilies\ Notwith- 
standing the revolution of 1798 — 1806, the Bourbons continued to reign at 
Naples, until Napoleon I. created his brother Joseph king of Naples, who 
was succeeded in 1808 (to 1815) by his brother-in-law Joachim Marat. In 
June, 1815, King Ferdinand, who with the aid of the English had mean- 
while maintained his ground in Sicily, returned to Naples, and in his 
person the Bourbon dynasty was restored. The following October, Joachim 
Murat ventured to land at Pizzo in Calabria, but was captured, tried by 
court-martial, and shot, Oct. 15, 1815. Popular dissatisfaction, however, 
still continued, and in 1820 a rebellion broke out in Italy and Sicily, which 
was speedily quelled by the Austrians under Frimont in 1821, who occu- 
pied the country till 1827. King Ferdinand I. was succeeded in 1825 by 
his eldest son Francis I., and the latter in 1830 by Ferdinand II., whose 
reign was characterised by an uninterrupted succession of internal struggles, 
partly in Naples and partly in Sicily, especially subsequently to 1848. 
When in the spring of 1859 the war between Sardinia and Austria broke 
out in N. Italy, which by the peace of Villafranca would have entirely 
changed the internal condition of Italy, Ferdinand II. died, and his son 
Francis II. (married to the Princess Mary of Bavaria) was compelled to 
yield to the storm which burst forth afresh. On May 11th, 1860, Joseph 
Garibaldi landed at Marsala with a band of volunteers, captured Palermo 
May 31st. was appointed dictator, crossed on Aug. 19th to Reggio, and on 

History. NAPLES. ±. Route. 33 

Sept. 7th entered Naples, where he proclaimed Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia 
king of Italy. On Oct. 1st Francis II. was defeated at the battle on the 
Volturno, was then besieged at Gaeta from November 1860 to February 
1861, and compelled to surrender and retire to Rome. 

In a land, whose history, like its volcanic soil, has been chequered by 
a long succession of internal struggles, and where so different and so many 
nations have ruled, repose and the development of civilisation must neces- 
sarily be of slow attainment. It must, however, be admitted that the 
present government has adopted a wise course in endeavouring to raise the 
standard of national education, in energetically suppressing the brigandage 
in the provinces, and the 'Camorra' and gangs of thieves in the city, and 
in introducing a number of reforms well adapted to ameliorate the con- 
dition of this degenerate nation. 

The following are the most important dates in the history of the 
Kingdom of Naples (comp. p. 212). 

I. Period. The Normans, 1042—1194 : 1042, William, son of Tancred of 
Hauteville, Comes Apulise. — 1059, Robert Guiscard (i. e. 'the Cunning'), 
Dux Apulise et Calabriee. — 1130, Roger, proclaimed king after the con- 
quest of Naples and Amalfi, unites the whole of Lower Italy and Sicily. 

— 1154—66, William I. ('the Bad'). — 1166—89, William II. ('the Good"). 

— 1194. William III. 

II. Period. The Hohenstaufen, 1194—1268: 1194, Henry VI. of Ger- 
many, I. of Naples. — 1197, Frederick II. — 1250, Conrad. — 1254, Manfred. 

— 1268, Conradin. 

III. Period. House of Anjou, 1266—1442: 1265, Charles I. of Anjou. 
From 1282 to 1442, Sicily formed an independent kingdom under the house 
of Arragon. — 1285, Charles II., 'the Lame\ — 1309, Robert 'the Wise'. 

— 1343, Johanna I. (married Andreas of Hungary). — 1381, Charles III. 
of Durazzo. — 1386, Ladislaus. — 1414, Johanna II. — 1435, Renato of 
Anjou, banished bv Alphonso 'the Generous'. 

IV. Period. House of Arragon, 1442—1496: 1442, Alphonso I., 'the 
Generous'. After his death Sicily and Naples were again separated. — 
1458, Ferdinand I. — 1494, Alphonso II. — 1495. Ferdinand II. — 1496, 
Frederick banished (d. 1554 at Tours, the last of the House of Arragon). 

V. Period. Spanish Viceroys, 1503—1707. — On July 7th, 1707, during 
the Spanish War of Succession, Count Daun marched into Naples and 
established the Austrian supremacy. 

VI. Period. Austrian Viceroys, 1707 — 1734. — Charles III. of Bourbon 
crowned at Palermo 1734, recognised by the Peace of Vienna 1738, defeats 
the Austrians at Velletri 1744, finally recognised by the Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle 1748. In 1758 Charles was proclaimed king of Spain, and resigned 
the crown of Naples and Sicily in favour of his son. 

VII. Period. The Bourbons, 1734—1860: 1734, Charles III. — 1759, 
Ferdinand IV. (regency during his minority till 1767), married Caroline of 
Austria, sister of Joseph II., but a monarch of very different character from 
the latter. — 23rd Jan., 1799, the Repubblica Partenopea proclaimed by 
General Championnet. — 14th June, 1799, the French banished. Reaction 
of Cardinal Ruft'o. — 14th Jan., 1806, Joseph Buonaparte established by 
Masse'na. 15th July, 1808, Joachim Murat, king of Naples. — 1816, Ferdi- 
nand assumes the title of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. — 1825, 
Francis I. — 1830, Ferdinand II. — 1859, Francis II. — 21st Oct., 1860, 
the Kingdom of Naples annexed to Italy by plebiscite. 

The History of the City of Naples extends back to a very remote age. 
Its origin and name are Greek. About the year B. C. 1056 iEolians from 
Chalcis in Eubcea founded the colony of Kyme, Lat. Cumae, on a rocky 
eminence in the bay of Puteoli, which soon became a powerful and pros- 
perous commercial town. From Cumee the colony of Phaleron or Parthe- 
nope (named after the grave of a Syren of that name, Plin. H. N. III. 5) 
appears to have emanated at a very early period, and to have been at va- 
rious times reinforced by immigrants from Greece, who founded the Nea- 
polis (or new city), whilst Parthenope, the portion erected by the original 
colonists, was termed Palteopolis (old city), a distinction which was main- 
tained till the conquest of Palseopolis by the Romans, B. C. 326. After 
B-edeker. Italy III. 4th Edition. 3 

34 Route i. NAPLES. Literature. 

that peril "1 Naples remained faithful to Rome, both in the wars against 
Pyrrhus and against Hannibal, and on account of the beauty of its situa- 
tion soon became a favourite residence of the great of Rome. Lucullus 
possessed gardens there on the Posilipo and the hill of Pizzofalcone, where, 
A. D. 476, Romulus Augustulus, the last feeble emperor of the Western 
Empire, breathed his last. Augustus frequently resided at Naples, and 
here Virgil composed much of his most beautiful poetry. The emperors 
Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Hadrian were among the chief bene- 
factors of the city, which continued to enjoy its municipal freedom and 
its Greek constitution. It suffered fearfully during the wars of the bar- 
barian immigration. In 536 it was taken by storm by Belisarius, and 
again in 543 by the Goths under Totilas. The city soon threw off the 
Byzantine supremacy, and under its doge or 'duca' maintained its inde- 
pendence against the Lombard princes, until after a long siege in 1130 it 
at length succumbed to the Normans under Roger. Frederick II. founded 
the university, and with it the future greatness of the city. It was consti- 
tuted the capital of the kingdom by Charles I. of Anjou, and was greatly 
extended by subsequent princes, especially by Ferdinand I. of Arragon, the 
viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo, and Charles III. of Bourbon. In comparison 
with the other capitals of Europe, the population of Naples has increased 
but slowly. There were 358,550 inhab. in 1830, 400,813 in 1840, 416,475 
in 1850, and 418,968 in 1860. Since the annexation the city has improved 
considerably, but the eradication of the more deeply rooted evils must 
necessarily progress slowly. 

The national characteristic is still, as it ever has been, love of the 
pleasure of the moment. The Neapolitans are at once the most joyous and 
the most careless, the most indolent and the most squalid of the human 
race. Nothing appears capable of permanently depressing the buoyancy of 
their spirits. If they ever indulge in melancholy, its duration is exceed- 
ingly brief. At the present day not a trace is to be observed of the political 
tempest which so long hovered over their city. 

Liter attire under Frederick II. of Hohenstaufen began feebly to deve- 
lop itself, but was speedily nipped in the bud. With the exception of 
Ciullo cTAlcamo, a poet of some reputation at the court of Frederick II. at 
Palermo (comp. p. 215), not a single name deserves mention. The same monarch 
was also a patron of architecture and music. In the art of medicine the 
school, founded by the Normans at Salerno in 1150, afterwards attained 
considerable importance. During many subsequent centuries a profound 
intellectual gloom pervaded the land, ever and anon illumined by a few 
illustrious names, as Thomas Aquinas, the philosophers Giordano Bruno, 
Campanella, Giambattista Vico, the naturalist Porta, and the historians Pietro 
Giannone (Storia di Napoli, down to the Spanish war of succession) and 
Colletta (Storia del Reame di Napoli, 1734—1825). 

In Art the attainments of the Neapolitans have been but slightly less 
insignificant. To its high state of perfection in ancient times Psestum, and, 
above all, Herculaneum and Pompeii bear ample testimony. The mediaeval 
Norman period, under Arabian and Byzantine influence, has produced works 
of architecture and sculpture which are by no means destitute of a peculiar 
merit. The appearance of Giotto exercised a salutary influence on the pictorial 
art at Naples in the 13th and 14th centuries; but this was a mere external 
impulse, unproductive of any independent development, so that a -Neapo- 
litan School can hardly be said ever to have existed, except perhaps 
during the period of the decline of art. During the 15th cent, the realism 
of the Flemish School of the Van Eycks produced a marked effect on 
Neapolitan art ( Zingaro, Silv. de" Buon'i, etc.). In the 16th cent. Raphael's 
influence extended even to Naples, as is apparent from the works of 
Andrea fiabbatini of Salerno (1480—1545) among others. In the 17th cent, 
the Neapolitan school of painting (Corenzio, Giuseppe Ribera or Spagno- 
letto, and Caracriolo), with its pre-Raphaelite style, presented a striking 
contrast to the classical tendency of Guido Reni and Domenichino. The 
school of Spagnoletto produced Aniello Falcone, the painter of battle-scenes, 
and the talented landscape painter Salvator Rosa (1615 — 1673). Then follow 
the mannerists Lvca Giordano, Francesco Solimena, etc. 

Art. NAPLES. 4. Route. 35 

The following list comprises the most distinguished artists whom 
Naples has produced. 

Painters. 1230—1310, Tommaso degli Stefani. 1382—1455, Antonio 
Solario, surnamed Lo Zingaro, a semi-mythical personage. 1430 — 88, Simone 
Papa, the Elder, loth cent., Silvestro de^ Buoni and Antonio d'Amato. 
1430—1545, Andrea Sabbat in i, or da Salerno. 16th cent., Pietro Xegroni, 
Francesco Santa/ede, and Fabrizio, son of the latter. 1568 — 1640, Givseppe 
Cesari, surnamed i'avaliere d^Arpino. 1558 — 1643, Belisario Corenzio. 
1580 — 1641, Gior. Bat. Caracciolo. 1593 — 1656, Giuseppe Ribera, surnamed 
Lo Spagnoletto. 1585 — 1656, Massimo Slanzioni. 1598 — 1670, Andrea Vaccaro. 
1600—65, Aniello Falcone. 1615—73. Salvator Rosa. 1613—99, Mattia Preti, 
surnamed Cavaliere Calabrese. 1632 — 1705, Lnca Giordano. 16o7 — 1747, 
Francesco Solimena. 

Architects and Sculptors. Masuccio the Elder in the 13th, and the 
Younger in the 14th cent, are usually regarded as the founders of the 
plastic art, hut their history is involved in obscurity. 15th cent., Antonio 
Bamboccio and Andrea Ciccione. 147S — 1559, Giovanni Merliano, generally- 
named da Sola, after the place of his birth. 1700 — 73. Lnigi Vanritelli. 

In Music Naples incontestable- deserves the credit of having brought 
the secular and operatic styles to a high state of perfection. The modern 
opera originated with Alessandro Scarlatti (1658 — 1725). He was succeeded 
by Xicrolo Porpora (1687—1767) and Leonardo Leo (1094—1743); the latter 
was the first master who made counterpoint his foundation, a step which 
was followed up by Francesco Durante (1693 — 1755), director of the Conser- 
vatory, and his pupils Leonardo Vinci, Giovanni Battista Pergolese (1710 — 
1736, the young and talented originator of the Stabat Slater), Xiccola Piccini, 
Sacchini, Jomelli, etc. Naples has since enjoyed the reputation of being 
the first school of music in the world, whence in the 18th cent, emanated 
Domenico C'imarosa and Giovanni Paesiello, and, influenced by the mighty 
genius of Oluck and Mozart, the first composers of grand opera, Trilta, 
Guglielmi, Fioravanli, and the grave Xiccolo Zingarelli (1752 — 1837), director 
of the Conservatorio. The most celebrated names of the 19th cent, are 
Rossini, Bellini, and Mercadante (d. 1871). 

'■ Vedi Napoli e poi mori '. " 
The city of Naples lies on the N. side of the bay, which ex- 
tends for a distance of about 35 M. from the Capo di Miseno, 
its N.W. boundary, to the Punta delict Campanella, its S.E. limit, 
and is separated from the open sea by the islands of Procida 
and Jschkt towards the N., and Capri towards the S. The S. E. 
side consists of Monte Santangelo, a spur of the Apennines, 
49SS ft. in height; its geological formation is similar to that of 
Capri, with which a rocky ridge connected it. At its base lie 
the villages of Massa Lubrense, Sorrento, Vico Equense, and 
Citstellamare, near the ancient Stabiae which was overwhelmed 
by an eruption. The other sides of the bay are bounded by the 
Campanian plain, the surface of which has undergone numerous 
changes in consequence of volcanic agency. Between the chain 
of Santangelo and the hilly district N. of Naples, in the middle 
of the plain, rises Mount Vesuvius, dividing it into two distinct 
districts, of which the S. is intersected by the river Sarno, that 
to the N. by the Sebeto. The plain, as well as the slopes of 
Vesuvius itself, is luxuriantly fertile, and one of the most densely- 
peopled districts in the world. In the direction of Castellamare 
and beyond the Sarno are situated the Buins of Pompeii, and 
among numerous other villages, the populous Torre dell' An- 


36 Route 4. NAPLES. Site. 

nunziata, Torre del Greco, Resina on the site of the ruined 
Herculaneum, and Portici. The N.W. side of the bay has for 
ages been the scene of powerful volcanic agency. Naples, which 
stretches E. towards the plain, nearly to the Sebeto, is to a great 
extent situated on a slight volcanic eminence. This tract is iden- 
tical with the Campi Phlegraei, so frequently mentioned by the 
ancients, which extended from Naples to Cumse. They commence 
with the hills of the Madonna del Pianto, Capodichino, and 
Miradois towards the E., and also embrace those of Capodimonte, 
Scutillo, and 5. Eremo as far as Pizzofalcone and Castello dell' Ovo, 
and beyond these extend to Vomero and the eminence of Posilipo. 
Tufa, mingled with fragments of lava, trachyte, pumice-stone, etc., 
is observed in all directions. Mineral springs and gaseous exhal- 
ations testify to the volcanic nature of the district. The chain of 
Posilipo, separating the bay from that of Pozzuoli, is united by a 
subaqueous ridge with the small island of Nisita, an extinct crater. 
Farther inland are situated the craters of Lago d' Agnano, Astroni, 
and Solfatara. On a promontory lies the town of Pozzuoli; farther 
along the coast rises the volcanic M. Nuovo, then the Lago 
Lucrino with the ruins of Baiae, behind which is the crater of 
Lago Averno and the site of ancient Cumae. Finally towards the 
S. are the Lago Fusaro and the hill of Misenum, with the Mare 
Morto and Porto Miseno. This range is connected with the 
pre-eminently volcanic islands of Procida, Vivara, and the more 
important Ischia with the extinct volcano Epomeo. 

Naples, situated in the latitude of 40° 52', has a mean tem- 
perature of 60° — 63°Fahr., the extreme heat of summer rarely 
attaining to 100° and the extreme cold of winter being 28°. The 
highest summer temperature, about 90°, usually prevails between 
June 22nd and Aug. 22nd, the greatest cold, about 30°, between 
Dee. 12th and March 20th. From October to March, S. winds 
are the most prevalent, and are accompanied by rain ; from April 
to September N. or N. E. winds, during which the weather is 
jrenerally bright and cloudless. Autumn and winter are the 
rainy seasons ; the summer drought is extremely prejudicial to 
vegetation. Fogs are rare, hail occasionally falls in violent 
showers of very brief duration, snow is almost unknown. Spring- 
water is neither abundant nor good. The ancients accordingly 
constructed aqueducts for the supply of the inhabitants. At the 
present day a number of reservoirs, totally inadequate for the 
supply of the city, are employed. The construction of water- 
works is contemplated. 

The city lies at the base and on the slopes of several slight 
eminences, rising from the sea in amphitheatre-like form. It is 
divided into two unequal portions by the projecting angle of Capodi- 
monte, S. Elmo, and Pizzofalcone, which terminates in the narrow 
ridge surmounted by the Castello dell' Ovo. From Capodimonte 

Site. NAPLES. 4. Route. 37 

E. towards the Sebeto lies the greater and most ancient part of 
Naples, intersected from N. to S. by the Toledo (or Strada Roma), 
the principal street, -which is continued towards the N. in the 
Strada Nuova di Capodimonte. From either side of this street 
diverge innumerable smaller streets and lanes, which in their turn 
are intersected by others, though rarely by any of importance, as 
near the Museum by the Piazza Cavour (formerly delle Pigne), 
which terminates in the Porta S. Gennaro, and the streets S. Carlo 
all' Arena and Foria to the r. ; then the Strada de Tribunali, 
leading to the Tribunali and the Porta Capuana ; and the Strada 
S. Trinita and S. Biagio de Librai, leading to the Porta Nolana 
and thence to the railway station. Towards the sea the Toledo 
is terminated by the square in front of the palace (Largo del 
Palazzo Reale or del Plebiscito), in which is situated the 
Church of S. Francesco di Paola. E. of the palace rises the 
Castel Nuovo, adjacent to which are the arsenal and government 
harbour, then the pier (Molo Grande) with the lighthouse at the 
extremity. E. from the Molo Grande as far as the Castel del 
Carmine extends the harbour, a scene of the utmost animation, 
especially on the E. side, in the direction of the old market- 
place (Largo del Mercato) and the Porta del Carmine which lie 
on the way between the station and harbour. The business 
quarter of the city E. of the Toledo, extending to the station 
and to the harbour, embraces at the same time the greater part 
of ancient Naples. A new and broad street, the Strada del Buono, 
running from S. Carlo all' Arena to the quay, and parallel with 
the Toledo, is now in course of construction through the midst 
of these dense masses of houses. To the W. of S. Elmo and 
Pizzofalcone, in a slight curve, extends the narrow modern 
quarter known as La Chiaia, preferable to all other situations 
on account of the purity of the air and the beauty of the view. 
The broad Riviera di Chiaia skirts the sea, bounded on the N. 
by handsome buildings, and on the S. by the grounds of the 
Villa Nazionale. The busy Strada di Chiaia, terminating near the 
palace, connects this part of the town with the Toledo. A second 
street, still unfinished, which bids fair to be the handsomest in 
Naples (il Corso Vittorio Emanuele), leads from the Strada In- 
frascata to the 1. by the Museum, passes by the hills below 
S. Elmo, and terminates near the church of Piedigrotta, thus 
■enclosing the W. half of the city. It is about l 1 ^ M. in length, 
and affords a series of charming views. Adjacent to the Chiaia 
are the quarters of Piedigrotta and Mergellina on the W. From 
the former runs the road to Pozzuoli, passing through the Grotta 
di Posilipo. The Mergellina, on the other hand, continues to 
skirt the sea, along the slope of the Posilipo as far as its termi- 
nation, and contains numerous delightful villas. 

The length of Naples from the Mergellina to the barracks at 

38 Route i. NAPLES. Castel dell' Ovo. 

the mouth of the Sebeto is 3 M., the breadth from Capodimonte 
to the Castel dell' Ovo 2>/ 4 M. It contains upwards of 1300 streets 
and lanes, provided with gas in 1840, and well paved, except 
as regards accommodation for foot-passengers. The squares are 
termed Larghi, but the more modern name 'piazza ' has recently 
been introduced ; the principal streets are called Strode, cross- 
streets Vichi, the narrow lanes ascending the hills, and generally 
inaccessible to carriages, Calate or Salite ; when so precipitous 
as to require steps, Gradoni. 

Antiquities of the Gr»co-Roman period are far from numerous 
in the city itself. Of mediaeval architecture, however (in addition 
to the churches), five forts (Castello S. Elmo, dell' Ovo, Nuovo, del 
Carmine, Capuano) and two gates (Porta del Carmine and Capuana) 
are still in existence. The town has on the whole a modern 
aspect. The population is densely crowded, and it is now the 
anxious endeavour of the authorities to remedy the physical and 
social evils thereby occasioned, by the construction of new and 
commodious dwellings. 

The following description of the objects of interest is ar- 
ranged in the topographical order in which strangers are most 
likely to visit them ; but those whose stay is brief are again 
reminded that as little time as possible should be devoted to- 
the town itself. 

I. Side towards the Sea. 

The Largo della Vittoria (PI. 26) in front of the Villa Nazionale, 
adorned with trees and a fountain, may be regarded as the 
central point of the strangers' quarter. Thence, skirting the sea 
towards the E., an avenue soon leads to the Chiatamone, a row 
of handsome houses and hotels at the base of the Pizzofalcone, 
an overhanging rock. On the opposite side to the r. lies the 

Castel dell' Ovo, so called from its oval shape, rising from 
the small island which Pliny calls Megaris, and connected with 
the mainland by a breakwater. On each side of the latter, as 
far as the Villa, a broad quay has recently been constructed. 
William I. erected the fort in 1154, and Frederick II. entrusted 
the construction of the edifice to Nicola Pisano. Charles I. en- 
larged the castle and frequently resided there. Robert the Wise 
(1309) caused the chapel to be adorned with frescoes by Giotto, 
and superintended the work in person, but of these no trace is 
left. Here Charles III. of Durazzo (1381) kept Queen Johanna I. 
prisoner, and was himself besieged. In 1495 Charles VIII. of 
France captured the castle, which under Ferdinand II. was dis- 
mantled. It now possesses bastions and outworks, and is chiefly 
employed as a prison. 

The road between Pizzofalcone and the Castel dell' Ovo, 
passing the Hotel Washington (formerly a royal casino), leads 

S. Francesco di Paola. NAPLES. i. Route. 39 

to S. Lucia, once a dirty street, but in 1846 enlarged and im- 
proved so as to form a broad and pleasant quay. In January, 
1S6S, a land-slip destroyed a number of houses situated at the 
foot of Pizzofalcone ; the recurrence of similar disasters, it is to 
be hoped, will be prevented by the measures of the local author- 
ities. Scenes of Neapolitan life may be witnessed here in per- 
fection. The female members of the community work chiefly in 
the open air, go through their toilette, and perform divers un- 
pleasing acts of attention to their children, regardless of public 
gaze. In warm weather the children are usually in a state 
of more than semi-nudity. On the side next the sea the 
oyster-stalls are established , where sea - urchins , crabs , and 
other delicacies, so expressively termed frutti di mare by 
the Neapolitans, are also sold. The focus of this animated 
scene, however, is on the promontory below, which is reached 
by a flight of steps, and is adorned with a * fountain with re- 
presentations by Domenico d'Auria and Giovanni da Nola. On 
flue summer evenings, especially on Sundays, this spot is densely 
crowded, and presents a highly characteristic picture of Neapolitan 
life. There is also an Osteria here, and a favourite sulphureous 
spring (p. 26). 

At the extremity of S. Lucia the Slrada del Gigante is as- 
cended to the 1.; on the r. side the traveller looks down on the 
stores of cannon and ammunition in the courts of the arsenal, 
which is connected with the Castel Nuovo, and occupies the en- 
tire space between S. Lucia and the public harbour. 

In a straight direction is seen Fort S. Elmo, rising above 
the town, and a few steps farther the finest square in Naples 
is reached. 

The Largo del Palazzo Reale, since 1860 termed Piazza del 
Plebiscito, assumed its present aspect in 1810, after the demo- 
lition of four monasteries. To the r. is the Royal Palace, oppo- 
site is the Foresteria, a public building, on the other side the 
palace of the Prince of Salerno, and on the fourth side, which 
forms a semi-circle, the church of S. Francesco with its dome 
and arcades. The equestrian statues in the square are those of 
Charles III. and Ferdinand I. of Bourbon, the two horses and 
the statue of Charles by Canova, that of Ferdinand, in a Roman 
toga, by CocVt. 

S. Francesco di Faola (PL 48), an imitation of the Pantheon 
at Rome, was constructed by Ferdinand I. from designs of Bianchi 
di Lugano in 1817 — 31. 

The Ionic vestibule is supported by 6 columns and two buttresses. The 
interior contains 30 Corinthian columns of marble from Jlondragone, which 
support the dome. The high altar, transferred hither from the church of 
the Apostles, is entirely inlaid with jasper and lapis lazuli ; the two pillars 
at the sides are of rare Egyptian breccia from S. Severino. The tribune 
above is for the reception of the royal family. The statues and pictures 
are by modern masters. To the 1. of the entrance : St. Athanasius by 

40 Routed. NAPLES. Palazzo Eeale. 

Angelo Salaro; Death of Joseph, Cammillo Guerra of Naples; St. Augustin, 
a statue by Tommaso Arnaud of Naples; Madonna della Concezione, 
Casparo Landi; St. Mark, a statue by Fabris of Venice; St. Nicholas, 
-Xatale Carta of Sicily; St. John, Tenerani. In the choir: St. Francis di 
Paola resuscitating a youth, Camitccini ; St. Matthew, a statue by Finelli; 
Last Communion of St. Francis of Castile, Pietro Benvenuti of Florence ; 
St. Luke, a statue by Antonio Cali of Sicily; St. Ambrose, by Tito Angelim 
of Naples; Death of St. Andrea da Avellino, Tommaso de Vivo; St. Chry- 
sostom, a statue by Gennaro Call. 

Palazzo Eeale (PI. 21), the royal palace, adjoining the Castello 
Nuovo, erected from a design by the celebrated Domenico Fon- 
tana, was commenced in 1600 under the viceroy Count de Lemos, 
burned down in 1837, and shortly afterwards (1841) restored. 
The facade, 554 ft. in length, exhibits in its three stories the 
Doric and Ionic styles combined ; most of the arches of the 
basement, however, are filled up with masonry for the sake of 
increasing the strength of the building. 

The magnificent staircase in the interior, adorned at the foot 
with statues of the Ebro and Tagus, was constructed in 1651. 
The state-rooms contain numerous modern pictures. Visitors 
apply to the porter, who conducts them (30 c.) to the office of 
the Intendant in the palace, where they receive (gratis) a card 
of admission for 6 pers., which is available also for the palaces 
of Capodimonte, Caserta, Favorita, Quisisana, and the garden of 
Astroni, and must be exhibited in each case to the porter. 
Attendant's fee 1 fr. 

The visitor is first conducted to the garden-terrace, which 
affords a fine view of the harbour and the arsenal immediately 
below. In the centre a handsome marble table. Then to the 
apartments in the interior. The pictures which they contain are 
for the most part of no great artistic value. 1st antechamber: 
Holy Family, Spagnoletto . On this side, towards the piazza, are 
situated a small theatre and a superb dining-room. Beyond these, 
in the second room: John the Baptist, L. Caracci; Christ in 
the Temple, Caravaggio; Carita, Schidone. The *Throne-room is 
gorgeously furnished with crimson velvet and gilding. The em- 
broidery was worked at the extensive poor-house in 1818. The 
bas-reliefs represent the different provinces of the kingdom. 
Then a gallery containing handsome Sevres vases. 5th Room: 
A beautiful writing-table, presented by the city of Naples. In 
another apartment, Leonardo da Vinci presenting 'The Last Supper 
to the donors, Podesti. Then a room containing a portrait by Van 
Dyck, a * portrait of the Netherlands school, Usurer by Quintin 
Messy s, *Cardinal by Domenichino (?). Another room contains the 
*portrait of an old woman, of the Netherlands school. 

In the direction of S. Carlo, in a small apartment filled with 
plants, stands the statue of Italia, erected in 1864 in comme- 
moration of the plebiscite of Oct. 21st, 1860, which added the 
kingdom of Naples to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. 

S.Giacomo degli Spagnuoli. NAPLES. 4. Route. 41 

Connected with, the Palace is the Theatre of San Carlo (PI. 26), 
founded by Charles III. in 1737, and erected by the Neapolitan 
architect Angelo Carasale from designs by the Sicilian Giovanni 
Medrano. The interior was destroyed by fire in 1816, but has 
been restored in harmony with the original plan. It is one of the 
largest opera-houses in Italy, in which the choicest works of 
ancient and modern Italian composers are admirably executed. 
Many of the celebrated compositions of Rossini, Bellini, Doni- 
zetti, and Mercadante were performed here for the first time. 
The facade, resting on an arcade, is surmounted by a series of 
columns decorated with bas-reliefs. The spaces under the arches 
are occupied by public writers, ready at a moment's notice to 
commit to paper the pleading of the lover or the expostulation 
of the creditor. 

Farther to the r. is the small garden belonging to the palace, 
at the entrance of which are two Horse-tamers, gifts from the 
Emp. Nicholas of Russia, and counterparts of those seen in front 
of the palace at Berlin. 

The long Piazza del Municipio, adorned with pleasant grounds, 
formerly named Largo del Castello, is next reached. At its ex- 
tremity, to the 1., is situated the handsome town-hall. 

The Municipio, formerly Palazzo de' Ministeri, was erected 
in 1819 — 25 from designs by Luigi and Stefano Gasse. At the 
principal entrance are the statues of the kings Roger and 
Frederick II. 

From this point a passage, occupied by hucksters of all de- 
scriptions, leads to the Toledo; within it, to the r., is the 
entrance to the Exchange. Traversing this passage until a court 
with a fountain is seen on the r., crossing this to the outlet 
into a side-street, passing through a long, narrow passage, and 
finally descending a flight of steps, the traveller reaches 

S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli (PI. 52), erected in 1540 by 
Don Pedro de Toledo. The sumptuous *Tomb of the founder, 
behind the high altar, the master-piece of Giovanni da Nola, 
is adorned with statues of the cardinal virtues, bas-reliefs of the 
achievements of the viceroy, and his statue in a kneeling posture, 
with that of his wife. Inscription: ' Petrus Toletus Friderici 
ducis Alvae Alius, Marcho Villa? Francae, Neap. Prorex, Turcar. 
hostiumque omnium spe sublata — vivens in ecclesia dotata, 
Ob. A. 1553. Vixit A. LXXIII. Maria Osorio, Pimentel conjux.' 
— Behind the latter, a monument of Hans Walther von Hiern- 
heim, counsellor and general of Charles Y. and Philip II. (d. 1557); 
inscription in German and Latin. To the r. of the principal 
door a *Holy Family by And. del Sarto; 3rd chap, on the 1., 
Descent from the Cross, Gian Bernardo Lama ; other pictures 
by Bernardino Siciliano, Marco da Siena, etc. The church is at 
present undergoing a complete restoration. 

42 Route 4. NAPLES. Castel Xuovo. 

On the opposite side, concealed by a row of houses, is the 
Castcllo Nuovo (see below). Turning round to the r. towards the 
Strada del Molo, the broad Strada Medina opens to the 1. At its 
commencement rises the Fontana Medina (PI. 8), erectedfrom the 
designs of Domenico d'Auria and Fansaga by the viceroy, Duke 
of Medina Celi (1695), and considered the finest fountain in 
Naples. It consists of a large basin, supported by 4 satyrs; in 
the centre Neptune with his trident, surrounded by jets of water; 
at the base 4 Tritons on sea-horses, with water-spouting lions 
and other animals. 

Proceeding towards the harbour, the traveller observes to the 
1. the Teatro del Fondo (p. 28) and other show-booths, where he 
will find, as in other countries, that the canvas glories outside 
are hardly realised on a visit to the interior ; to the r. the Castel 
Xuovo (access not always obtained without a previous discussion 
with the sentry). 

The Castel Nuovo was commenced in 1283 by Charles I. of Anjou 
from a design attributed to Giovanni da Pisa, and executed in the 
French fortification style of that period. Here the kings of the 
houses of Anjou and Arragon, and the Spanish viceroys succes- 
sively resided. Alphonso I. (1442) enlarged the edifice and added 
five round towers, two of which were demolished in 1862 as they 
held a threatening attitude towards the city. In 1546 Don Pedro 
de Toledo constructed new bastions. In 1735 Charles III. gave 
it its present form. 

Turning to the r. through the barrack-yards, the visitor pro- 
ceeds to the entrance by the old Fort, where the '^Triumphal 
Arch, the finest monument in Naples, was erected in 1470 to 
commemorate the entry of Alphonso of Arragon (June 2nd, 
1442), by Pietro di Martino, a Milanese architect, or, according 
to Vasari, by Giuliano da Majano of Florence. It is an arch- 
way between two ancient towers, with Corinthian columns on 
either side, frieze and cornice, above which is an attica con- 
taining well executed sculpture, representing the entry of 
Alphonso, by Isaia da Pisa and Silvestro dell' Aquila; beneath 
is the inscription : 'Alphonsus rex Hispanus Siculus Italicus 
pius clemens invictus'; above, 'Alphonsus regum princeps hanc 
condidit areem '. The whole is surmounted by statues of 
St. Michael, St. Antonius Abbas, and St. Sebastian, below which 
are the four cardinal virtues. Beneath the arch are seen the 
bronze doors with representations of the victories of Ferdinand I., 
by Guylielmo Monaco. A cannon-ball, imbedded in the masonry 
of the 1. wing is a reminiscence of the wars of the time of 
Gon salvo de Cordova. 

Adjacent to the entrance, to the r., is the Armoury (Sala 
di S. Luigi or Sala delle Armi), formerly employed by the kings 
as a reception-room, also as a theatre; foreigners not admitted 

Porto Militare. NAPLES. 4. Route. 43 

without permission from the minister of war. Above it is a 
Gothic chapel, containing an altar-piece by Spagnoletto : S. Fran- 
cesco di Paola, with 8 small pictures representing the miracles 
wrought by the saint at Naples. 

The church of S. Barbara, or S. Sebastiano, situated in the 
inner barrack-yard (custodian lives to the r., in front of the 
triumphal arch; i/ 2 fr.), possesses a Corinthian facade by Oiu- 
liano da Maiano ; on the door a beautiful Madonna in relief. 
The choir, to the 1. behind the high altar, contains the cele- 
brated *picture of the 'Adoration of the Magi', termed by Vasari 
one of the finest paintings in the world, and ascribed by him 
to Van Eyck; others attribute it to Lo Zingaro, or his pupils 
the Donzelli, because the features of the Magi bear a strong re- 
semblance to those of Alphonso I., Ferdinand I., and another con- 
temporary, with which Van Eyck could not have been acquainted. 
According to competent modern critics, however, this work has 
been greatly overrated. At the back of the choir a spiral stair- 
case of 158 steps ascends to the top of the tower. A covered 
gallery connects the fort with the palace, destined for use in case 
of any sudden emergency or rebellion. In the vicinity is the 
Arsenal, erected in 1577 by the viceroy Mendoza, with the 
dockyard, etc., which are connected with the government harbour. 

The Porto Militare, commenced in 182(3 under Francis I., 
5 fathoms in depth, is enclosed by the old Molo on the N. and 
a strong breakwater on the S., which in a S. E. direction ex- 
tends 1180 ft. into the sea. A number of war vessels, of the 
Italian navy, some of them iron-clad (corazzate), are frequently 
stationed here, and may be inspected by strangers. 

As the Molo is approached, the government harbour, shut off 
by a gate, lies to the i\, and to the 1. the commercial harbour 
Porto Grande, constructed in 1302 by Charles II. of Anjou at 
the same time as the Molo Grande, and provided with a light- 
house dating from the end of the 15th cent., altered to its pre- 
sent condition in 1843. The harbour was enlarged by Charles III. 
in 1740. An animated and busy scene characteristic of a southern 
clime is beheld here. Boatmen invite foot-passengers to make 
an excursion on the bay, which in fine weather is extremely 
enjoyable (bargaining necessary; comp. p. 27). 

The Molo is terminated by a battery. The ascent of the 
Lighthouse is strongly recommended, as it enables the visitor 
to form a very accurate idea of the topography of the town 
(fee 1 fr.). A commodious marble stair-case of 142 steps 
ascends to the gallery. The view embraces the government and 
commercial harbours; to the W. the Castel dell' Ovo, Pizzo- 
falcone, Palazzo Reale with the dome of S. Francesco behind it, 
Castello Nuovo, Strada del Molo, the city imposingly commanded 
by Fort S. Elmo with the monastery of S. Martino, numerous 

44 Route i. NAPELS. S. Maria del Carmine. 

domes and towers, in the background the palace of Capodimonte, 
to the E. the tower del Carmine. The four red buildings which 
lie higher up, beyond the precincts of the city, are barracks and 
magazines. Then the Campanian plain, bounded by the Apen- 
nines above Nola, Vesuvius, the bay, and Capri. 

At the extremity of the Porto Grande, to the 1., is situated 
the Porto Piccolo, now employed for small boats only, because 
half-buried in the sand, once a portion of the most ancient har- 
bour of Palseopolis, and where traces of a lighthouse still exist. 
On the Molo Piccolo, in the vicinity, is now situated the Imma- 
colatella with the offices of the Sanith (PI. 24), and on the other 
side the Custom-House (PI. 7). 

Having passed the enclosure of the small-boat harbour, the 
traveller may take the first cross-street to the 1., proceed in a 
straight direction past five transverse lanes, and thus reach the 
church of <S. Pietro Martire, which contains a few interesting 
monuments and pictures (Legend of St. Vincent, in a style akiri 
to the Flemish). 

The last street but one to the 1. before S. Pietro is reached 
leads into the Strada di Porto, a scene, especially towards eve- 
ning, of the most motley bustle and confusion. Vendors of fish, 
meat, maccaroni, and refreshments of all descriptions cook their 
delicacies in the open street, and attract numerous customers and 
those who would be customers if they could. The fumes which 
arise may be described as 'ancient and fish-like '; this is more- 
over the dirtiest quarter of the town. The scene which the har- 
bour presents is far more pleasing, although not more characte- 
ristic of Neapolitan life. The fishermen and boatmen with their 
Phrygian caps and sunburnt, often handsome features, are the 
descendants of the Lazzaroni, a class the popular idea of which 
is generally borrowed from the pages of the novel-writer, but 
which may now be considered as extinct. The name is of Spa- 
nish origin. The lower classes of the present day (setting aside 
the varieties which prey on the stranger) are remarkable for 
their industry and frugality. 

Pursuing his walk along the harbour, the traveller soon per- 
ceives to the 1. the Porta del Carmine, with its two huge round 
towers, Fidelissima and La Vittoria. Over the entrance the bust 
of Ferdinand I. Somewhat farther, at the E. extremity of the 
town, rises the Castello del Carmine, a vast structure erected by 
Ferdinand I. in 1484. In 1647 during the rebellion of Masa- 
niello it was occupied by the populace. It was subsequently forti- 
fied, and now serves as a barrack and military prison. 

The Porta del Carmine leads to the piazza of the same 
name in which, to the r., is situated the church of 

*S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 59), containing the tomb of 
Conradin (beheaded when only 16 years old by Charles of Anjou), 

Piazza de Martiri. NAPLES. 4. Route. 45 

which was originally behind the high altar, bearing the simple 
inscription R.~ C. 0. (Regis Conradini corpus). In 1847 Maxi- 
milian II. of Bavaria, when Crown-prince, caused a *Statue, by 
Schopf of Munich from a design by Thorwaldsen, to be erected 
in the nave of the church to the memory of Conradin. The 
pedestal bears a German inscription to this effect: 'Maximilian, 
Crown-prince of Bavaria, erected this monument to a scion of 
his house, King Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen'. The 
reliefs represent the parting of Conradin from his mother, the 
Princess Elizabeth, and his separation from Frederick of Baden 
at the place of execution. Beneath lie the remains of the un- 
fortunate prince. The whole is well executed, and, placed as it 
is, most impressive. The same church is said to be the last 
resting place of Masaniello, but this has been denied. 

After the church is quitted, the Largo del Mercato is entered 
to the 1. Of the 3 fountains the largest is termed Fontana di 
Masaniello, to commemorate the rebellion of 1647. On Mondays 
and Fridays the market attracts numbers of people from all di- 
rections. This was the scene of the execution of Conradin, the 
last scion of his princely house, and of his relation Frederick of 
Baden, Oct. 29th, 1268. 

To penetrate farther into the interior of the town from this 
point without a guide, even with the aid of the plan of the 
town, is hardly advisable. The traveller should therefore proceed 
by carriage to one of the places described below, whence he may 
pursue his route. 

77. Toledo. Capodimonte. 

From the Largo della Vittoria (p. 38; PI. D 6), to the 1. 
in the direction of the town, the broad Strada S. Caterina leads 
to the triangular Piazza de' Martiri, adorned with a monument 
in memory of the patriots who have perished during the different 
revolutions. The monument consists of a lofty column of 
marble decorated with trophies, and crowned with a Victory in 
bronze. The four lions at the base, in different postures, re- 
present the four principal revolutions (1799, 1820, 1848, 1860) 
at Naples during the Bourbon dynasty. The monument was 
designed by Alvino, the Victory executed by Caggiani. The 
inscription runs thus: 'alia gloriosa memoria dei cittadini Napo- 
letani die caduti nelle pugne o sul patibolo rivendicarono cd popolo 
la liberta di proclamare con patto solenne ed eterno il plebiscito 
del 21 ottobre 1860, il municipio consacra. — To the 1. in the 
piazza is the Palazzo Miranda (PI. 19), now Ottajano, erected 
in 1780 by Barba, now the property of the Princess of Otto- 
jano, daughter of the Duchess of Miranda, containing pictures by 
Spagnoletto, Guido Reni, Rubens ('Triumph of beauty'), and others. 

The traveller next enters the busy Strada di Chiaia. 

46 Route -i. NAPLES. Toledo. 

Where this street begins to ascend, it is crossed by the Ponte 
di Chiui'i. a viaduct built in 1634, over which the Strada Monte 
di Dio leads from the quarter of Pizzofalcone to the higher 
ground below ,S. Elmo. The Str. di Chiaia, which contains no 
object of note, leads into the Toledo opposite S. Carlo. This 
street, the great artery of the traffic of Naples, a busy scene 
at all hours, is from the Piazza del Plebiscito to the Museo Nazio- 
nale 1^4 M. in length, but contains no building worthy of mention. 
It was commenced by the viceroy Don Pedro of Toledo in 1540, 
and bore his name down to the annexation of Rome in 1870, 
but is now officially termed Strada Roma (gia Toledo). After 
10 min. walk, the Largo delta Carita, a small square to the 
1., is reached, opposite which is the entrance to the Piazza 
Montoliveto (p. 51). A short distance farther, at the corner to 
the r. where the street to the Largo della Trinita diverges, is 
situated the Palazzo Maddaloni (entrance in the Str. Maddaloni), 
a massive structure with gateway and staircase from designs by 
Fansaga. The interior contains a hall of beautiful proportions, 
now occupied by the Bank of Naples, the ceiling of which is 
decorated with a fresco by Francesco di Mura, representing 
Naples besieged by Ferdinand I. of Arragon. Adjacent, separated 
by a cross-street, at the corner of the Toledo and the Strada 
Montoliveto, is the Palazzo Angri (PI. 12), erected about the 
year 1773 by Luigi Vanvitelli (former picture-gallery lately sold), 
the residence of Garibaldi when dictator in 1860. 

After a walk of 10 min. more the spacious Largo di Santo 
Spirito, or del Mercatello, which is at present undergoing con- 
siderable extension and improvement, is reached. The circular 
shaped edifice, surmounted by a balustrade with 26 statues, was 
erected in 1757 by the city of Naples in honour of Charles III.; 
the statues are intended as emblems of the virtues of that 
monarch. In 1861 it was converted into the Ginnasio Vittorio 
Emanuele, in front of which rises a modern statue of Dante in 
marble. The large red building facing the traveller is the 
Museum (p. 62 and follg.). 

The continuation of the Toledo beyond the Museum is the 
Strada Nuova di Capodimonte, which gradually ascends. The 
Ponte della Sanitii, constructed in 1809, leads over the lower 
lying quarter della Sanita. 

Descending to the 1. beyond the bridge and (having reached 
the lower extremity of the lane) entering the winding Strada 
S. Gennarello, the traveller soon reaches the church of S. Gen- 
naro dei Poreri. behind which is situated the entrance to the 
* Catacombs (PI. 4). Application for admission to them is made 
to the porter of the extensive poor-house, where several hundred 
orphans and aged or infirm persons are gratuitously supported 
(admission 1 fr. for each pers. : no gratuities). The church of 

Palazzo di Capodimonte. NAPLES. 4. Route. 47 

S. Gennaro dei Poveri, founded in the 8th cent, on the site 
of a chapel where St. Januarius was interred, is now completely 
modernised. The vestibule of the inner court is embellished 
with * frescoes by A. Subbatini. unfortunately in bad pre- 
servation, representing the history of the saint. The only entrance 
to the Catacombs is now at the back of this church. Their 
extent is said to be very great, but since the fearful plague of 
1656 when, as at subsequent periods, the dead were buried 
here, they have to a great extent been rilled up. They are 
remarkable for the width and height of the passages, in which 
respect they far surpass the Roman, though inferior in every 
other respect. They consist of a long series of passages and 
chambers, with innumerable niches (loculi), containing bones 
and emblems of the Christian faith, in 3 different levels con- 
nected by stairs. The two upper storeys alone are now acces- 
sible. The oldest portions have undergone frequent alteration. 
With regard to their original destination it has been satisfactorily 
proved that they were excavated by the early Christians as burial- 
places and for purposes of religion. The names in the inscriptions, 
as well as the nature of the representations in sculpture which 
have been discovered (now preserved in the Museum), are 
all Christian: vine festoons, genii, grapes pecked at by birds, 
Christ as the Good Shepherd, bearing the lamb and tending 
the sheep, the stag, peacock, fish, dove, the emblem of the 
cross, angels, etc. This subterraneous city of the dead has not 
inaptly been termed the 'Christian Pompeii', as an insight into 
the earliest history of our religion and the origin of Christian 
art is here obtained. 

To the r. of the Ponte della Sanity lies the Chinese College 
(Collegio de Cinesi), founded in 1772 by the Jesuit P. Ripa, 
where missionaries for China are educated. 

The main street next leads to a circular space, where the 
carriage-road describes a long curve to the 1., whilst footpass- 
engers ascend the steps, and to the r. reach the entrance to the 
palace - garden of Capodimonte. Fiacres as far as the Tondo di 
Capodimonte according to tariff. 

Palazzo di Capodimonte (PI. 14) (tickets of admission pro- 
cured at the Pal. Reale; attendant 1 fr. : porter, a trifling gra- 
tuity), situated above the town to the N. on the eminence of 
that name, commenced in 1738 by Charles III., completed under 
Ferdinand II. in 1834 — 39, is a handsome rectangular structure, 
the gardens of which, laid out partly in the English style (but 
destitute of water), and commanding a fine view, are open to 
the public on Aug. 15th. Visitors are conducted through the 
public and private royal apartments, which contain a collection of 
pictures more extensive than valuable. They consist principally of 
family-portraits, reviews, battles, etc.. by modern native artists. 

48 Route i. NAPLES. Observatory. 

Each room is provided with a catalogue. Those which most merit 
inspection are: 1st Room: 1. Wild hoar hunt in the Bosco di 
Persano, Hackert; On the Lago Fusaro, by the same; 11. Marriage 
of the Duchesse de Berry, Lemasle. 3rd. R. : Death of Caesar, 
Camuccini. 5th R. : Benvenuto Cellini at the Castello S. Angelo, 
Celentano; Ulysses and Alcinous, Hayez. In the centre a table 
with mosaic from Pompeii. 6th R. : Cleopatra at her toilet, 
Murinelli. 10th R. : *Portaits of the Duchess of Parma and 
Maria Theresa, Virginia Lebrun ; * Ferdinand I. and his consort 
with their children, Angelica Kaufmann. — Also on the first 
floor a collection of armour (Armeria), formerly preserved in the 
Pal. Reale, of which the only objects of interest are the ancient 
accoutrements of the kings Roger and Ferdinand I., of Alexander 
Farnese, Victor Amadeus of Savoy, etc. ; also the sword presented 
by Ferdinand I. to the gallant Scanderbeg, and that sent by 
Louis XIV. to his grandson Philip when the latter succeeded to 
the Spanish throne. 

In the vicinity of Capodimonte are the villas Meuricoffre, 
Ruffo, Avelli, and Forquet. Delightful walks and fine views in 
all directions. 

On the W. slope stands the Villa Regina Isabella, or Villa 
Gallo, founded in 1809 by the Duca di Gallo, subsequently the 
property of the queen from whom it derives its name, now in 
the possession of her second husband the Conte del Balzo. The 
summit commands a remarkably fine prospect of the city and 
bay. Pleasant walk from the Villa Gallo through the valley 
between Camaldoli and the Vomero to the Lago d'Agnano, or to 
the 1. to Fuorigrotta and to the Bagnoli road on the coast. 

The Strada Nuova di Miano skirts the park of Capodimonte 
and unites with the Capua road at Secondigliano . Quitting 
the park and turning to the 1., the traveller may proceed by the 
outskirts of the city to the Porta S. Gennaro, or still farther 
to the Campo Santo outside the Porta Capuana, an excursion 
most agreeably made by carriage (duration of whole excursion, 
incl. visit to the palace and grounds, about 5 hrs. — Two- 
horse carr. 5 — 6 fr.). 

The summit of Capodimonte, 8/4 M. to the E. of the palace, 
is occupied by the Observatory (VOsservatorio Reale), popularly 
called La Specola, termed Miradois by the Spanish, founded in 
1812, and enlarged in 1820 from plans by the celebrated Piazzi. 
It commands an unobstructed horizon in all directions, and under 
Piazzi (d. 1826) attained a European reputation. The present 
director, M. De Gasparis, has recently distinguished himself by 
the discovery of several small planets. 

Farther off, at the base of Capodimonte, are visible the rem- 
nants of the Aqua Julia, now termed Ponti Rossi, the great 
aqueduct constructed by Augustus. One branch supplied the city 

L'Incoronata. NAPLES. 4. Route. 49 

of Naples, the other crossed the Vomero to the r., whence se- 
veral ramifications diverged, some to the villas on the Posilipo, 
another by Monte Olibano to Bais, and Misenum, where it ter- 
minated in the Piscina Mirabilis. 

The city at present derives its drinkable water from two 
sources, the Acqua di Carmiynano, conducted about the year 1600 
from S. Agata. 24 M. distant, and in 1770 united with that 
from Caserta, and the shorter Acqua delta Bolla, fed by springs 
on Monte Somma, and supplying the lower quarters of the city, 
but both insufficient. The Artesian wells, which have been 
bored in recent times, have yielded no water fit for drinking. 

Turning to the r. by the Museum, the traveller enters the 
spacious Piazza Cavour (formerly Largo delle Pigne), now embel- 
lished with promenades, and proceeds by the broad Strada 
S. Carlo all' Arena to the Strada Foria, to which omnibuses 
run. Here, to the 1., is the Botanic Garden, established in 1809, 
extended in 1818. Adjoining it, in the Str. Foria, is the extensive 
poor-house, Albergo de' Poveri, or Reclusorio, begun by Charles IIT. 
in 1751 from a design by Fuga, and intended to comprise four 
courts. It bears the inscription : 'Regium totius regni pauperum 
hospitium\ The structure, of which one side is destined for 
men, the other for women, is still little more than half com- 
pleted. In this establishment and its dependencies about 5000 
persons are maintained. The city contains numerous other 
charitable institutions, about 60 in all, many of them richly 
endowed. The cross streets to the r. lead from the Str. Foria 
to the Porta Oapuana (p. 56). 

///. The Old To 

iv it. 

Naples contains about 300 Churches, most of them devoid of 
interest. The architecture and art displayed in the more ancient 
is in the tasteless style of the 17th and 18th centuries, which 
appears to have attained its highest perfection here. They, how- 
ever, contain numerous monuments, important in the history of 
sculpture, and are so rich in historical and political associations, 
that a visit to some of the more important is indispensable to 
those who desire more than a mere superficial acquaintance with 
Naples. They are generally closed about noon, and not re-opened 
till the evening. 

* L'Incoronata f PI. 56), in the Str. Medina, to the 1. of the 
fountain, adjoining No. 39 (open early in the morning), was 
erected in 1352 by Johanna I. to commemorate her coronation 
and marriage with her cousin Louis of Taranto, and made to 
comprise the chapel of the former Palais de Justice in which 
the marriage ceremony had been performed. 

This chapel contains admirable ''Frescoes, formerly attributed to Giotto, 
but probably by one of his pupils or imitators, representing the 'Seven 
Sacraments and the Church', to inspect which a platform to the 1. near 

Bjedbkeii. Italy III. 4th Edition. i 

50 Route J. NAPLES. .S\ Maria la Nuova. 

the entrance is ascended. In the arch over the window, to the r. the 
■Triumph of the Church' (in which King Robert and his son Charles are 
represented, attired in purple), to the 1. the Extreme "Unction. The next 
arch to the r. comprises: to the 1. Baptism, r. Confirmation; then to the 1. 
The Eucharist, r. Confession ; and on the other side, 1. Ordination, r. Blatri- 
mony. Two half-figures in 'Baptism', one of which is crowned with laurel, 
are said to represent Petrarch and Laura, and in 'Matrimony' Dante's 
features are alleged to be recognisable. The Chapel of the Crucifix, at the 
extremity of the 1. aisle, also contains frescoes in the style of Giotto, 
ascribed to Gennaro di Cola, pupil of Maestro Simone : to the 1. the Coro- 
nation of Johanna I., her nuptials, and other events in her life are repre- 
sented; to the r. St. Martin, St. George, battles, etc., all much damaged. 

The church contains numerous votive offerings for recovery from sick- 
ness and the perils of childbirth. 

Opposite the church is situated the Palazzo Fondi (PI. 16) 
(accessible by special permission of the prince only), constructed 
from plans by Vaiiritelli, and containing a collection of pictures : 
Martyrdom of St. Januarius, Calabrese; 4 landscapes, Salvator 
Rosa; Portrait of the poet Marini, Caravnggio ; Mater Dolorosa,' 
Leonardo da Vinci; *\fadonna del Oardellino, Raphael, duplicate of 
that in the Tribuna in Florence ; Diana and Calisto, Rubens ; Portraits 
of himself, Rembrandt; Portraits of the Genoese family of Marini, 
Van Dyck; Palace of the Inquisition at Madrid, Velasquez, etc. 

At the end of the Strada Medina the busy Str. S. Giuseppe 
is entered to the 1. After a few min. walk, a broad street to 
the r. leads to S. Maria la Nuova ("PI. 61), in the square of 
that name, erected in 1268 by Giovanni da Pisa, restored in 
1 596 by Franco, and adorned with frescoes on the ceiling by 
Santafede and Simone Papa the younger, and on the dome (the 
4 Franciscan teachers: S. Bonaventura, Duns Scotus, Nicolaus 
de Lira, and Alexander ab Alexandro) by Vorenzio. 

In the 1st Chap, to the r. the 'Archangel Michael', formerly ascribed 
to Michael Angelo. 3rd Chap. : Crucifixion, Marco da Siena. In the Chap, 
del Crocefisso frescoes by Coremio. The r. transept contains the monument 
of Galeazzo Sanseverino (d. 1477), with numerous basreliefs of the 15th 
cent. In the opposite chapel a beautiful crucifix in wood by Merliano. 
The second chapel to the 1., that of S. Giacomo della Marca, was erected by 
Gonsalvo de Cordova, 'il gran capitano', whose nephew Ferdinand placed 
on either side of the altar the monuments of his most distinguished enemies 
Pietro Navarro (who strangled himself whilst imprisoned in the Castello 
Nuovo) and the Frenchman Lautrec, general of Francis I. (who died of the 
plague in 1528, whilst besieging Naples). The inscriptions, composed by 
Paolo Giovio, testify to the noble and chivalrous sentiments of that period. 
At the high altar is the monument of the Triventi family. 

The traveller may now return and pursue his route along the 
Str. Giuseppe, of which the Str. Montoliveto forms the continu- 
ation. To the r., where the latter expands into a square stands 
the Palazzo Gravina, now the General Post and Telegraph 
Office (PI. 23j, erected about 1500 by Ferdinando Orsini, Duca 
di Gravina, from designs by Gabriele d'Agnolo. Notwithstanding 
that it has been disfigured by modern improvement, and that it 
was much injured by fire during the revolution of 1848, this is 
still the finest edifice in Naples. It once bore the graceful 
inscription of the founder: 'Sibi suisque et amicis omnibus'. 

Monte Oliveto. NAPLES. 4. Route. 51 

An ascent from this point to the 1. leads to *S. Anna de' 
Lombardi, or Monte Oliveto (PI. 66), in the piazza of that 
name, once a Benedictine monastery, erected in iill by Guerello 
Origlia, the favourite of King Ladislaus, from the designs of 
Andrea Ciccione. The monastery is now the property of the 
municipality ; the garden, where in 1588 the poet Tasso was kindly 
received when ill and in distress, is now a market-place, whence 
the Toledo (p. 46) is entered. The church contains valuable 

At the entrance, to the 1., the monument (if General Giuseppe Trivulzio 
(d. 1757) i to the r. that of the celebrated architect Domenico Fontana 
(d. 1607), who flourished in Rome under Sixtus V. 1st Chap, to the 1. 
(Piccolomini) : the 'Nativity, a relief by fionatello, or, according to others, 
by his pupil Antonio Rossellino. Above it "Dancing Angels by Eossellino . 
The "Monument of Maria of Arragon, natural daughter of Ferdinand I., 
wife of Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi, by Uossrllitio, a copy of the 
monument of the Cardinal of Portugal in S. Miniatos al Florence. The 
Ascension, a picture by Silvestro de* Buoni. — 1st Chap, to the r. (Mastro- 
giudici) : the Annunciation, a relief by Benedetto da Maiano. Several mo- 
numents, among which that uf 'Marinus Curialis Surrentinus Terrenovte 
comes', 1490, who founded this chapel. Alphonso I. composed the epitaph : 
'Qui fuit Alphonsi quondam pars maxima regis Mariuus modica hac nunc 
tumulatur humo\ — 5th Chap, to the 1. John the Baptist, by Merliano. — 
The chapel of the Madonna (by the r. transept) contains the tombs of 
Cardinal Pompeo Colonna , viceroy of Naples (d. 1532), and of Charles of 
Lannoy fd. 1527), general of Charles V. The chapel of the Holy Sepulchre 
contains a 'group in terracotta by Modanino {Guido Mazzonit) of Modena, 
representing Christ in the Sepulchre, surrounded by G life-size figures in 
a kneeling posture, all likenesses of contemporaries of the artist, Sanna- 
zaro as Joseph of Arimathcea, Pontanus as Nicodemus, Alphonso II. as 
John, beside him his son Ferdinand. — The choir contains frescoes by 
Simone Papa the younger. Monuments of Alphonso II. and Guerello Origlia 
by Giovanni da yola. 

Retracing his steps from this point, and proceeding in a 
straight direction through the Calata Trinita Maggiore, the tra- 
veller now reaches the square of that name, adorned with a lofty 
statue of the Virgin in the baroque style, erected in 1184. To 
the 1. is situated Gesu Nuovo, or 8. Trinitii Maggiore. in the 
form of a Greek cross, built in 1584, containing frescoes by 
Solimena (History of Heliodorus, over the portal), Stunzinni. 
Spagnoletto, and Corenzio, and overladen with marble ami de- 
corations. — A furniture -magazine opposite the church. Largo 
8. Trin. Maggiore 19, 20, contains the old refectory of the 
former monastery of S. Chiura, adorned with a fine Fresco of 
the School of Giotto, representing the miraculous Feeding of the 
6000 (not very conveniently accessible, but admission readily 
granted, l / 2 ft.). 

Nearly opposite is * Santa Chiara (PL 42), originally a Gothic, 
edifice erected by Robert the Wise in 1310, almost entirely 
rebuilt in the Romanesque style by Masuccio in 1318, and finally 
in 1752 richly and tastelessly decorated. At the same time 
Giotto's celebrated frescoes were whitewashed, with the single 
exception of the Madonna delle Grazie mentioned below. 


52 Route 4. NAPLES. Santa Chiara. 

The lofty and spacious interior of the church resembles a magnificent 
hall. To the 1. of the principal entrance is the monument of Onofrio di 
Penna, secretary of King Ladislaus (d. 1322), with a relief of the Madonna 
and hermits by Bamboccio, converted into an altar. Above is a Madonna 
on the throne and the Trinity, by Francesco, son of Maestro Simone (about 
1300)- — Of the principal paintings on the ceiling the first, the Queen of 
Sheba, and the second, David playing on the harp, are by Seb. Conca; 
the third, S. Clara putting the Saracens to (light, by Francesco di Nura; 
the fourth, David sacrificing , by Bonito. By the latter is also the high 
altar-piece (the Sacrament) and the painting over the principal entrance 
(King Robert watching the progress of the building of the church). 

The Sanfelice Chapel, the 8th to the 1., near the pulpit, contains a 
Crucifixion by Lanfranco, and an ancient sarcophagus with figures of Pro- 
tesilaus and Laodamia which serves as the tomb of Cesare Sanfelice, Ducy 
di Kodi (d. 1632). — The following chapel of the family Longobardi de la. 
Cruz Ahedo contains on the 1. side a monument of 1529, on the r. one of 
1853. The last chapel to the r. is the burial-chapel of the Bourbons, where 
six children of Charles III. are interred. 

At the back of the high altar is the magnificent monument of Robert 
the Wise (d. 1343), executed by Masuccio. On the summit the king is re- 
presented seated on his throne, beneath in a recumbent posture, on a sar- 
cophagus, in the garb of a Franciscan. The inscription : 'Cernite Robertuin 
regem virtute refertunf is ascribed to Petrarch. On the r. side is the 
beautiful Gothic monument, also by Masuccio, of his eldest son Charles, 
Duke of Calabria, who died in 1328, before his father. Still more to the 
i". that of Mary of Valois, his queen, sometimes erroneously supposed to 
he the monument of her daughter Johanna I. ; historians of that period, 
however, record that the latter, murdered by Charles of Durazzo in 1382, 
was interred in the church of St. Clara in an unknown spot, without any 
mark of distinction. To the 1. of the high altar is the monument of their 
second daughter M;irv, sister of Johanna I., empress of Constantinople anil 
Duchess of Durazzo, adorned with her imperial robes. By the wall to the 1., 
the tomb of Agnese and Clementia , the two daughters of the latter, the 
former also consort of a titular Emp. of Constantinople, Giacomo del 
Ralzo, Prince of Taranto. In the 1. lateral wall, the tomb of Mary, infant 
daughter of Charles the Illustrious, who died in 1344. 

"Near the side-door which leads out of the church, to the 1. the small 
but graceful monument of Antonia Gaudino, who died in 1530 at the age 
of 14, on the day appointnd for her marriage, with a beautiful epitaph by 
the poet Antonius Epicurus (d. 1055). By the 3rd pillar to the 1. the altar 
of the Madonna delle Grazie, the fresco of which is ascribed to Giotto. The 
Madonna della Pieta, to the r. by the main entrance, is by the same master. 
The 2nd Chap, to the 1. contains (on the r. side) the tomb of Gabriel 
Adurini (d. 1572), admiral under Ihe Emp. Charles V.; on the 1. side two 
sarcophagi of the 14th cent. The pulpit, supported by four lions, is deco- 
rated with reliefs of the 13th cent. 

The Clock-Tower (il Campanile) of 8. Chiara is one of the 
most successful works of Masuccio, or, according to others, of 
his pupil (riacomo de Sanctis, although of the five stories in 
different styles of architecture originally planned, one only in 
the Tuscan style was completed. The second (Doric) was added 
in the 16th, the third (Ionic) at the commencement of the 
17th cent. 

Farther on in the Str. Trinita, Maggiore, the Laryo S. Do- 
menico is soon read ed on the 1., containing the palaces of Ca- 
*acalenda, Coriyliano, and S. Severo, and adorned with an Obelisk 
( agugliaj in the baroque style, surmounted by a bronze statue of 
the saint, executed by Vaccaro in 1737 from a design by Fansaga. 

8. Domenico. NAPLES. 4. Route. 53 

*S. Domenico (PI. 45), erected by Charles II. in 1285 in the 
Gothic style from the design of Masuccio the Elder, is one of 
the finest churches in Naples, notwithstanding the subsequent 
alterations it has undergone (the last in 1850 — 53). The lofty 
interior, with its nave and aisles, 27 chapels and 12 altars, 
handsome columns and rich gilding, is remarkably imposing. 
Unfortunately the flat ceiling of the 18th cent, does not har- 
monise well with the rest of the edifice. The most distinguished 
princes of Naples have for centuries possessed chapels here, 
containing numerous monuments. The church is therefore as 
valuable a repository of early lienaissance sculpture as that of 
S. Chiara is of Gothic works. The principal entrance is to the 
1. in the court of the Pretura in the Vic. S. Domenico (generally 
closed; side-entrance by a flight of steps in the same street). 
The church is accessible 7 — 11 a. m. only. 

To the r. the 1st Chap. (S. Martino) of the X/ilnzzo, formerly of the 
Carafa family, contains an altar-piece (Madonna with S. Martin and S. Do- 
minic), adjoining which are several monuments of the Carafas by Andrea 
da Salerno; the rococo monument of (ieneral Filippo Saluzzo fd. 1852) and 
that of Galeotto Carafa (d. 1513) with medallion. — 2nd Chap. . altar-piece 
by Agnolo Franco; monument of Archbishop Bartolommeo Brancaccio 
(d. 1341). — 3rd Chap. : the badly preserved frescoes of this chapel, whicli 
also belongs to the Brancaccio family, represent the Crucifixion, Supper at 
Emmaus, Resurrection. Mary Magdalene, and John the Baptist, by Agnolo 
Franco. — 4th. chap, nf the Capcce: altar-piece, Cruciiixion by Qirolamo 
Capcce, Baptism of Christ by Marco da Siena. — 7th. Chap, del Crocehsso. 
contains important monuments. The "High Altar of Florentine mosaic was 
executed in 1652 from a design by Cosimo Fansaga. Beneath the altar a relief 
of the Crucifix by Tommaso de' Stefan i, which according to tradition, thus 
addressed Thomas Aquinas: 'Bene scripsisti de me. Thoma : quam ergo 
mercedem rccipies? 1 To which the saint replied: "Xon aliam nisi te/ 
Pictures on each side of the altar: on the r. Bearing the Cross, on the 1. 
Descent from the Cross by an imitator of the Flemish style. To the 1 . 
of the altar the monument of Francesco Carafa by Agnello del Fiore, on 
the opp. side another by the same master, completed by Gioranni da Sola. 
The small chapel to the 1. of the altar contains the tomb of Ettore Carafa, 
Conte di Ruvo fd. 1511), with martial emblems and arabesques. The 
Madonna della Rusa is ascribed to Maestro Simwie. On the opp. side the 
beautiful monument of Mariano d'Alagni. Count Bucchianico, and his wife 
Catarinella Orsini, by Agnello del Fiore. Adjacent to it, to the r., the 
monument of Niecolo di Sangro, Principe di Fondi, by Domenico d*Anria. — 
At the entrance to the sacristy, monuments of members of the family of 
Thomas Aquinas. 

The : ' Sacristy contains a painting on the ceiling by Solrmena; an 
Annunciation at the altar by Andrea di Salerno; 45 large sarcophagi of 
wood with scarlet covers, ten of which contain the remains of princes of 
the house of Arragon. Among these are Ferdinand I. (d. 1494); Ferdi- 
nand II. (d. 1496); his aunt, Queen Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand ]. 
(d. 1518); Isabella (d. 1524), daughter of Alphonso II. and wife of the Duke 
of Milan, etc. The coffin of Alphonso I. (d. 1458) still exists, hut his 
remains were conveyed to Spain in 1666. Also the coffin of Fernando 
Francesco d'Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, the hero of Ravenna and Pavia, 
who died of his wounds at Milan in 1525. The inscription is by Ariosto. 
Above the tomb are suspended his portrait, a banner, and :i sword. His 
wife was the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, who after his death sang his 
praises in the island oflsehia (p. 101). >'ear this are the three sarcophagi 
of the wife and two children of Count Agar de Mosbourg I'd. 1844 at Paris). 
minister of finance under Murat 

54 Route 4. NAPLES. Capp . di S . Severo . 

In the /•. Transept the chape) of St. Hyacinth contains the 'monu- 
ment of Galeazzo Pandone (d. 1514) by Giovanni da Nola. — From the r. 
transept a door leads into a portion <>i' the older church, containing some 
interesting monuments, especially that of Porzia Capece. wife of Bernardino 
Rota, by Giovanni da Nola. 

In the I. Transept, above the chapel of the Pignatelli , the monu- 
ments of Giovanni di Durazzo (d. 1323) and Filippo di Taranto (d. 1335), 
sons of Charles III., with a long inscription in leonine verse. 

The 8th Cap. (S. Maria della Xcve,) in the 1. Aisle contains above 
the altar a beautiful haut-relicf with a statue of the Virgin, attended by 
St. Matthew and St. John, the best work of Giovanni da Sola, executed in 
1536. Here is also the monument of the poet Giambattista Marini of Naples 
(d. 1625), well known for his bombastic style; his bust by Bartolommeo 
Viscontini, originally placed in the monastery by King Joachim in 1813. — 
7th Chap, of the Ruffo Bagnara family : Martyrdom of S. Catherine, by 
Leonardo da Pistuja; tombs of Leonardo Tomacelli and of Cardinal 
Fabricio Kufto (d. 1829) who played a conspicuous part in the events 
of 1709. — 6th Chap., tombs of the Carafa, in the 5th of the Andrea, in 
the 4th of the Rota family. The latter contains a statue of St. John by 
Giovanni da Nola, as a monument to the poet Bernardino Rota (d. 1575), 
with the figures of the Arno and he Tiber by Domenico d'Auria (1600). — 
3rd Chap, to the 1.: Martyrdom of St. John by Scipione Gaetano; tomb of 
Antonio Carafa, surnamed Malizia (d. 1438). — 2nd Chap., in the bad taste 
of the 17th cent. : the miracle-working Madonna di S. Andrea. — 1st Chap, 
to the 1. by the entrance (S. Stefano): Christ crowning Joseph, by Luca 
Giordano : on the lateral walls an Adoration of the Magi, ascribed to Albert 
Ourer; Holy Family by Andrea da Salerno. "Tomb of 1636. 

In the adjacent monastery the celebrated Thomas Aquinas lived in 1272 
as professor of philosophy at the university which was then founded. 
Charles I. directed that he should receive a salary of one ounce of gold 
per month. Men of the highest rank, even the king himself, were among 
his auditors. His cell, now a chapel, and his lecture-room are still shown. 

The latter is now employed as a place of meeting by the 
Academia Pontaniana, founded in 1471 by the erudite Giovanni 
Pontuno, a native of Cerretto or Ponto in L'mbria, state-secretary 
under Ferdinand I. and tutor of the Duke of Calabria (d. 1503). 
The society, reconstituted in 1617, contains 5 classes, for mathe- 
matics, moral and political science, history and literature of an- 
tiquity, Italian history and literature, and the tine arts. It con- 
sists of a limited number of native and of non-resident members. 

In the vicinity (Calata di S. Severo) is situated S. Maria della 
Pieta de Sangri, commonly called La Cappella di San Severo 
(PI. 74) (ascending on the r. side of 8. Domenico, taking the 
first lane to the r., and then the first to the 1., the visitor will 
tind the keys at a shop opposite him, at the beginning of the 
latter; fee i/l> fr- ), erected in 1590 by Francesco di Sangro. ex- 
tended in 1613 by Alessandro di Sangro, Patriarch of Alexandria 
and Archbishop of Benevento, as a burial-place for the Sangro 
family, then in 1760 lavishly decorated with gold and sculpture 
by liaimondo di Sangro, Principe di Sansevero. Nowhere in 
Naples is such egregiously bad taste displayed as in the exag- 
gerated magnificence, and the unnatural and laboured allegories, 
with which this chapel is replete. It does not fail, however, 
to attract numbers of wondering admirers, and certainly displays 
great skill of workmanship. 

University. NAPLES 4 Route. 55 

The principal of these allegories is the Man in the net', from which 
with the aid of reason (a crowned genius) he disentangles himself, there- 
fore termed il disinganiio, a work of Francesco <lucirolo of Genoa. It con- 
tains an allusion to Antnnii. di Sangro, who renounced the world and 
became a monk, after '. aving lost his beloved wife Cecilia Gaetani. The 
latter is represented as Pudicitia, nude, but slightly veiled, the work of 
Antonio Conradini of Venice. -- The altar-piece is a Descent from the 
Cross, by Francesco Celebrano of Naples. --- As another instance of extra 
ordinary perversion of taste may be mentioned the figure of Christ 
enveloped in a winding sheet and laid out in a chapel lifted up for the 

From this point (or by S. Domenico to the r. ) the side-street 
may be ascended, which leads to the Str. de' Tribunali where 
the cathedral and other important churches (p. 58) are situated. 

The traveller, however, may prefer to return to the Largo 
S. Domenico, in order to pursue his route along the Str. Trinita 
Maggiore, the continuation of which is the Str. Nilo and, farther 
on, the Str. S. Biagio de' Librai. Immediately to the r. is S. 
Angelo a Nilo (PI. 33), erected in 1385; in the interior, to the r. 
of the high altar, the monument of the founder Cardinal Bran- 
caccio (d. 1428), by Donatello and Michelozzo. The lunette of 
the door, attributed to Colantonio del Fiore, is not now recognis- 
able. The Str. Salvatore (second from the Largo S. Domenico 
to the r. ) leads hence to the not far distant 

University (PI. 32) (Reaia L'niversita degli Studj), founded in 
1224 by the Emp. Frederick II., reconstituted in 1780 and 
removed to the Jesuits' College. It is one of the most ancient 
in Europe, and was the only one in the kingdom of Naples; it 
possesses 5 faculties, 25 professorial chairs, a library, and na- 
tural history collections of which the mineralogical is the most 
valuable. The use of the library, admirably arranged by Tom- 
maso Gar, is readily accorded to strangers from 9 to 3 daily. The 
Court contains the statues of Pietro della Vigna, chancellor of 
Frederick II., Thomas Aquinas, G. B. Yico, and Giordano Bruno, 
erected in 1863. 

In a straight direction from the university a side-street leads 
to the richly decorated church of S. Severino e Sosio (PI. To), 
in the Largo S. Marcelliuo. It contains frescoes by Corenzio. who 
is interred here. The choir-stills are beautifully carved. 

Adjoining the choir to the r. is the chapel of the Sanseverini, con- 
taining three monuments of three brothers, who were poisoned by their 
uncle in 1516, works of Giovanni da lYola. In a chapel near the choir, to 
the r., the tomb of Carlo Troya (d. 1858J. In the 1. transept, the monu- 
ments of Admiral Vincenzo Carafa (d. 1611) and the Duca Francesco de 
Marmilis (d. 1649). By the entrance to the sacristy, in the last chapel of 
the r. transept, the tomb of a child, Andreas Bonifacio, ascribed to Giov. 
da Xola\ opposite to it is that of Giambattista Cicara. by the same master, 
with inscriptions by Sannazaro. 

The court of the monastery at the back of the church con- 
tains a venerable plane-tree, said to have been planted by St. 
Benedict's own hand; a fig-tree is grafted on it. The cloisters. 
the work of Andrea Ciccione (entrance ascends to the 1. by the 

56 Routed. NAPLES. Castello Capuano. 

church, gateway to the r. ; permission to enter must he obtained 
from the keeper of the archives; fee i fr.), contain 19 *Frescoes 
by Lo Zingaro, representing scenes from the life of St. Bene- 
dict, his best work, and the finest specimen of Neapolitan paint- 
ing extant (best light in the forenoon). — The neighbouring 
monastery has since 1818 been the depository of the Archives 
of the kingdom, which are among the most valuable in the world. 
Frescoes and paintings by Corenzio adorn the interior. The 40,000 
parchment MSS. (the oldest are in Greek) date from 703 to the 
Norman, Hohenstaufen, Anjou, Arragonian, and Spanish periods. 
The documents of the Anjou period are most numerous. 

Returning to the principal street hitherto followed, the tra- 
veller now pursues his route along its continuation, S. Biagio de 
Libral. To the r. the Mont de Piete, or public loan-establishment ; 
then several churches and palaces of little importance. One of 
these, No. 121, the Palazzo Santangelo (PI. '22), formerly termed 
Colobrano-Ctirafti, dating from 1460, once contained a valuable 
collection of antiquities, now in the Museum (p. 74). 

The Ficture Gallery is accessible by permission of the March. 
Santangelo. The 1st Room contains modern Neapolitan pictures. — 2nd 
K. : Agnello Falcone, Battle-piece; JSantafede, Madonna with SS. John 
and Andrew, Car. ifatsimi, Infant Christ asleep ; Oent. Bellini, two oriental 
portraits. — 4th If.: Diirer, Garland-weaver, 1508; Van Dyct, Body of 
Christ. — 5th K. : School of Van Eiicl,-, Madonna ('a tempera") ; Rubens, Por- 
trait of himself and Van Dyck ; Giiilio Romano (?), Madonna; Sandra 
Botticelli, Madonna; Wohlgemuth, Death uf Mary, painted in 1479 for the 
Volkamer family at Nuremberg. 

After a walk of 5 inin. our street intersects the new and still 
uncompleted Siruda del Duomo, which is intended to afford 
more light and air to these crowded purlieus, and leads to the 
r. to the Cathedral (p. f)8). We continue to follow the Str. 
8. Biagio, which after 5 miu. more divides: to the r. S. Egeziaca 
a Forcella leads to the Porta N'olana; to the 1. is the Str. An- 
nunziata with the Church o/ the Annunziutu, erected in 1757 — 
82 by Vanvitelli (frescoes by Corenzio; tomb of the profligate 
i^neeu Johanna 11. ). This street is continued by the Str. Madda- 
Inna, which leads to the square by the Porta Capuana. Here to 
the 1. is the 

Castello Capuano (PI. K, (t, 3), founded by William I., 
completed by Frederick ]J. in 1231 from a design by Fuccio, 
the principal residence of the Hohenstaufen Kings, and occasionally 
of those of Anjou. In lf>40 Don Pedro de Toledo (p. 46) 
transferred the different courts of justice to this palace, where 
they remain to this day, whence the name / Tribunali. A visit 
to them affords an admirable insight into the Neapolitan national 
character. The prison of La Yicaria, of evil repute, is under 
the jurisdiction of the criminal court. The *Porta Capuana 
bears the coat of arms of Ferdinand I. of Arragon, its founder, 
but was restored and re-decorated with sculpture in 1535, on 

Protestant Cemetery. NAPLES. 4. Route. 57 

the entry of Charles V. It was designed by the Florentine 
Oiuliano da Maiano, and is one of the finest Renaissance gate- 
ways in existence. The towers on each side bear the inscriptions 
'L'Onore' and 'La Virtu' respectively. 

Outside the gate are situated the Cemeteries (C'ampi Santi), 
of which the new, l'/o M- from the gate, deserves a visit (one- 
horse carr. thither from the gate and back, l'/ 2 — 3 fr.J. It was 
laid out by the French, and extended in 1837 at the time of 
the cholera. The situation is very beautiful , commanding 
delightful views of Naples, the sea. and Vesuvius, on which 
the black lava streams of 1850 and 1855, which threatened to 
destroy the villages of S. Jorio and Somma, may distinctly be 
recognised. The cemetery contains comparatively few monuments 
of individuals, but a large number erected by guilds and so- 
cieties, many of them imposing, but displaying little taste. 

The Church, built in the form of a Doric temple, stands on an eminence ; 
in the tribune a Pieta by Gennaro Cali. At the back of the church a rect- 
angular space enclosed by a Doric colonnade; in the centre a colossal statue 
of Religion by Tito Angelini, erected in 1836. In this hall are the entrances 
to 102 private chapels, beneath which arc the family vaults. In the vicinity 
stands the small Cainichin monastery of S. Ferdinaitdo, in the (Gothic style. 
On the \V. slope, in the rear of a marble pyramid to the memory of Giro- 
lamo Ruffo, are the graves of several eminent men; the composer Xiccolo 
Cingarelli (d. 1837), the surgeon Francesco Petrunti, the scholars Giuseppe 
del Re and Raffaele Liberatore, etc. 

The cemetery presents a most animated and interesting spec- 
tacle on All Souls' Day (Nov. 2nd). — The old cemetery (campo 
santo vecchio) is equally distant from the town (the main street 
is quitted before the Porta Capuana is reached, by the 2nd 
turning to the 1.). It is now used for the interment of the 
poor only, for which two extensive enclosed courts with 365 
vaults, one for every day in the year, are spt apart. 

The Protestant Cemetery, adjoining the small Laryo di 
S. Maria delta Fede, outside the Porta Capuana, is well laid out 
(from the gate 5 min. in a straight direction; at the end of the 
square the Vico Cavalcatore to the 1. leads to the Largo della Fede 
on the r.; entrance 1. of the church, fee !/ 2 fr. J . Numerous English, 
American, German, Russian, and other names may be recognised. 

The Margravine Elizabeth of Ansbach-Baireuth (Lady Berkeley, d. 1828) 
is interred in the same grave with her son and her friend Sir William 
Gell. Lady Coventry, wife of General W. Pepe (d. 1865). The poet Matthias, 
near the entrance, etc. 

From the Porta Capuana the broad Strada Carbonara leads to 
the r. (as the town is approached) to S. Carlo all' Arena, whence 
to the 1. beyond the Largo delle Pigne the Museum may be 
reached. Where the street contracts, to the r. rises * S. Giovanni 
a Carbonara (PI. 54), erected in 1344 from a design of Mamccio 
and enlarged by King Ladislaus, whose *monument, the master- 
piece of Andrea Ciccione, erected by his sister Johanna II. in 
1414, stands at the back of the high-altar. Above is the eques- 

58 Route 4. NAPLES. Cathedral. 

trian statue of Ladislaus; in a recess beneath, a sarcophagus 
with the king in a recumbent posture, receiving the benediction 
nt' a bishop; underneath, Ladislaus and Johanna; the whole is 
supported by statues which represent the virtues of the deceased. 
The Chapel del Sole, behind this monument, contains the "Tomb nf 
Sergianni Caraceiolo, favourite of Johanna II., murdered in 1432, also by 
A. Ciccione. Inscription by Lorenzo Valla. The frescoes, scenes from the 
life of Mary, are by Leonardo da Bisuccio of Milan, one of the last pupils 
of Giotto. - The chapel of the C'araccioli Rossi, 1. of the high-altar, a cir- 
cular temple from the design of Girolamo Santacroce, contains statues of 
4 apostles. The monuments of Galeazzo to the 1., and of Colantonio Carac- 
eiolo opposite are by Scilla and Dom.d'Auria respectively. — The Sacristy 
contains frescoes of Sew Testament scenes by Vasari, 1546. The chapel 
of the Sonima family at the opposite end of the church, now depository 
of archives, is adorned with fine frescoes. — Near S. Giovanni a Carbonara 
was once the arena for gladiator-combats, of which, in the time of Johannal. 
and King Andreas, Petrarch was a horror-stricken spectator. 

And now back to the Tribunali and to the r. through the 
busy Str. de' Tribunali, which , running parallel with the 
Str. Trinita Maggiore and its prolongations, also terminates in 
the Toledo. The small square of S. Gennaro on the r. is soon 
reached, the column in which was erected after the appalling 
eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (p. 108). On the summit is the 
bronze figure of the saint by Finelli ; beneath, the inscription: 
'Divo Januario patriae regnique prsestantissimo tutelari grata 
Neapolis civi opt. mer. excitavit.' 

The flight of steps ascends to the cathedral (principal entrance 
in the new Str. del Duomo). 

The ^Cathedral (PI. 46), il Duomo, or t'Arcivescovado, with its 
lofty towers and pointed arches, was commenced in 1272 by 
Charles I. of Anion, from a design by Masuccio, on the site of 
a temple of Neptune, and completed by Robert, grandson of the 
founder, in 1316. In 1446 the church was almost entirely 
destroyed by an earthquake, and subsequently rebuilt by Al- 
phonsoT. Since that period it h;is undergone frequent alterations 
and restorations, the last in 1837. It still, however, retains 
many of its original characteristics. 

The edifice is a basilica, the aisles of which have a Gothic vaulting. 
The ceiling-paintings of the nave are by Santafede (of a square shape) and 
Vuiri'iuio da Forti (oval)-, the frescoes on the upper part of the lateral walls 
are by Litea Giordano and his pupils. St. Cyril and St. Chrysostom are by 
Solimena. Over the principal entrance ;::e the tombs of (1.) Charles I. of 
Anjou and (r.( Charles Martel, King of Hungary, eldest son of Charles II. 
and bis wife Cleinentia, daughter of Rudolph of Hapsburg, erected by the 
viceroy Olivarez in 1599. — The 2nd Chapel (Brancia), next to that of 
St. Januarius fsec below), contains the tomb of Cardinal Carbone, by 
Bamboecio; then in the chapel of the C'araccioli the monument of the 
cardinal of that name (d. 1668). 

At the back of the transept, to the r. is the entrance to the Chapel 
of the Minutoli (open 6—8 a. m. only), constructed by Masuccio, the upper 
portion adorned with paintings by Tommaso dei Slefani in the 13th cent, 
(frequentlv retouched), the lower part by an unknown master ; monument 
of the cardinal by Bamboccio; altar by Pietro dei Slefani. — The ad* 

Santa Restituta. NAPLES. i Route. 59 

joining Tocca Chapel contains the tomb of .St. Asprenas, one of the first 
bishops of Naples. 

Beneath the high-altar the richly decorated Shrine of St. Januarius, 
with ancient columns and beautiful marble covering; within is the tomb 
of the saint ; facing it, to the 1., the kneeling figure of the Cardinal Oliviero 
Carafa, who erected the chapel in 1492 — 15t)6. — Fresco on the ceiling of 
the choir by DomenicMno, the Adoration of the Angels. — The Gothic 
chapel of the Capece Galeota, to the 1. of the high-altar, contains an ancient 
Byzantine painting, Christ between St. Januarius and St. Athanasius. — 
In the transept, by the door of the sacristy, the tombs of (r.) : Innocent IV 
Id. 1254 at Naples), erected by the Archbishop Umberto di Montorio in 
1318, restored in the 16th cent. ; Andreas, King of Hungary, who was 
murdered by his queen Johanna I. at Aversa, as the inscription records : 
; Andrese Caroli Uberti Pannonise regis f. Xeapolitanorum regi Joannse 
uxoris dolo laqueo necato Ursi Minutili pietate hie recondito* 1 ; (1.): Pope 
Innocent XII. (Pignatelli of Naples; d. 1696). — In the following Chapel 
(de 1 Seripandi) : Assumption of the Virgin, by I'ielro Perugino (1460). — 
Then the entrance to Santa Restituta (see below). — In the 2nd chapel : 
Entombment, a relief by Giovanni da Nola ; above it St. Thomas, by 
Marco da Siena. — In the vicinity is the Font, an ancient basin of green 
basalt, with Bacchanalian thyrsi and masks. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the 1., and accessible (fee i/o it. I 
from it by a door in the 1. aisle, is the church of * Santa Resti- 
tuta (PI. 71), a basilica with pointed arches, occupying the site 
of a temple of Apollo, to which it is probably indebted for the 
ancient Corinthian columns in the nave. 

The foundation, erroneously attributed to Constantine the Great, dates 
from the 7th cent. In the 17th cent, it was restored. In the Chapel 
S. Maria del Principio, at the farther extremity, to the 1., an ancient 
mosaic of the Virgin with St. Januarius and Sta. Restituta, restored in 
1322, and considered the earliest in Naples; whence the name 'del Principio'. 
On the lateral walls two remarkable bas-reliefs from an altar-screen, sup- 
posed to date from the 8th cent., each in 15 compartments; to the 1. the 
history of Joseph ; to the r. above, St. Januarius, then Samson; beneath, 
St. George. — At the back of the high-altar the Virgin with St. Michael 
and Sta. Restituta, by Silvettro Buono. — The small dome of the chapel 
S. Giovanni in Fonte to the r., alleged to have been erected by Constantine 
in 333, formerly the baptistery of the church, is adorned with mosaics 
of the 13th cent.: Christ, the Virgin, etc. — The altar-piece, the Baptism 
of Christ, by Silvestro Buono (?). — On the ceiling of the nave a fresco 
by Luca Giordano: the body of Sta. Restituta conveyed by angels in a boat 
to Ischia. 

Opposite the entrance to Sta. Restituta, in the r. aisle of 
the cathedral, is the * Chapel of St. Januarius, called Cappella 
del Tesoro (may be visited most quietly towards 12, the hour for 
closing the church). It was commenced in 1608 in consequence 
of a vow made during the plague of 1527, and completed in 
29 years at a cost of a million ducats. The white marble front, 
with two large greenish columns, bears the inscription : Divo 
Januario e fame bello peste ac Vesuvi igne miri ope sanguinis 
erepta Neapolis civi patrono vindici.' 

It forms a Greek cross, richly decorated with gold and marble, contains 
8 altars, 42 columns of broccatello, magnificent doors, 5 oil-paintings on 
copper by DomenicMno, and several frescoes of scenes from the life of St. 
Januarius. The first four representations, however, alone (tomb of the saint ; 
his martyrdom ; resuscitation of a youth ; sick persons healed by oil from 
a lamp which had hung before the tomb of the saint) are entirely by 
DomenicMno, who along with Guido Reni and Lan/ranco, intimidated by 

60 Route 4. NAPLES. 8. FUippo Neri. 

the threats of their jealous Neapolitan rivals, Spagnoletto and Corenzio, 
abandoned the task of painting the dome. — The Sacristy of the Tesoro 
contains pictures by Stanzioni and Luca Giordano ; a costly collection of 
ecclesiastical vestments and sacred vessels; the silver bust of S. Januarius, 
executed for Charles II. in 1306 ; 45 other busts in silver of the patron 
saints of the city, and other valuable relics. — In the tabernacle of the 
high-altar, which is adorned with a carefully covered relief in silver 
representing the arrival of the saint's remains, are preserved two vessels 
containing the blood of St. Januarius (S. Gennaro), Bishop of Benevento, 
who according to tradition was exposed to lions in the amphitheatre of 
Pozzuoli by order of Diocletian in 305. These animals, however, crouched 
submissively at his feet. Dracontius, proconsul of Campania, or his de- 
puty Timotheus, then caused the holy man to be beheaded, and his 
remains were interred at Pozzuoli. Under Constantine the Bishop St. Severus 
caused the body to be conveyed to Naples and re-interred in the church 
of St. Januarius extra Moenia. Shortly after this a woman brought him 
two phials containing a quantity of the saint's blood, which immediately 
became liquid as he received it. In 817 the remains of St. Januarius were 
conveyed to Benevento, thence in 1 159 to Monte Vergine, and finally at 
the time of a plague in 1497 solemnly transported to Naples by the Arch- 
bishop, Cardinal Alessandro Carafa, and deposited in the cathedral. 

The Liquefaction of the Saint's Blood is the greatest festival of Naples 
and takes place three times annually during several successive days (1st 
Sunday in May, Sept. 19th, and Dec. 16th). The protection of the saint is 
invoked during seasons of war or distress, and especially during eruptions 
of Mt. Vesuvius. A number of old women, the reputed descendants of 
S. Gennaro, occupy the place of honour on these occasions. Delay on the 
part of the saint to work his miracle occasions profound disappointment 
to the eagerly expectant throng, and calls forth a torrent not only of 
prayers and lamentations, but also of the wildest threats and reproaches, 
to which of course the saint invariably yields. 

Adjoining the cathedral, and faring the Largo Donnaregina 
and the Str. Angelica, is the extensive Archiepiscopal Palace, 
erected in the 13th cent., entirely restored by Cardinal Filo- 
marino in 1647. In the great hall is preserved an ancient Nea- 
politan almanack, found in the 18th cent, in the walls of S. 
Giovanni Maggiore. 

Farther on in the Str. Anticaglia are the remains of an 
ancipnt Theatre, once apparently of considerable extent, of which 
two arches still exist. 

We now return to the Str. de' Tribunali. After a walk of a 
few yards, the small Luryo (ierolomini is seen on the r., with 
the church of S. Filippo Neri (PI. 47), or de' (ierolomini, erected 
in lf>92, and overladen with ornament. 

Over the principal entrance : Christ and the money-changers, a large 
fresco by Luca Giordano ; high-altar-piece by Giovanni Bernardino Siciliano ; 
lateral paintings by Corenzio. The sumptuous chapel of S. Filippo Neri, 
to the 1. of the high-altar, contains a ceiling-fresco by Solime/ia; and that 
of St. Francis of Assisi (4th chap, to the 1.) a painting by Guido Reni. 
Near the latter, at the base of a pillar in the nave, is the tombstone of 
the learned Giambattista Vico, b. at Naples 1670, d. 1744. The sacristy 
(entrance to the l.'i also contains paintings. The neighbouring monastery 
possesses a valuable library and MSS. 

A short distanc ■ farther, to the r., is situat j d S. Paolo Maggiore 
(PI. Ii7), opposite S. Lorenzo, occupying the site of an ancient 
temple of Castor and Pollux, of which two beautiful Corinthian 
columns and a portion of the architrave are still to be seen. 

8. Lorenzo. NAPLE.S. 4- Route. 61 

The church was destroyed by an earthquake in 1(388, and rebuilt 
three years later from a design by the Theatine Grimaldi; it 
contains numerous decorations in marble, and paintings by Co- 
renzio, Stanzioni, Marco da Siena, and Solimena. 

In the 4th chapel to the 1. the monument of Cardinal Zurlo (d. 1801), 
with a statue. The 5th chapel contains cabinets in which 52 relics of 
saints are preserved in velvet and gold cases. In the 2nd chapel to the 
1. the monument of the minister Donato Tommasi (d. 1831). In the 
passage to the sacristy is an old copy of Raphael's Madonna del Pesce. 
The cloisters are said to occupy the site of the ancient theatre in which 
Nero appeared as an actor. They possess 24 ancient granite columns. 
During the Roman period this was the central point of the city. 

On the opposite side of the street, in the small square of 
this name, is situated the Gothic church of * S. Lorenzo, com- 
menced by Charles I. of Anjou in 1266, to commemorate his 
victory over King Manfred at Benevento (p. 172). and completed 
by Robert in 1324. The site is that of the ancient BasiUcn 
Auyustalh. The plan was designed by Maylione, a pupil of 
Niccolo Pisano, but was altered by Masvccio the younger, in the 
style peculiar to that architect. 

The three statues of St. Francis, St. Lawrence, and St. Antony, and the 
bas-reliefs on the high-altar are hy Giovanni da Nola ([11%); St. Antony, 
in the chapel of that saint in the 1. transept, on a gold ground, and the 
Coronation of King Robert are by Maestro Himoiit di Martino of Siena. 
Jesus and St. Francis, a large picture over the principal entrance, is by 
Vincemo Corsu. In the choir behind the high-altar, entering to the v., 
are the monuments of: (1) Catherine of Austria, first wife of Charles Duke, 
of Calabria (d. 1323), with pyramidal canopy and adorned with mosaics, 
by Afasuccio; (2) Johanna di Durazzo, daughter of Charles of Durazzo, 
and her husband Robert of Artois, both of whom died of poison on the 
same day, July 20th, 1387. Beneath are three Virtues, above them two 
angels drawing aside the curtain. On the opposite side: (3) Mary, the young 
daughter of Charles of Durazzo, killed at Aversa. The two latter monu- 
ments are also by Masuccio. By the entrance of the church, to the i\, the 
tombstone of the' naturalist Giambattista della Porta (1550—1616). 

The cloisters contain the tomb of Ludovico Aldemoresco, by 
Bamboccio (1414). In the chapter-house are represented 'al fresco' 
all the saints of the Franciscan order. Tn 1343 Petrarch resided 
in this monastery; and Boccaccio, when in the church of S. Lo- 
renzo, beheld the beautiful princess whose praises he celebrates 
under the name of Fiammetta. 

In the direction of the Toledo, to the I., is situated S. Pietro 
a Maiella (PI. 69"), in the Gothic style, erected by Giovanni 
Pipino di Barlettn, favourite of Charles II. (d. 1316; his tomb 
is in the 1. transept). In the adjacent monastery is established 
the Conservatory of Music (PI. 6), founded in 1537. It has 
produced a number of celebrated composers (e. g. Bellini) and is 
now presided over by Mercadante. A number of MSS. of Paesiello, 
.Tomelli, and other eminent masters are preserved here. From 
this point the Largo Mercatello (p. 46), adjacent to the Toledo, 
is reached. 

t)2 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

IV. The Museum (PL 9). 

In the upper part of the town beyond the Mercatello, in the 
Piazza Cavour and the new Strada di Capodimonte, rises the 
**Museo Nazionale, formerly termed Museo Reale Borbonico, or 
yti Studj. It was erected in 1586 by the viceroy Duke of Ossuna 
as a cavalry-barrack, and in 1615 ceded to the university, which 
was established there until 1780, when it was transferred to the 
Gesfi Vecchio. Since 1790 it has been fitted up for the reception 
of the royal collection of antiquities and pictures, to which in 
1816 Ferdinand I. gave the name nf Museo Reale Borbonico. The 
history of the edifice is recorded on twelve marble tablets recently 
built into the wall of the vestibule. 

Here are united the older and more recent collections apper- 
taining to the crown, the Farnese collection, those of the palaces 
of Portici and Capodimonte, and the excavated treasures of Her- 
culaneum, Pompeii, Stabiae, and Cum*. This aggregate collection 
is one of the finest in the world; the Pompeian antiquities and 
objects of art in particular, as well as the bronzes from Hercu- 
laneum, are unrivalled. -J- 

The Museum is open daily, 9 — 3 o'clock ; on Sundays and 
Thursdays gratis, on other days adm. 1 fr. ; gratuities forbidden. 

The director, Commendatore Giuseppe Fiorelli, is now engaged 
in re-arranging the collections, so that a perfectly accurate enu- 
meration is at present unattainable. There is as yet no catalogue 
except for the medals, the weapons, and the inscriptions. Custo- 
dians stationed at different parts of the building readily give 
information when applied to; most of them speak French. 

Permission to copy is obtained by strangers on showing their 
passports at the Segreteria (entered by the second door, on the 
second floor ; public entrance to the library on the first floor, 
p. 7'2), where a similar permission may be procured for Pompeii 
and Psestum. Free tickets for Pompeii (p. 113) are also to be 
had here. 

A room to the r. by the vestibule contains casts, models, 
photographs, and copies of the objects in the museum, which 
are sold at fixed prices, discount, however, being allowed on 
large purchases. A catalogue of these articles may be procured. 
Sticks and umbrellas deposited at the first door on the 1. ; tickets 
sold at the second door. 

The following is a sketch of the general arrangements : 
A. Ground Floor. 
Kight Side: 1st and 3rd doors, ancient frescoes (p. 63); 2nd 
door, through the court, inscriptions and several 

t The following letters indicate the origin of the different objects: 
B. Borgia collection, C. Capua, C. A. Amphitheatre of Capua, L'u. Cum*, 
F. Farnese collection, H. Herculaneum, I.. Lucera, il. Minturnse, N. Naples, 
P. Pompeii. Pz. Pozzuoli, S. Stabise, 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 63 

large sculptures (p. 65) ; also Egyptian antiquities 

(p. 66). 
Left Side: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd doors ancient marble statues 

(p. 66); beyond them large bronzes (p. 69). 
B. Entresol. 
Hight Side: Mediaeval works of art (p. 70); beyond, ancient 

crystal (p. 70); farther on, terra rottas (p. 70). 
Left Side: Cuma?an antiquities (p. 71). 

0. Upper Floor. 
Kight Side : To the right and left copies of Poinpeian pictures 
( p. 71 ) ; to the right, library of the papyri (p. 71 ); 
to the left, engravings (p. 71); facing the en- 
trance, pictures (p. 71; Italian). 
Immediately opposite: Library [p. 72). 

Left Side: To the right, precious relics (p. 73); to the left, 
coins (p. 73); beyond them, the Museum Sant- 
angelo (p. 74) and vases (p. 7f>); directly oppo- 
site, pictures (p. 73: Neapolitan and foreign); 
beyond, small bronzes (p. ?!')). 
The lower passage contains the following statues of the 
Farnese collection: r., by the entrance, Alexander Severus ; 1., 
by the entrance , a Melpomene from the theatre of Pompey at 
Rome, erroneously restored as Urania. By the staircase, r. Flora; 
1. Genius of the city of Rome. At each of the two doors leading 
to the court two figures with toga; by the stair-case two river-gods. 
On the stair-case above, two Venuses from the theatre at Hercu- 
laneum. The description of the different storeys always begins 
on the right (West) side. Thus A. r. signifies 'on the ground- 
floor, to the right , B. 1. 'on the entresol, to the left', and 
so on. 

Collection of Ancient Mural Paintings 
from Herculancum, Pompeii, Stabia-, etc. 
The arrangement of the paintings has recently been completed. 
They occupy nine rooms and a corridor, being grouped in ac- 
cordance with their subjects. The numbering is still unfinished. 
The frescoes are, with the exception of painted vases and 
mosaics, the only specimens of ancient painting which have 
come down to us, and therefore of extreme value. They are our 
sole informants with regard to the ancient style, colouring, and 
treatment of light and shade. Many of them are beautifully con- 
ceived, and executed with an easy, masterly touch, comprising 
landscapes, historical and mythological subjects, genre-paintings, 
architectural drawings, animal and fruit-pieces. Although mere 
decorative paintings of a small provincial Roman town, they 
suffice to prove how thoroughly the profession was imbued with 
artistic principles. Some of the representations may be copies 

64 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

from celebrated or favourite pictures, but the style is such as 
entirely to preclude the idea that they may have been mechanic- 
ally copied or stencilled. The rapid, easy execution and absence 
of minute detail prove that they were intended for effect and 
not for close inspection. Their state of preservation of course 
varies very much. 

1st Room: Architectural mural decorations. Most of the represen- 
tations placed along the wall on the 1. side, the narrow wall at the back, 
and the farther portion n( the wall on the r. are from the Temple of Isis 
at Pompeii. 

2nd Room : Animals , fruit , still-life , attributes of gods, etc. — En- 
trance hence to the gallery of inscriptions (p. 65). The visitor now returns 
through the 1st Room to the principal collection. 

The following rooms contain the mythological and genre re- 
presentations. Their enumeration is in the order denoted by 
the Roman numerals. 

3rd Room: XV. Apollo and Diana. Head of Medusa. XVI— XVIII. 
Sea-gods. On the window-wall Phryxus and Helle. Two glass tables ex- 
hibit a well-arranged collection of colours found at Pompeii. XIX. Ari- 
adne and Bacchus. XX. Sacrifice to the Lares. XXI, XXII. Sacrifice to 
Isis and representations in the Egyptian style, from the Temple of Isis at 
Pompeii. XXIV. Cimon nourished from the breast of his daughter Perone 
(a favourite subject with modern artists, known as 'Caritas'). jEneas wound- 
ed. The Trojan horse. Scipio and the dying Sophonisbe. 'XXVI. Medea 
brooding over the murder of her children. 

4th Room : XXVIII. Hercules supported by Priapus and Omphale. 
XXIX. Perseus delivering Andromeda. XXX. Drunken Hercules and Om- 
phale. Below it, Hercules, Dejanira , and the Centaur Nessus. "XXXI. 
Finding of Telephus (from Herculaneum) ; below it , a paintress ; guitar- 
player; musicians; "attiring of a bride; Dioscuri. 'XXXIV. Orestes 
before the murder of his mother. XXXV. Comedy scenes. XXXVI. Chastise- 
ment of Dirce bv Amphion and Zethus (same subject as the Farnese Bull, 
p. 65). XXXVII. Theseus after the slaughter of the Minotaur. XXXVIII. 
Scenes from the forum of Pompeii, school, hawkers, etc.; man and wife 
(portraits). Caricature of jEneas, Anchises, and Ascanias represented with 
dogs' heads. Pensive Muse. XXXIX. Ulysses unrecognised by Penelope. 
"Abduction of Briseis from the tent of Achilles. "Achilles being taught the 
lyre by Chiron. XL. Sacrifice of Iphigenia (from the 'House of the Tragic 
Poet'). "Orestes and Pylades in presence of Iphigenia at Tauris. — Adjacent 
to this room is the 

5th Room. Mosaics. On the entrance - wall by the pillar : Theseus 
killing the Minotaur, three copies. Farther on, to the r. : in the centre, 
actor trained by a poet; on the 1. and r. comedy scene (by Dioscurides of 
Samos, according to the inscription). Under the window: Egyptian land- 
scape. — Principal Wall : The Graces ; Phryxus and Helle ; Theseus and 
Peleus ; chained dog with the warning 'Cave Canem' (from the threshold 
of the 'House of the Tragic Poet', p. 124); "Garland with Muses; '"Acratos 
riding on a lion; wild cat with a partridge. — The visitor now retraces 
his steps, and continues to follow the arrangement of the pictures. 

6th Room: '"XLI. Rope- dancing Satyrs. "XLII. Centaurs. "Dancing 
Satyrs and Bacchantes. XLIII. Rope-dancing Satyrs. "XLV. Represen- 
tations of Cupid , among them Cupid as a shoemaker. "XLVI. Zephyrus 
and Chloris. XLIX. Venus and Mars, several representations . Venus 
and Cupids. LII. Triumphal procession of Bacchus. Bacchus and Ariadne. 
'LIU. Dancers. 

7th Room (more ancient paintings from the tombs of Ruvo, Gnatia, 
Paestum, Capua): LVIII. Mercury as conductor of the dead. Corpse-dance. 
LIX. Samnite warriors in full armour, from a grave at Peestum. Gorgon 
head with Messapian inscription. LX. Narcissus in different attitudes. 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 65 

LXI — LXVII. Landscapes from Pompeii, Hercuianeum, and Stabiee (118 in 
number). LXVIII. Vulcan showing Thetis the arms of Achilles. LXX. 
.Tupiter crowned by Victoria. *LXXI. Five drawings on marble (mo- 
nochromic) from Hercuianeum : Achilles (?) in a quadriga ; CEdipus with 
Antigone and Ismene; Latona with Niobe and other women of Cadmus 
playing at dice (purporting to be by Alexandros of Athens); Scene from » 
tragedy; Theseus delivering the bride of Pirithous from a Centaur (?). 

To the above collection belongs a corridor containing Nos. 
LXXIII — LXXXV. (entered from the vestibule of the Galleria 
Lapidaria, or by the 3rd door in the great vestibule). 

Ornamental Painting s from Pompeii and 
Her culaneum. 

This collection consists of mural decorations, some of them with raised 
stucco designs and reliefs. They are executed with great delicacy and 
precision and deserve careful inspection. To the r. in the semicircular 
space, LXXXI. Valuable collection of decorative masks. LXXXII. Pillar 
with paintings from the Fullonica (fuller's workshop) at Pompeii (p. 130), 
showing the different processes of the handicraft. The owl is the symbol 
of Minerva, the tutelary goddess of fullers. 

The second door to the r. leads to a court, which, as well 
as the other opposite to it, is filled with reliefs, statues, and 
architectural fragments, many of which are well worthy of the 
attention of connoisseurs. From this court the visitor enters the 

Oallery of Inscriptions. 
(Galleria Lapidaria, or Sala del Toro). 
This gallery is also accessible from the second room of the ancient 
pictures (p. 64). The vestibule, as well as the principal saloon, contains 
a large collection of Latin inscriptions (upwards of 2000 in all), Oscan 
inscriptions, and scratched (gra.fiti) and painted (dipinti) mural inscriptions 
from Pompeii. The arrangement is in accordance with the geographical 
situation of the different localities of discovery. They consist chiefly of 
epitaphs, but also comprise laudatory and other inscriptions. Among the 
bronze tables are the celebrated tables of Heraclea (p. 194), bearing on one 
side regulations as to temple lands in the ancient Greek language, and 
on the other (inscribed at a later date) the Italian municipal laws pro- 
mulgated by Ceesar in B.C. 46. A cabinet contains leaden pipes, inscrip- 
tions from aqueducts, etc. — The following large sculptures are also placed 
here: to the 1. at the entrance a statue of Tiberius, to the r. Atreus with 
the son of Thyestes (?). Farther back the celebrated group of the *'' Farnese 
Bull, a work of Apollonius and Tauriscus, the Rhodian sculptors, once in 
possession of Asinius Pollio, and found in the Thermse of Caracalla at 
Rome in a sadly mutilated condition. The restoration of the group was 
superintended by Michael Angelo. The new parts are the head of the bull, 
the Antiope, with the exception of the feet, the upper parts of Dirce, and 
considerable portions of Amphion and Zethus. The two sons of Antiope, 
Amphion and Zethus, avenge the wrongs of their mother by binding Dirce, 
who had succeeded in withdrawing the affections of Lyeus from Antiope, 
to the horns of a wild bull. Antiope in the background exhorts them to 
forgiveness, and not in vain. The boldness and life of the group, originally 
hewn out of a single block of marble, is unrivalled in any other work 
of the same character. Opposite, on the r. side of the room, stands the 
so-called ""Farnese Hercules, also from the Thermse of Caracalla, The legs 
were at first wanting, but were restored by Delia Porta ; 20 years later the 
genuine missing portions were discovered, and having been presented by 
Prince Borghese to the King of Naples, were restored to the statue. Accord- 
ing to the inscription it is the work of the Athenian Glycon, and was 
probably executed under the early emperors. 

Bjedekeb. Italy III. 4th Edition. 5 

66 Routed. NAPLES. Museum. 

From this hall a stair descends to the 

Egyptian Antiquities. 

The first room contains inscriptions from the catacombs of 
Rome and Naples, built into the walls. — This department of 
the museum was greatly enriched by the purchase of Cardinal 
Borgia's collection at Velletri. The arrangement is complete, with 
the exception of the numbering. 

2nd Room. In the centre Serapis, found in the vestibule of the 
Serapeum at Pozzuoli. Isis, a marble statuette from the, temple of Isis 
at Pompeii, holding a sistrum and the keys of the "Nile, with interesting 
traces of gilding and painting. On the short wall, Horus with dog's head. 
The cabinets contain a valuable collection of small statuettes. 

3rd Eoom. In the centre: Granite tombstone with 22 figures in 
relief and hieroglyphics. Egyptian priest, so-called 'Pastophorus' , in 
black basalt. By the walls six glass cabinets with all kinds of trinkets, etc. 
To the r. of the entrance, the second immured tablet is the so-called 'Table 
of Isis\ from the temple of Isis at Pompeii. By the window-wall papyrtis 
with Greek writing, dating from the 2nd or 3rd cent., which With 40 others 
was found at Memphis in a chest of sycamore wood, and contains names 
Of the canal labourers on the Nile. Opposite the entrance a number of 
mummies of men, women, and children, some of them divested of their 
cerements and admirably preserved (the skull of a female mummy still 
retains the hair). Also the mummy of a crocodile. 

The 1. (W.J half of the ground-floor contains, besides the 
bronzes, a valuable collection of 

Marble Sculptures , 
arranged in a large corridor with three branches, and in 8 rooms 
situated beyond the second branch. Some of the statues are 
furnished with notices of their subjects. Numbering unfinished. 
The description begins from the first door on the 1. It should, 
however, be observed that the re-arrangement of this department 
has begun and will probably occupy a number of years. The 
visitor must therefore be prepared for occasional difficulties in 
his search for the chief objects of interest, f 

1. First Coreidor. To the left: Captive barbarian from the Forum 
of Trajan in Rome ; in front of it a recumbent Faun ; r. Mars reposing ; 
1. Head of Minerva; Daughter of Balbus. Of the noble Balbus family, 
who occupied the highest rank at Herculaneum, there are also on the same 
side the father, mother, son, and 4 daughters, all from the theatre of Her- 
culaneum (a 5th daughter in the museum of Dresden). To the right : 
Wounded gladiator ; 1. Balbus the father ; in front of the latter, Dying Gaul 
( these and 3 other small recumbent statues on this side belong to the Per- 
gamenian school, the same style as that of the dying Gaul in the Capitol 
at Rome) ; r. Warrior charging ; 1. Daughter of Balbus ; r. Hunter ; 1. Viciria 
Archas, mother of Balbus -, in front of her a fallen giant ; r. two men killing 
a pig ; 1. Marcus Nonius Balbus , according to the inscription , praetor and 
proconsul (the head replaced at a later date, but also ancient) ; in front of 
him a fallen Amazon -, r. Dying Amazon ; 1. Daughter of Balbus ; r. Farnese 
Gladiator (head and limbs modern); 1. Captive barbarian; in front of it, a 

-t The intention of the director is to collect the finest works in the 
3rd corridor, with a view to illustrate the history of ancient sculpture. 
Two rooms are destined for reliefs. Most of the statues are arranged in 
accordance with their subjects; thus, types of gods, Greek and Roman 
portrait-statues, municipal statues, genre figures. 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 67 

Dying Gaul ; r. Doryphorus (copy from Polycletes) ; 1. Head of Silenus ; r. and 
1. Harmodius and Aristogiton, assassins of Hipparchus, son of Pisistratus, 
copied from a pair of ancient Greek statues. The other pair of Gladiators 
are of the Roman period. 

2. Second Cokridor. Portico dei Balbi, so called from the equestrian 
statues of SI. Ron. Balbus, the son, according to the inscription, prcetor and 
proconsul, also from the basilica at Herculaneum, like that of his father, 
at the other end of the passage Then by the wall to the 1. a female 
figure, restored as Euterpe. Youthful Pan. In the niche the so-called 
Farnese Bacchus. Jupiter Ammon. Portrait-statue of SI. Holconius Rufus, 
military tribune, and five times chief magistrate of Pompeii. By the nar- 
row wall, Antinous as Bacchus. By the other long wall, Diana as Luna ; 
Paris ; head of Zeus; statue of Neptune (?) ; bearded head of Bacchus:, 
Nereids on a sea-monster ; female statue ; Hercules ; "Satyr carrying the 
young Bacchus on his shoulders; "Pan teaching a boy the flute; Athene 
(imitation of the most ancient style); Socrates; Hesiod (commonly termed 
a Homer); deity of the town. Venus of Capua. It is a matter of doubt 
whether this statue, which is very similar and scarcely inferior to that of 
Venus of Slelos in the Louvre, is properly restored; the Cupid, the base, 
and the arms of the goddess are modern additions. — In the hall to the 1. 

^schines, formerly erroneously called Aristides, an admirable robed statue 
found in the villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. Opp., Antinous. In the 
passage Bacchus and Cupid ; bearded Bacchus ; head of Slercury ; Hercules 
and Omphale ; Ganymede with the eagle ; masks of river-gods (on the opp. 
side also) ; between them Ceres. On the narrow side, a colossal Minerva. 
By the second long wall : Apollo ; Diana with a dog and fawn ; 'Orestes 
and Electra; the priestess Euniachia, a statue erected to her by the fullers, 
from the building founded by her at Pompeii (p. 121). Beyond the door,- 
Livia, from the Pantheon at Pompeii. Cupid (copy from Praxiteles); 
Mercury ; small sitting Cybele ; two satyrs with grapes. 

Going straight on, and then through a door on the r., the 
visitor reaches the 

3. Room of the Kallipygos. To the right, Torso of Bacchus, of 
delicate workmanship; Bacchanalian sarcophagus. '"Psyche of Capua, 
sadly mutilated ; she was probably represented with her arms bound behind 
her back, being tortured by Cupid. On the narrow side of the room three 
Provinces personified, a relief. On the third side 3 sarcophagi ; the second 
with a representation containing numerous figures : Prometheus and the 
human form as yet unendowed with life, surrounded by the beneficent 
gods ; then heads of Athene and Bacchus ; on the third sarcophagus a 
Bacchanalian procession. Built into the wall above, a "Greek relief: Helen 
persuaded by Aphrodite to follow Paris who with Eros stands before her. 
In the centre of the room the "Venus Kallipygos, so-called from the part 
towards which she is looking, from the imperial palaces at Rome ; the 
head, breast, right leg, right hand, and left arm are new. 

4. Room of the Coloured SIaeble Statues. By the entrance- 
wall, r. Priestess of Isis; 1. "bearded head; mosaic with Bacchanalian 
dances. By the wall on the r. side two kneeling barbarians, between them 
Apollo. Wall of the egress: Isis; Ephesian Diana. Window-wall: small 
Meleager of rosso antico. In the centre : Apollo in a sitting posture, of 

5. Room of the Moses contains several statues of Muses from the 
theatre at Herculaneum, an Athene, and an Apollo sitting. In the centre 
a beautiful marble vase with a relief: Mercury, followed by dancing Bac- 
chanalian figures, entrusting the infant Bacchus to the care of a nymph. 
This, according to the inscription , the work of Salpion of Athens, was 
found at Formia, and long served as a font in the cathedral at Gaeta. 
Beneath this vase a fountain-coping, with 7 deities : Jupiter, Slavs, Apollo, 
iEsculapius, Bacchus, Hercules, Mercury. In the walls near the window two 
small reliefs, 1. "Apollo with the Graces (?). r. seven female figures, with 
accompanying names, a dance; the three Graces (Euphrosyne, Aglaia. Tha- 


68 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

liaj ; then Ismene. Cyc.iis, and Eranno, probably three nymphs, and another 
smaller statue of Telonncsus, probably the name of a town. 

6. The Venus Room contains a "series of mediocre statues of Venus. 
In the centre Cupid, around whom a dolphin is coiled. Adonis. A Venus 
and Cupid .on the enclosure of a fountain, which is adorned with a re- 
presentation of wine-pressing. 

7. Hall of the Flora. To the left, 'Athene, both arms new; breast 
and back concealed by the jegis, helmet on the head with a sphynx, on 
each side a Pegasus. In the centre the "Farnese Flora from the Thermje 
of Caracalla at Rome. Head and limbs were replaced by Giacomo della 
Porta, subsequently by Albaccini and Taglioni, and it is not improbable 
that the statue originally represented a Venus. To the right, Juno. In 
front the "Mosaic of the battle of Issus. This, almost the only historical 
represensation of antiquity which we now possess, was found in the house 
of the Faun at Pompeii. It represents the battle at the moment when 
Alexander, whose helmet has fallen from his head, charges Darius with his 
cavalry, and transfixes the general of the Persians who has fallen from his 
wounded horse. The chariot of the Persian monarch is prepared for retreat, 
whilst in the foreground a Persian of rank, in order to ensure the more 
speedy escape of the king, who is absorbed in thought at the sight of his 
expiring general, offers him his horse. 

8. Atlas Room. In the centre the kneeling figure of Atlas with the 
globe, the head new; date prior to Hadrian. To the right, statue of an 
orator. The nomenclature of many of the busts is uncertain. Socrates, 
Euripides, Lycurgus, Homer (head modern), Apollonius, Solon, Seneca, male 
portrait-statue. By the wall of the egress, female robed statue with modern 
head ; Antisthenes. R. of the door, Zeno. Daughter of Niobe. Window-wall, 
Euripides. Bearded Dionysus (erroneously termed Plato). Archimedes. 

9. Tiberius Room. In the centre a colossal bust of Tiberius, on a 
pedestal from Pozzuoli, with reliefs representing 14 towns of Asia Minor 
which Tiberius re-erected after an earthquake; the names are inscribed 
under each figure. Adjacent, to the r., the double statue of Herodotus and 
Thucydides; to the 1. a second double statue. Then two candelabra and 
hvo vases with Bacchanalian representations. R. of the entrance a bust 
of Bacchus. A consular statue. So-called 'Vestal bust. R. wall, Indian 
Bacchus; Concordia; bust of Themistocles (?); bust of Vespasian. Wall 
of the egress: head of Hercules ; head of Alexander ; head of Jupiter from 
the temple of Jupiter at Pompeii. "Head of Juno, a, severe archaic 
work , most probably a copy of the ideal Juno conceived by Polycletes. 
Another head of Juno , between which and the former an instructive 
comparison may be drawn. Terence ; Varro (both doubtful) ; bust of Hesiod, 
erroneously termed Homer. 

10. "Room of the Painted Statuettes. The most interesting ob- 
ject here is the small "Artemis from Pompeii (imitation of the most ancient 
style) in the centre, bearing many traces of colouring; then a crane devouring 
a lizard. Busts of Antoninus Pius and his consort. Along the walls in 
cabinets many small figures, busts, and reliefs, interesting from their 

The 2nd corridor is now entered, and then to the 1. the 

11. "'Third Corridor, containing busts and statues of the emperors. 
To the 1., in a niche, a colossal sitting statue of Augustus. Bust of Hadrian. 
Armed statues of L. Verus and (in a niche) Marcus Aurelius. "Head of a 
hero. — Beyond this is the entrance to a side-room containing numerous 
reliefs : 1. "Orpheus and Eurydice in the infernal regions with Hermes ; r. 
a nymph resisting a Satyr; to the r. of the last, Attic tomb, in the archaic 
style; numerous small marble reliefs along the walls, among which the 
round discs which depended as ornaments between the columns of a 
colonnade deserve notice ; in the centre a large vase of porphyry. — 
Returning to the great corridor : 1. head of a Barbarian of the time of 
Trajan. Caligula, caparisoned statue ; in the niche a statue of L. Verus. 
Farther on, Trajan, in armour. Colossal bust of Antoninus Pius. Last 
statue but one on the 1., Drusus, found in the so-called Augustcum at 

Museum. NAPLES . 4. Route. 69 

Pompeii. In the centre: Stooping Sphynx as the support of a table, from 
Pompeii. Sitting statue of Agrippina. 

At the S. end of the principal corridor is the entrance to 
the collection of 


Most of these are from Herculaneum, a few only from Pom- 
peii. Their respective origins are easily distinguished by their 
different colours. The pressure of the masses of lava has im- 
parted a dark, black-green hue to the bronzes of Herculaneum, 
while those of Pompeii, which were much more exposed to 
moisture, are oxydised, and of a light, bluish green colour. This 
collection is unrivalled, and deserves careful and repeated in- 
spection. The number and magnitude of the works, the delicate 
treatment adapted to the material, and the skilful mastery of 
difficulties of every kind in casting and chiselling convey to us 
an idea of the high development of this branch of art in ancient 
times. — The arrangement was commenced in I860 and com- 
pleted in all the essentials in the autumn of 1871 (first room 
and numbering unfinished). 

I. Room. Colossal horse's head, found at Naples, for- 
merly in the Pal. Colobrano (S. Angelo), and long supposed to be an emblem 
of the city. 'Horse from Herculaneum, appertaining to a quadriga, and 
reconstructed from minute fragments. Two deer. Several animals once 
employed as fountain-figures. 

II. Room. Statuettes. In the centre: Bacchus with a satyr (eyes 
new, as in many of the others). Two equestrian statuettes, an Amazon 
and Alexander the Great. 'Venus arranging her hair, with a mirror in her 
left hand. Flying Victory. Angling fisherman, a fountain-figure. Boy with 
goose. Apollo. — Beyond the last, the "Dancing Faun found in the large 
house at Pompeii termed 'Casa del Fauno' (p. 130). In front of it a so- 
called ''"Narcissus, perhaps a Pan listening to Echo and a "Silenus disguised 
as a lamp-bearer. — The window-cabinet contains a number of boys with 
pipes or masks, which have served as fountain-figures. Youthful Bacchus. 
— E. Wall: all kinds of small fancy figures, chiefly gladiators. Small 
busts : Demosthenes, Epicurus, Zeno, Augustus. Hands with quaint 
emblems, used as amulets to avert the danger of the 'evil eye'. Above 
these Lares (household gods), youths adorned with wreaths and bearing 
horns and vases. — X. Wall. Statuettes of gods : Hercules, Victoria, 
Fortuna, Bacchus, Mercury, Minerva, Jupiter, etc. — W. Wall: Etruscan 
mirrors, the backs adorned with incised representations. 

III. Room. In the centre : 'Drunken Faun. On each side a copy 
of the statue of a runner. To the r. beyond these : "Apollo playing the 
lyre, from Pompeii, a work of the archaistic school of Pasiteles, about the 
beginning of the Empire. To the 1. beyond it, Apollo shooting. On the 
r. before the latter, "Head of Apollo in the archaic style. "'"Mercury 
reposing. To the 1. before the last, so-called "Head of Seneca. Sleeping 
Satyr. — Window Wall : "Diana shooting, half-figure. Female portrait- 
statue. 'Boy-priest ('camillus'). In the corner a portrait-head. — E. Wall : 
Female portrait statue (Livia, consort of Augustus). Between the doors, 
Archytas of Tarentum, on a console, with bandaged head ; above it a head 
of Ptolemy Philadelphus. "Three dancing women from the theatre of Her- 
culaneum (three corresponding figures on the opposite side). Head of the 
philosopher Democritus. On a console above it, a male portrait-head. — N. 
Wall : Female head with hair restored (erroneously termed Ptolemy Apion). 
On a console, portrait-head. Statue of Augustus as Jupiter. Head of a 
so-called Berenice (eyes and lips lined with silver when discovered). 

70 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

.Statue of Claudius as Jupiter. Female portrait-statue as a 'Pieta' from 
Herculaneum (Cyrias, mother of Balbus?). — W. Wall. Between the doors, 
Heraclitus (?). On a console, the young Tiberius. Three dancing women 
from Herculaneum (see above). On a console, "Head of a bearded Dio- 
nysus, commonly termed Plato. Above it Lepidus. In the corner, a. 
statue of Nero Drusus, sacrificing. 

IV. Room. Weapons. In the centre * Equestrian statue of Nero, 
found in the forum of Pompeii. — Window Wall : Bust of Scipio Afri- 
canus. Two Greek busts, perhaps destined for a palaestra, with pro- 
jecting supports for wreaths ; the first is furnished with the name of the 
artist, Apollonius, son of Archias of Athens. Bust of C. Csesar. The 
cabinets contain a choice collection of weapons (detailed descriptions 
hung up at the entrance). — E. Wall : Greek armour, helmets, and 
weapons, found at Peestum, Ruvo, and Canosa. — N. Wall: Helmets of Gla- 
diators and richlv decorated armour from Pompeii and Herculaneum. 
Above these, 283! Helmet, with the Taking of Troy; 288. Shield with 
head of the Medusa. In the corner a bust of Sulla. — W. Wall : Italian 
weapons ; among them a cock, a Samnite boundary figure, from Pietrabbon- 
dante (Bovianum). Catapult balls, etc. 

B. Entresol. 

The Entresol (Ital. Mezzanino) contains on the r. the col- 
lection of mediaeval objects, and beyond it the ancient crystals 
and terracottas, on the 1. the Cumaean collection and the ' Con- 
trollaria', or office of the superintendent of the Museum. 

Mediaeval Collection. 

1st Boom. In the centre: a large bronze tabernacle, the design 
ascribed to Michael Angelo, executed by Jacopo Siciliano. To the ]., bust. 
in bronze, of Ferdinand of Arragon. Busts in marble of Paul III. and 
Charles V. , after Canova. — 2nd Room: The Cassetta Farnese in bronze, 
adorned with six beautifully cut stones, representing Meleager and Ata- 
lanta, procession of the Indian Bacchus, circus games, Amazon combat, 
conflict of Centaurs and Lapithse, battle of Salamis ; it was executed by- 
Giovanni de' Bernardi. The cabinets contain weapons, seals, carved amber 
and ivory, etc. 

The following room contains the 

Collection o f Ancient Crystal, 

the most extensive collection of this description, showing the numerous 
methods and forms of the ancient treatment of this material. Several 
panes of glass from the villa of Diomedes should be inspected; also a 
beautifully cut glass vase with white Cupid and foliage on a blue ground, 
which was found in a grave in the street of the tombs at Pompeii. — 
Contiguous is the 

Collection of Ancient Terracottas. 

The 1st Room contains common earthenware articles for household 
use. Among them are vessels with beans, wheat, almonds, egg-shells, 
plums, olives, etc. from Pompeii. In the passage to the second room to 
the 1. Artemis, r. Medusa. — The 2nd Room contains several Etruscan 
sarcophagi with recumbent figures on the lids. Numerous lamps. In the 
cabinets figures of small animals : horses, pigs, birds, also hands and other 
votive-offerings such as are still to be seen in Roman Catholic churches : 
infant in swaddling-clothes, legs, right half of a human figure. By the 
window to the r. a colossal Juno, 1. Jupiter. By the door of egress to the 
r. the fragments of the celebrated Volscian relief from Velletri, in the 
ancient Italian style with traces of colouring : warriors on horseback and 
in chariots. — The 3rd Room : Lamps , goblets, votive limbs ; in the ca- 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 71 

binets opposite the door interesting heads, detached, and in relief, also 
statuettes. By the window two comic figures, in front of them a small 
painted statuette. By the wall of egress, fine reliefs and statuettes of 
terracotta i also moulds employed in their execution. 

The central storey contains the 

C umaean Collection, 

purchased by the Prince of Carignano from the property left by the Count 
of Syracuse "and presented to the Museum. It consists principally of vases, 
terra cottas, and bronzes found at Cumee. By the window of the .first room 
an elegant jewel-case in wood, containing several golden ornaments. In 
the second room tables with small objects in bronze, gold, and crystal ; a 
remarkable head in wax from a Roman tomb. Among the vases at the win- 
dow is a fine specimen of the more recent Attic style, representing a battle 
between Amazons and Greeks. 

C. Upper Floor. 

On the v. (E.)side the visitor first reaches two rooms oppo- 
site each other, containing 

Copies of Pompei an Pictures. 

These merit careful inspection, as they serve to convey an idea of the 
brilliant colouring of these ancient walls when they were first discovered. 
The room on the r. contains a cabinet in which the skull, arm, and im- 
pression of the bosom in lava, of a girl found in the Villa of Diomede. 
are preserved. Model in wood of the 'House of the Tragic Poet' at Pom- 
peii (p. 124). Models of the amphitheatres of Pompeii and Capua. — The 
room on the 1. contains models of the temples of Psestum. 

Library of the Papyri, 

discovered in a villa near Herculaneum in 1752. The rolls were completely 
encrusted with carbonaceous matter, and it was only by slow degrees that 
the real value of the discovery was appreciated. About 3000 were discovered, 
of which 1800 only have been preserved. The thin layers of the bark (librii 
of the papyrus plant, each of the breadth of one column of writing, are pasted 
together and rolled round rods; the difficulties encountered in disengaging 
them may be imagined. The task was long attempted in vain, until the 
Padre Piaggi invented an ingenious machine by which the difficulty was 
removed. Several of these may be seen at work in the second room. 
Several hundred of these libri have been by degrees unrolled, and whatever 
of their contents has escaped obliteration has been published in theVolumina 
Heracleensia. The library belonged to a follower of the Epicurean school, 
and the recovered MSS. are by no means of general interest. They con- 
tain treatises in Greek of the Epicurean Philodemus, a contemporary of 
Cicero, on nature, music, rhetoric, etc. — Opposite to these rooms is the 

Collection of Eng raring $ , 

to inspect which permission must be obtained from the custodian. This 
room also contains (r.) an admirable *Bust of Dante in bronze, said to 
have been taken from a cast procured from the poet's features after death. 
On the walls are hung drawings and sketches by great masters, among 
whom are Caravaggio, Raphael, Michael Angelo (group from the frescoes 
in the Cap. Paolina at Rome), etc. 

In a straight direction the visitor next enters the 
Picture Gallery , Section I., 
containing master-pieces of the Italian, as well as the Neapolitan 
school. The collection has recently been re-avranged. Catalogues 

72 Routed. NAPLES. Museum. 

in each room. The 7th and 8th rooms comprise the chefs d'ceuvre, 
the contents of the others are of subordinate importance. 

1st Room: "5. Claude, Quay at sunset; 12. School of Raphael (1), Fe- 
male Portrait ; 27. Sassoferrato, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 28. Raphael, 
Madonna delle Grazie, a copy ; 55. R. Mengs, Ferdinand IV. ; 47. Patmini, 
Charles III. visiting Benedict XIV 

2nd Room; 1. Bernardo Strozzi, Portrait of a Capuchin; 9. School of 
Correggio, Head as a study. 

3rd Room: 11. School of Leonardo, John the Baptist; 15. Same School, 
Madonna with two donors of the picture ; 17. Cesare da Sesto, Adoration of 
the Magi, the master's chief, and one of his latest works ; "18. Leonardo's 
School, Christ and John; 19. Madonna; 29. A. Bronzino, Portrait. 

4th Room: 1. School of Mantegna, Suffering Christ ; 4. Aloise Vivarini, 
Madonna enthroned ; 9, 13, 16, 22, 25, 28, etc. Canaletto, Views of Venice ; 
19. Tiberio Tinelli, Portrait. — Hence in a straight direction to the 5th, r. 
to the 7th and 8th rooms. 

5th Room: 5. Parmeggianino, Madonna (tempera) ; 15. Giorgione (?), 
Portrait of the Principe di Salerno ; 79. L. Lotto, Madonna with St. Peter 
the Martyr : 25. Titian (?), Penitent Magdalene ; 27. Palma Vecchio, Madonna, 
saints and donors ; 33. Pinturicchio, Assumption ; "35. Bart. Vivarini, Ma- 
donna enthroned ; 36. Breughel, Penitent deceived hy the world (tempera) ; 

36. School of Perugino, God the Father; 40. Parmeggianino, Portrait of 
his daughter; "51. Mignaud, Portrait of Fenelon. 

6th Room: 4. Velasquez, Drinkers, a copy ; :: 14. Mantegna, S. Eufemia; 

37. Holbein ('.'), Portrait of Erasmus. — Hence back to the 4th room, from 
which the collection of the master-pieces is reached. 

7th Room: 1. Salvator Rosa, Christ and the scribes; 2. Sebastian del 
Piombo, Mary watching the sleeping infant Jesus ; 3. Correggio, Madonna, 
termed la Zingarella or del Coniglio (rabbit) ; 4. Van Dyck, Portrait ; 
*o. Titian, Danae ; 6. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine; 8. Titian, 
Portrait of Paul III; 9. Correggio (?), Descent from the Cross; 11. Titian, 
Portrait of Philip II.; 12. Spagnoletto, St. Sebastian; 13, 14. St. Jerome, 
by the same master ; 15. Guercino, Magdalene ; 16. Rubens, Monk. 

8th Room to the 1. : "17. Giulio Romano, Holy Family, termed Madonna 
del Gatto; 18. Raphael (?), Portrait of the Cavaliere Tibaldeo ; 19. Giovanni 
Bellini, Portrait ; "20. Raphael, Holy Family (Madonna col divino amore) ; 
21. Andrea del Sarto, Copy of Raphael's portrait of Leo X., with Cardinals 
(jiulio de' Medici and Uossi (at Naples this picture is declared to be the 
original) ; 22. Raphael, Portrait of Cardinal Passerini ; 23. Luini, Madonna ; 
24. And. del Sarto (V), Portrait; "25. Adoration of the Magi; "26. Christ on 
the Cross, both by Netherlands masters ; 27. Breughel, The seven blind 
men; "28. Nativity (date 1512), ascribed to Diirer; 29. Perugino, Madonna ; 
31. B. van Eyck, St. Jerome extracting the thorn from the lion; "32. M. 
Venusti, Copy of Michael Angelo's Last Judgment, before its disfigurement; 
"33. Giovanni Bellini, Transfiguration; 34. Holy Family, master unknown; 
35. Parmeggianino, Lucretia ; 36. Santafede, Jladonna 'and saints. 

Returning to the exit, the visitor may in passing ascend the 
central staircase in order to obtain a glimpse at the principal 
hall of the 

Library , 
which contains numerous ancient Italian works (200,000 vols., 4000 MSS.) 
and valuable Greek MSS. (among which Lycophron's Alexandra, Quintus 
Smyrnseus, date 1311), and Latin (e. g. Charisius Ars grammatica, the 
tialf burned MS. of Festus, a mass-book with beautiful miniatures of fruit 
and Cowers, termed la Flora) ; catalogues for the use of visitors. In the 
principal hall the custodian awakens a remarkably fine echo. Books may 
not be removed from the library, but within its precincts the use of three 
at a time is permitted. Readers enter from the exterior (not through the 
museum) by the last door reached by the stair to the r. in the museum 
buildings. JIany complaints of the defectiveness of the arrangements are made. 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 73 

The third staircase leads to the W. wing, containing the 
second section of the picture-gallery and several important col- 
lections. The first room to the r. contains 

Precious Relics. 

In the cabinets to the r. are preserved glasses and dishes containing 
various 'articles of food from Pompeii : nuts, figs, dried oil, eggs, a loaf 
with the name of the baker Q. Cranius. Also other objects in common 
use : remnants of nets and cables, a purse, colours found in a shop at Pom- 
peii, small ivory figures. By the window, the celebrated "Tazza Farnese, 
a vessel of onyx with beautiful reliefs, the largest of its kind. On the ex- 
terior a large Medusa's head in relief; in the interior a group of 7 persons, 
referred by some to the occasion of an inundation of the Kile, by others to 
a festival in spring, instituted by Alexander at the foundation of Alexandria. 
The first table near the window contains the cameos, or stones cut in pro- 
minent relief, many of which are very remarkable : 32. Head of Medusa ; 
29. Zeus in conflict with the Titans, by Anthemion ; 65. Portion of the group 
of the Farnese bull, which it is intended to restore to its place. The se- 
cond table contains the intagli, or stones on which the designs recede : 209. 
Ajax and Cassandra; 213. Apollo and Marsyas; '392. Bacchante. The third 
table contains unfinished stones; the fourth a considerable collection of 
rings, among which a gold ring with male portrait, possibly that of Brutus, 
with the artist's name Anaxilas. The cabinets by the 1. wall contain : 
1. Objects in silver; vases, one with the apotheosis of Homer; a small sun- 
dial. 2. Beautiful tripods; vases with foliage; rings from the Greek tombs 
in the Basilicata at Armento ; silver plate from the house of Meleager at 
Pompeii, e. g. two "goblets with Centaurs. Also, under glass, golden trin- 
kets from a tomb of Tarentum. 3, 4. Gold ornaments : a chain, bracelet, 
necklace, ring and ear-rings, found with a female skeleton in the house of 
Diomedes at Pompeii ; bracelets, brooches, a beautiful necklace from Ruvo, etc. 

The next door to the r. leads to the Reserved Cabinet, to which men 
only are admitted ; it contains mural and other paintings not adapted for 
public exhibition, and numerous bronzes of considerable artistic merit. 

The first room to the 1. contains the 

Collection of Coins (Medagliere), 

which within the last few years has been suitably and tastefully arranged, 
and is of almost unrivalled value and extent. The first room contains the 
Greek, the second and third the Roman, the fourth the mediseval coins, and 
the fifth the dies of the Neapolitan mint, together with a numismatic 
library. Catalogues are placed over the glass-cases for the use of visitors. 
In the corners are busts of distinguished numismatists. — The Museo S. 
Angelo (p. 74) adjoins the 5th room. 

In a straight direction a door leads to the 

Picture Gallery , Section II., 

containing principally works of the later Italian and Neapolitan masters, 
very inferior in attraction to the first section. 

1st Room: 38. Romanelli, Sibyl; 55. Ann. Caracci, Rinaldo and Armi- 
da; 62. Lavinia Fontana, Christ and the Samaritan woman ; 69. Caravaggio, 
Judith and Holophernes; 71. Ann. Caracci, Landscape with St. Eustachius. 

2nd Room: 2. And. del Sarto, Madonna, a copy; 22. Mazzola, Pieta, 
and saints; 26. Lor. di Credi, Madonna; 29. Florentine School, Madonna en- 
throned; 30. Matteo da Siena, Murder of the Innocents; 31. Sandro Botti- 
celli, Madonna ; 33. Flor. School, Pope Liberius founding S. Maria Maggiore 
(ad nives) at Rome; 43. Bom. Pidigo, Portrait. 

3rd Room: 6. Zingaro (?), Madonna and saints; "31. Simone Papa Sent:, 
St. Michael with SS. Jerome and James and the donors. 

4th Room, adjoining the last on the r.. contains Byzantine works, 
badly preserved and freely restored. 

"4 Route I. NAPLES. Museum. 

5th Room; 5. Cri*ruolo, Adoration of the Magi; 51. L. Giordano, St. 
Xavier baptizing the Indians (painted in 3 days) ; 53. Traversa, Girl with 
doves ; 54. Pacecco di Rosa, Madonna ; 61. Spagnoletto, Joseph and the In- 
fant Christ; *67. I.uca Giordano, Madonna del Rosario ; 68. Don Gargiulo, 
Smokers. — A large cabinet, in the centre from the sacristy of the mona- 
stery S. Agostino degli Scalzi contains objects artistically inlaid with ivory 
and glass. A second cabinet contains majolicas. 

6th Room. Netherlands and German Schools: 7. Portrait of a cardinal, 
master unknown ; 12. Breughel (?), Landscape ; 22. Amberyer (?), Portrait ; 
41. Luc. Cranach, Christ and the adulteress. 

7th Room: 1. Rembrandt, Portrait; 12. Xetherl. School, Portrait; 36. 
Crucifix, after Van Duck; 61. Collection of miniatures of the House of 
Farnese ; ''73. Mierevelt, Portrait; 78. Ferd. Bol, Portrait; 85. Van Geulen, 
Portrait; 89. Nabusson, Villa Medici at Rome. 

In the 6th Room of the paintings is the entrance to the 
Collection of Vases, distributed in seven different rooms, a collection 
of great extent and value, and especially rich in specimens of the 
large and magnificent vases of Lower Italy. The want of a cata- 
logue renders it difficult to afford very precise information. The 
specimens placed on pillars and those contained in the four last 
rooms are the finest in the collection. The rooms are paved with 
ancient mosaics, restored where defective. — As Greek vase- 
painting was adopted by the Etruscans and modified according 
to the national taste, so this branch of art was strongly influenced 
in Lower Italy, and especially in Apulia, by the peculiar character 
of its inhabitants. The vases here are of large and imposing 
dimensions, and the artists, not satisfied with the mere de- 
coration of painting, have frequently superadded reliefs to adorn 
the neeks and handles. Their aim appears to have been to cover, 
if possible, the entire surfaee of the vase with the colours. The 
different series of representations, one above another, which they 
bear, are often without connection ; or the centre is occupied by 
an architectural design and surrounded irregularly with groups. 
The figures are generally of a somewhat effeminate mould, and 
great care appears to have been employed in representing rieh 
but scantily folded garments. The representations are for the 
most part borrowed from the ancient Greek tragedy, but in some 
cases scenes of a more Italian character are encountered. The 
period of their manufacture is believed to have been shortly 
subsequent to the reign of Alexander the Great. 

A circular apartment is next entered, in which a door to 
the 1. leads to the 

Santang elo Collection, 

formerly preserved at the Palazzo Santangelo (p. 56), purchased in 1865 by 
the city of Naples, and confided to the care of the Museo Nazionale. 

1st Room: Vases. In the cabinet in the centre, a vase with Baccha 
nalian scene ; r. a vase from Ruvo with the death of Meleager. In the 
middle of the cabinet on the 1., Bacchanalian feast with an armed dancing 
woman. To the r. by the window a "cabinet with drinking-horns (rhyta). 

2nd Room: Terracottas and small bronzes. L. by the entrance a vasf 
from Nola, with the return of Hephcestus to Olympus. 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 75 

3rd Room: Collection of coins, one of the most extensive in Italy 
(about 43,000 in number), especially valuable on account of its ancient Ita- 
lian specimens. Catalogue by Fiorelli recently published. In the table by 
the window an interesting selection of l aes grave" and other Italian coins. 
By the window a vase with Pelops and CEnomaos. In the centre a vase 
with Orpheus in the infernal regions. By the wall of the egress, "Mercury 
and Spes, relief mosaics from Metapontum, unique of their kind. — The 
following rooms are not yet open to the public. 

The visitor returns hence to the first (circular) saloon of the 

Collection of Vases. 

1st Room: A variety of unpainted vases. Those preserved in the two 
cabinets opp. the entrance, and the three placed on pillars in front of them 
are specimens of the earliest stage of the development of this art. They 
are of a yellowish colour, ornamented with two rows of plants or animals 
of a brownish or black colour; the form round or oval. 

2nd Room: By the window two models of tombs, which serve to 
illustrate the manner in which the vases were discovered. As the orna- 
ments, weapons, etc. of the deceased were deposited with his remains in 
the tomb, so also were these vases which adorned his home ; in some 
cases, however, the nature of the subjects leads to the conclusion that 
they were manufactured for this express purpose. L. by the window, 
Battle of Amazons. R. by the egress, "Electra mourning at the grave of 

3rd Room: Dsedalus and Icarus. Death of Archemerus. 

4th Room: In the centre the largest 'vase yet discovered (from Ruvo), 
with a battle of Amazons and Greeks. By the window to the r. the cele- 
brated large vase of Darius from Canosa : Darius planning the conquest 
of Greece, above is Hellas, at whose side Athene and Zeus are stand- 
ing, beneath are the Persian provinces on which subsidies are levied for 
the war, with accompanying names. Adjacent, under a glass shade, "Leky- 
thos with reliefs of Marsyas and Apollo. On the 1. Patroclus. 

5th Room: By the window, "Destruction of Troy, "Battle of Amazons, 
"Bacchanalian sacrifice, all from Nola. 

6th Room: In the centre a large vase from Altamura, with Orpheus 
in the infernal regions. 

The second room of the small bronzes may be entered hence, 
or from the 7th saloon of the pictures (p. 64). Two large saloons 
beyond it contain 

Small Bronzes. 
This collection consists chiefly of household utensils, lamps, 
candelabra, tools of all kinds, musical and surgical instruments, 
weapons, etc., most of them found at, Pompeii. In extent and 
value it is without rival of its kind. It merits careful in- 
spection as serving admirably to convey an idea of the life and 
habits of the ancients. The destination of most of the objects 
is so evident as to require no explanation. The most valuable 
objects are generally placed in the centre of the rooms. 

1st Room: ' 'Candelabra from the villa of Diomedes, a small Bacchus 
riding on a panther, and a pilaster adorned with a mask and bucranion 
(skull of an ox), on a square pedestal ; the lamps hang from 4 branches ; 
those at present placed there are not the original. A large kettle and 
iron stocks from the gladiators' barracks at Pompeii, near which three 
skeletons were found. — 2nd Room: In the centre a fine "tripod; two 
"pitchers with double handles. Table-support with Victoria and trophies. 
A Bisellia (seat of honour) decorated with horses' heads, swans, and inlaid 

76 Route 4. NAPLES. Villa Nazionale. 

silver ornaments. A portable stove. — 3rd Room: a triclinium, or three 
dining-sofas, each for three persons (the table being placed in the middle). 
Three money-chests in the position they used to occupy in the Atrium of 
an ancient dwelling. 

V. Th e Posi lip o. 

The name is derived from that of a villa of the notorious 
epicure Vedhis Pollio, viz. [lausiXuTtov (i. e. 'sans-souci' or 'an 
end to care'). It subsequently came into the possession of 
Augustus, and the name was gradually extended to the entire 
eminence which bounds Naples on the W. It is now covered 
with charming villas, and the modern quarter of the city is ex- 
tending in this direction. The Posilipo may most conveniently 
be visited from one of two points, the museum, or the sea- 
side. We select the latter. These are also the point.; whence the 
routes lead to the places of interest mentioned in R. 5, with an 
excursion to one of which a visit to the Posilipo may be combined. 

We now proceed to describe the modern quarter of the city, 
stretching to the W. of the Toledo, and rapidly increasing in 

The *Villa Nazionale, formerly Villa Beale (PL C. D. 6), 
usually termed The Villa, situated in immediate proximity to 
the sea, affords the principal, and one of the most beautiful, 
promenades at Naples. Jt was laid out in 1780, and considerably 
extended in 1807 and 1834; it skirts the Riviera di Chiaia, and 
is about S/^ M. in length, but not more than 60 yds. in breadth. 
The grounds are laid out chiefly in the Italian style ; the avenue 
of oaks leading towards the sea is particularly beautiful. Among 
the trees a few palms will be observed. In the centre are 
several cafes. The sculptures intended for the decoration of the 
grounds, indifferent imitations of ancient and modern works, do 
not deserve inspection. In the principal walk is a large ancient 
granite basin from Pastum, brought from Salerno and placed 
here in 1825 to replace the celebrated group of the Farnese Bull, 
which was then removed from this spot to the Museum. To the 
r., farther on, is a so-called ^Pomfeiorama'' (adm. 1 fr.), con- 
taining views and photographs of Pompeii. In the centre of the 
promenade, the focus of the gay world, the music, etc., is a 
statue of Giambattista Vico, erected a few years ago. Farther 
on, to the r., rises a mediocre statue of P. Colletta, with long 
inscription, erected in 1866; then a small temple to the memory 
of Virgil (p. 80) and another to the 1. to that of Tasso. At 
the end of the garden, to the 1., is a terrace extending into the 
sea, affording a cool and delightful resting place, in the immediate 
proximity of the rippling waves, and commanding a magnificent 
prospect. The villa is almost deserted during the day, but 
presents a scene of the utmost gaiety and life at hours when 
the daily concerts (gratis) take place : in the colder season 4 — 6, 

Chiesa del Sannazaro. NAPLES. 4. Route. 77 

in summer9 — 11 p. m. In the evening, when illuminated by numer- 
ous jets of gas, enlivened by the music, and fanned by the cool 
sea-breeze, these grounds afford an admirable opportunity to the 
visitor of enjoying the charms of an Italian summer night. 

A large Aquarium, to be opened at the Villa Reale in 1873 (adm. 2 fr.), 
will form part of a 'Zoological Station' founded by the German naturalist 
Dr. Dohrn. Owing to the remarkable wealth of the fauna of the Mediter- 
ranean , it is expected that this will be one of the most interesting 
establishments of the kind. The upper floor contains laboratories and 
botanical investigations, to which scientific foreigners are liberally ad- 
mitted , and also a natural history library. 

The grounds of the villa in the direction of the Posilipo are 
terminated by an avenue of small trees. By the side of the 
carriage road a riding-path extends the entire length of the 
Chiaia. Towards sunset the corso, or principal promenade, takes 
place here. The number of the carriages is so great that in 
many places they are seen four abreast. Where the Str. di 
Chiaia divides, the Str. di Piedigrotta gradually ascends to the 
r. to the Posilipo, which it penetrates by means of the celebrated 
Orotta di Posilipo, and leads to Pozzuoli (p. 88). If an ex- 
cursion be made thither, this road may be taken in one direction, 
and the Str. Nuova di Posilipo, skirting the sea and described 
below, in returning. 

The Mergellina, a continuation of the Chiaia, is a long row 
of houses and villas on the slopes of the Posilipo facing the sea, 
intersected by the * Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which was com- 
menced in 1812, and continued as far as Bagnoli in 1832. As 
this road commands a succession of the most beautiful views, 
the traveller should on no account omit to visit it, which, when 
time is limited, he may do in going to or returning from 

About 5 min. walk from the point where the Str. di Piedi- 
grotta diverges from the Chiaia to the r., the road forms a curve 
in the direction of the sea. A short distance above this curve, 
to the r. (from the exterior scarcely recognisable), stands the 
Chiesa del Sannazaro, or S. Maria del Parto, on the side of a 
small estate which King Frederick II. of Arragon presented in 
1496 to the poet Jacopo Sannazaro (b. at Naples, 1458), for 
whom he entertained the highest regard. After his villa had 
been destroyed by the French in 1529, the aged poet caused 
the church to be erected by monks of the Servite order. It 
derives its appellation from his Latin poem 'De partu Virginis\ 
The church contains a high-altar and six chapels. In the 1st chap, 
to the r., St. Michael overcoming Satan, by Leonardo da Pistoja. The 
devil is represented with the features of a woman who was passionately 
enamoured of Diomedes Carafa, once Bishop of Ariano, and is popularly 
known as 'il diavolo di Mergellina'. Behind the high-altar is the monu- 
ment of the poet, executed by Fra Giovanni da Montorsoli from a design 
by Girolamo Santacroce. At the sides Apollo and Minerva, popularly be- 
lieved to be David and Judith ; on a bas-relief between them Neptune and 
Pan, with Fauns, satyrs, and nymphs singing and playing, an allusion to 

78 Route 4. NAPLES. Grotto of Sejanus. 

Sannazaro's poem 'Arcadia' ; above is the richly decorated sarcophagus with 
the bust of the poet which bears his academic name: Actius Sincerus. At 
the base of the monument is the inscription by Bembo : 
Da sacro cineri flores : hie ille Maroni 
Sincerus Musa proximus ut tumulo. 
It alludes to the poet's having imitated Virgil. His principal works are 
idyls, elegies, and epigrams in Latin. 

To the r., farther on, rises Villa Angri, then to 1. by the 
sea the picturesque ruins of the Palazzo di Down' Anna (erro- 
neously believed to be that of the Regina Giovanna), commenced 
in the 17th cent, by Fansaga for Donna Anna, wife of the viceroy 
Duke of Medina, on the site of a former palace of the princes 
of Stigliano, but never completed. The road, gradually ascending, 
winds between gardens and villas round the base of the hills ; to the 
1. the Laizareito (quarantine), the Villa Rocca Romana with hot- 
houses and a collection of animals, Rocca Matilda, and Villa Minutolo. 
At the entrance of the Villa de Metis, the so-called Palazzo delle 
Cannonate, a path diverges to the 1. and descends to the extre- 
mity of the promontory of Posilipo, where the small church of 
S. Maria stands on the site of a former lighthouse. Here a boat 
may be hired to convey the traveller back to Naples. The high 
road continues to the r. ; at the highest point a road unites with 
it on the r., leading to the Posilipo and Vomero (p. 83). A 
short distance farther, as a deep cutting is quitted, an open 
space is reached, disclosing a magnificent prospect of Bagnoli, 
Camaldoli, Pozzuoli, Baise, and Ischia. The road then descends 
on the W. side of the Posilipo, passing the so-called Grotta di 
Sejano, to the coast and Bagnoli, 3 3 / 4 M. from the Villa Reale. 

This 'Grotto of Sejanus' is a passage hewn through the rocky 
ridge near the sea by the Punta di Coroglio, upwards of 2/3 M. 
in length, 500 ft. longer than the grotto of Posilipo, and originally 
of greater height and width; in the side towards the sea are 
several openings for ventilation (fee 1 fr., the inspection occupies 
about 1/2 nr )- I* i s tne tunnel whose construction is ascribed by 
Strabo (V. 4) to M. Cocceius Nerva (B. C. 37), almost simulta- 
neously with that of the Julian harbour on the Lucrine lake by 
At. Agrippa. It is therefore an error to associate it with the 
name of Sejanus, as it is of much earlier origin. It has recently 
been cleared of rubbish and supported by walls, on which 
occasion an inscription was found, recording that the tunnel had 
been repaired by the Emp. Honorius about the year 400. At 
the E. extremity of this passage, especially by the rocky pro- 
montory of La Gojola the most beautiful views are obtained .of 
Xisida, Procida, Ischia, Capri, the bay of Naples, and a number 
of relics of antiquity. Close to the sea, in the direction of 
Naples and not visible from this point, is the so called Scuola, 
or properly Scnglio (rock) di Virgilio, perhaps originally a temple 
of Fortune, or of Venus Euplcea, to whom mariners offered sacri- 
fice after a prosperous voyage. The custodian conducts the visitor 

UtotUi di Posilipo. NAPLES. 4. Route. 79 

from the grotto to a vineyard in the vicinity (fee 30 — 50 c.J, 
whence a magnificent view is enjoyed, and the scattered frag- 
ments of the Pausilypon, or villa of "Vedius Pollio (p. 76) are 
partially visible, extending from the slope of the hill down to the 
sea and overgrown with myrtles, erica, and broom. The fish- 
ponds, in which the cruel Vedius was in the habit of feeding 
large lampreys with the flesh of his slaves, lay nearer the town. 
A small Theatre is also seen, which appertained to the villa of 
Lucullus, with 17 rows of seats hewn in the rock. Besides 
these are numerous other relics of the villas with which in ancient 
times the Posilipo was almost entirely covered. 

Opposite to the promontory of Coroglio rises the small rocky 
island of Nisida, the Nesis of the ancients, an extinct crater, 
which opens towards the S. On the N. side is a rock on which 
the Lazzaretto is erected, connected with the main land by a 
breakwater. The small harbour below serves for quarantine pur- 
poses: the building on the height is a bagno for criminals. The 
son of Lucullus possessed a villa on this island, to which Brutus 
retired after the murder of Ciesar in the spring of B. C. 44, 
and where he was visited by Cicero. He took leave here of 
his wife Portia on his departure for Greece , previous to the 
battle of Philippi. In the 15th cent., Queen Johanna II. poss- 
essed a villa on the island of Nisida, which was converted into 
a fort for the purpose of keeping the fleet of Louis of Anjou in 

The high road to Pozzuoli, diverging (p. 77 j from the Chiaia, 
ascends, following the Str. di Piedigrotta, and passing through the 
Orotta di Posilipo, a tunnel probably constructed in the reign of 
Augustus. It is mentioned by Seneca and Petronius, under Nero, as 
a narrow and gloomy pass. Mediaeval superstition attributed it to 
the magic arts of the poet Virgil I King Alphonso I. (about 1442) 
enlarged the opening by lowering the level of the road, and 
caused it to be ventilated. A century later Don Petro de Toledo 
caused the road to be paved ; it was again repaved and improved 
by Charles III. (1754), who left it in its present condition. The 
passage is about 1/2 M. in length, at the E. entrance 80^ — 90 ft. 
high, varying in the interior from 20 to 50 ft., in breadth 
25 — 30 ft., and always well lighted. Small chapels are situated 
at the entrance and in the middle for the use of the pious. 
On a few days in March and November the sun is in such a 
position as to shine directly through the grotto, producing a 
magic illumination. The Neapolitans frequently amuse themselves 
by raising a deafening shout when passing through the tunnel. 

Among the vineyards on the height, to the 1. of the entrance 
to the grotto, is situated the Tomb of Virgil, a Roman burial- 

80 Route 4. NAPLES. Lago d'Agnano. 

place or columbarium. The door of the vineyard is opened for 
the visitor, and a considerable number of steps ascended. A fine 
view of the bay and city is obtained from this point ; but the 
monument itself is of no great interest and its authenticity is 
doubtful. Admission 1/2 fr- eacn person, and a trifle to the 
attendant at the tomb and to the opener of the door. This 
digression occupies about 3 / 4 hr. 

The monument contains a chamber about 15 ft. square, with three 
windows and vaulted ceiling. In the walls are 10 recesses for cinerary 
urns, and in the principal wall, which has been destroyed, there appears to 
have been one of greater size. Probability and local tradition favour the 
impression that this was the last resting-place of the poet, who, as he 
himself informs us, here composed his immortal works, the Georgics and 
the iEneid, and who unquestionably possessed a villa on the Posilipo, and 
by his express wish was interred here after his death at Brundisium B. C. 
19 on his return from Greece. Petrarch is said to have visited this spot 
accompanied by King Robert, and to have planted a laurel, which at the 
beginning of the present century fell a prey to the knives of curiosity- 
mongers, and has since been replaced. It is on record that in 1326 the 
tomb was in a good state of preservation, and contained a marble urn with 
9 small pillars, the frieze of which bore the well-known inscription : 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 

Parthenope : cecini pascua, rura, duces. 
Of all this no trace now remains. In 1530, however, Cardinal Bembo's 
epitaph on the poet Sannazaro (see p. 77) proves that he believed in the 
genuineness of the tomb, on which the following inscription, which is still 
legible, was accordingly placed in 1554 : 

Qui cineres ? tumuli heec vestigia : conditur olim 

Ille hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 
The question may therefore be considered to be decided in favour of 
the prevalen belief, and the poet's name is thus inseparably connected 
with Naples and its fascinating environs. 

At the issue of the grotto of Posilipo is situated the village 
of Fuorigrotta, where several roads diverge. A new road to the 
r. leads to Orsolone and Capodimonte. The second leads to the 
village of Pianura (3 M.) at the foot of the hill of Camaldoli, 
with its vast quarries ; a third to the Lago d'Agnano and Astroni, 
and that in a straight direction to the small Bagnoli with warm 
springs, situated on the coast, on the road to Pozzuoli. At the 
W. end of Fuorigrotta is the small church of S. Vitale, contain- 
ing a simple monument to the distinguished philologist and poet 
Count Giacomo Leopardi, who died at Naples in 1837. The road 
to Pozzuoli (p. 88) runs hence in a straight direction, while the 
monotonous road to Agnano diverges to the r. and leads to the 
( 3 /4 M.) margin of the crater (one-horse carr. to Agnano and 
back 3 fr., to Astroni 31/2 — 4 fr.). The whole excursion cannot 
be accomplished conveniently in less than 3 — 4 hrs. 

The Lago d'Agnano is an ancient crater of irregular form, 
about 2 M. in circumference, once filled with water, but now 
drained. Little is said to have been gained by this operation, 
while the beauty of the landscape is sadly impaired. On its 
S.E. bank, where the road to Fuorigrotta diverges, are the Stufe 
di San Germano, ancient receptacles in which the warm sul- 

N. Martino. NAPLES. 4. Route. 81 

phureous vapour is collected for the use of patients (visitors 
pay !/•_> fr. each, but bargaining necessary). In the vicinity is 
the celebrated Qrottn del Cane, which, however, in the present 
age of discovery and science, no longer possesses its ancient 
interest. It derives its name from the circumstance that the 
ground and sides are so thoroughly impregnated with carbonic 
acid gas, that the fumes render dogs insensible in a few seconds, 
and produce a feeling of languor on human beings (here again 
extortion can only be obviated by previous bargaining). Dogs 
are provided for the exhibition of this somewhat cruel experiment, 
but the curiosity of the traveller may be sufficiently gratified by 
observing that a light is immediately extinguished when brought 
in contact with the vapour. Pliny (Hist. Nat. II. 93) mentions 
this grotto as : 'spiracula et scrobes Charonea mortiferum spiri- 
tum exhalantes in agro Puteolano'. 

From the grotto the road proceeds to ( 4 /2 M.) Astroni, the 

largest and most important of the volcanic craters in this region, 

upwards of 3 M. in circumference, and densely overgrown with 

holm-oaks and poplars. On the S. side it contains a small lake, 

and in the centre an eminence of trachytic lava. The crater 

has long been employed as a preserve of deer and other game 

for the royal chase. Access cannot be obtained without permission 

from the intendant in the Palazzo Reale (p. 40) at Naples. 

Owing to the badness of the road, driving is practicable only as 

far as the foot of the margin of the crater. The old road should 

therefore be ascended to the 1. to (t^M.) the large gate where 

the traveller shows his 'permesso'. Fee ife fr. Beautiful, but 

somewhat lonely park scenery. Riding pleasanter than walking. 

From the Museum the Strada dell' Infrascata (PI. D. B. 3), 

now named after Salvator Rosa, ascends the heights of S. Elmo 

and the Posilipo. At the base of these hills, and also farther 

up, donkeys, which by many are preferred to carriages, may be 

hired. The road ascends in zigzags. After 7 min. walk an 

open space is seen to the 1. From this point the new Corso 

Vittorio Emanuele, now in the course of construction, diverges 

to the 1., running considerably above the city, of which it 

commands an admirable survey. It terminates at the church of 

S. Maria di Piedigrotta, near the entrance to the Grotta di Posilipo. 

Walk thither from the museum about 1 hr., but pleasanter as 

a drive. From this road, after 8 min. walk, a steep path ascends 

to the r. to the Castel Sant' Elmo. The easier, but longer 

approach is by the Str. dell' Infrascata, which the traveller may 

prefer to follow. Where this road proceeds towards Antignano 

to the r., a path opposite, by a small chapel, ascends to the 1., 

and shortly afterwards turns to the 1., then to the r. (one-horse carr. 

for the excursion 3 — 3 ! /o fr. ; donkey 1 — l 1 ^ fr.). Pedestrians 

B/EDEKER. Italy III. 4th Edition. Q 

82 Route 4. NAFLE.s. Castel Sant' Elmo. 

may also ascend direct from the Toledo at the Largo della 
Caritd, hut the path is somewhat precipitous (donkey a /4 — 1 fr.). 

On entering the precincts of the fortifications, the visitor 
first proceeds to the Carthusian monastery of 

*S. Martino, not less remarkable for the beauty of its 
situation and the views it affords, than for the magnificence of its 
endowment. It was begun in 1325 by Duke Charles of Calabria, 
was almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th cent., and is adorned 
with pictures of the Neapolitan school. Since the dissolution of 
the monastery, custodians have been appointed to show the 
church (no gratuities). Part of the now deserted buildings is 
destined for the reception of a library, derived from all the 
suppressed monasteries at Naples. 

The Ascension on the ceiling of the nave and the 12 Apostles between 
the windows are by Lanfranco. Over the principal entrance a 'Descent 
from the Cross by Stanzioni (damaged), next to which Moses and Elias by 
Spagnoletto. The 12 Apostles above the arches of the chapels, by the same 
artist. Frescoes of the choir by the Cavaliere d'Arpino. The large Cruci- 
lixion by Lanfranco. Nativity, by Quido Reni (who died before the com- 
pletion of the painting). On the sides : to the 1., Communion of the 
Apostles, by Spaynoletto (in the style of Paolo Veronese), and Christ wash- 
ing the disciples' feet, by Caracciolo ; to the r., Last Supper by Stanzioni, 
and Institution of the Eucharist, by the pupils of P. Veronese. The marble 
decorations of the church, 12 different roses of Egyptian granite, after 
Cosimo Fansaga of Carrara, the beautiful mosaic marble pavement by 
Presti, and the high-altar by Solimena also merit inspection. The Sacristy, 
entered to the 1. from the choir, is adorned with intarsias by Bonavenlura 
Presto, and paintings by the Cavaliere d'Arpino, Stanzioni, and Caravaggio. 
Beyond it is the fesoro, containing as an altar-piece a "Descent from the 
Cross, the master-piece of Spagnoletto; on the ceiling Judith, by Luca 
Giordano, completed, it is said in 48 hrs., when the artist was in his 72nd 
year. The ceiling of the Chapter-house is adorned with a painting by 
Corenzio; other pictures by Arpino, Finoglia, Stanzioni, and Cambiaso. 
Hence through another small room to the 

■Cloisters, supported on each of the four sides by 15 columns of white 
marble , and adorned with numerous statues of saints. The "view 
from the belvedere of the garden embraces the city, the bay, and the fertile 
country as far as Kola and the Apennines. It is more limited than that 
from the summit of the fort, but more picturesque. 

The drawbridge is now crossed and the summit soon attained, 
where the officer on duty readily accords permission to enter. 

Castel Sant' Elmo (S76 ft.), formerly Sant' Erasmo, was 
erected by G'iacomo de' Sanctis under Robert the Wise (1343). Under 
Ferdinand I. (1458) it was termed Castello di S. Martino, after 
the neighbouring monastery, and considerably extended. In the 
16th cent, it was altered to its present form by Don Pedro de 
Toledo, and in 1641 some additions were made by the Duke of 
Medina. The vast walls, the fosses hewn in the solid tuffstone 
rock, its subterranean passages and ample cistern formerly ob- 
tained for it the reputation of impregnability, which it has 
long ceased to enjoy. The fort has been dismantled under the 
new regime and is employed as a military prison. A walk on 

Str. deW Infrascata. NAPLES. 4. Route, 83 

the ramparts affords a splendid panorama of the town and bay, 
and particularly of the district towards Misenum and Ischia. 

Instead of returning by the same route, the visitor is recom- 
mended to proceed along the height towards the sea. He may 
then either descend to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and by it 
reach the church of 5. Maria di Piedigrotta (p. 81), or continue 
to follow the road on the hill, leading through the Vico Belvedere 
and past the Villa Floridiana to the Vomero, where by the 
beautiful Villa Belvedere it unites with the road described below. 

The Strada dell' Infrascata, prolonged under different names, 
leads from the Museum, skirting the brow of the hill, to the 
extremity of the Posilipo. It intersects the small villages of An- 
tignano, Vomero, Posilipo, and Strato, and passes numerous villas 
and country-residences. The first half of the way towards Posilipo 
is entirely enclosed by walls, but beyond that point a succession 
of delightful views is obtained on both sides, over the town 
and bay and the W. environs. A walk as far as the projecting 
rock of the Posilipo occupies 2 hrs. ; thence to the Villa Reale 
1 hr. ; one horse carr., allowing time to visit S. Elmo and the 
Grotto of Sejanus (p. 78), 4 — 5 fr., an excursion strongly re- 
commended, as it conveys the best idea of the beauties of the 
environs (drive 2 hrs., visit to S. Elmo li/ 4 , to the Grotto of 
Sejanus 1 hr.). 

Half-a-mile from the Museum the Vico Arenella diverges to 
the r. towards the village of that name, situated on the height, 
the birth-place of Salvator Rosa in 1605, who terminated his 
chequered career at Rome in 1673. 

Running between garden-walls and continuing to ascend, the 
road next reaches Antignano, 10 min. farther. Shortly before the 
village is reached the road to S. Elmo diverges to the 1., and 
the main road soon divides, leading to Camaldoli to the r., whilst 
the route at present described proceeds to the 1. 

After a walk of !/i nr - more Vomero is reached, where the 
Villa Belvedere affords a delightful panorama of land and sea. 
A precipitous path, the Salita del Vomero, descends from this 
point to the Chiaia. Under the name of Strada Belvedere the road 
now skirts the heights of the Chiaia, passes the Villa Regina 
(v.), and leads to the summit of the Posilipo. Near the point 
where it turns towards the S., the Villas Ricciardi, Tricase, and 
Patrizi are beautifully situated. 

The Qrotta di Posilipo, or di Pozzuoli (p. 79), is attained after 
'/2 hr. walk from Vomero. Between Vomero and the sea the hill 
bears the name of Posilipo. The village of Posilipo is soon 
reached, whence the Salita di S. Antonio di Posilipo descends to 
the Mergellina, passing Virgil's Tomb (p. 79). 

The road continues on the height, leading in about 1 hr. 
to the Strada Nuova, from Posilipo through the village of Strato 


84 Route 4. NAPLE8. Camaldoli. 

nearly opposite the Punta di Coroylio. It affords an admirable 
survey of the country as far as the Lago d'Agnano, Bagnoli, Ca- 
maldoli, the Solfatara, Pozzuoli, the environs of Baize, the heights 
of Misenum, the island, of Procida, and the lofty peak of Epomeo 
in Ischia ; in the other direction, the town and bay. 

From the point where the road unites with the Str. Nuova 
di Posilipo, a walk of 10 min. more to the r. will enable the 
traveller to inspect the Grotto of Sejanus (p. 78). Thence back 
to the town is a distance of 3^2 M. 

** Camaldoli 

commands the most beautiful view near Naples, and perhaps 
the finest in Italy. The monastery, founded in 1525 by the 
Marchese di Pescara, the victor at Pavia, is situated on the E. 
extremity of the chain of hills bounding the Campi Phlegraei 
on the N., and is the highest point near Naples (1476 ft.). 

Donkeys (2 fr., and a trifle to the attendant; for two or 
more l 1 /^ fr- each), which afford the pleasantest means of ac- 
complishing this excursion, are to be found in the . Str. dell' 
Infrascata (PI. L>, E, 3), ascending from the Museum to the 
I. Or a carriage may be taken as far as the Cappella di Cangiano, 
but the last part of the ascent (1 hr.) must still be performed 
on foot or on the back of a donkey. The path described below 
was closed to the public in 1871, but permission to use it may 
easily be obtained from the Conte Ricciardi (Strada Mandella 
Gaetani No. 12, near the Largo "Vittoria a Chiaia). The public 
road, easier, and about '/jM. longer, leads through the small 
village of Nazzaret , but is uninteresting and not recommended 
to pedestrians. The whole excursion Irom the Museum to the 
monastery and back occupies about 4 hrs. if a donkey be taken, 
on foot somewhat more. The early morning and the evening 
are most favourable for the view. The evening excursionist should 
start in good time on his way homewards , as the crowd of car- 
riages, horses, mules, and walkers render the road anything but 
pleasant after dusk. 

The Str. dell' Infrascata ascends to Antignano. After 7 min. walk an 
open space is reached, where the new Corso diverges to the 1. The road 
next passes the Stabilimento di Francesco di Sales, a girls' school, and leads 
"between rows of houses, and finally through gardens in 14 min. more to 
the village. The road to S. Elmo here diverges to the 1.; that to the r., 
through the village, is our present route. The road soon divides, the branch 
to the 1. leading to Vomero. The branch to the r. must he taken, and, 
where the road again divides shortly after, that to the left. Half-a-mile 
farther the frontier of the city douane is reached ; below it and in the 
garden to the r. are beautiful pines. A few min. walk farther, the field- 
road passing the Osteria to the 1. and soon afterwards crossed by a small 
viaduct, is taken and not again quitted. It traverses a small ravine, and 
is enclosed by underwood and pines. After 20 min. a house is seen to 
the r. ; 2 min. more, a farm. The path now ascends to the r., commanding 
a tine view of the bay. Where, after 7 min., it divides, the branch de- 
scending to the 1. is taken, passing a ravine, through which a beautiful 

Environs of Naples. NAPLES. 4. Route. 85 

glimpse of Capri is obtained. At the end of the ravine a road diverges 
to the 1., but this and all the intersecting forest paths must he avoided. 
After 25 min. the path passes through a gateway, ascends to the 1. by the 
wall of the convent garden, and then turns to the 1. 

Visitors ring at the gate (a few sous to the doorkeeper), but 
as both monastery and church are uninteresting, they may at 
once enter the garden. It should be observed that there are 
two particularly fine points of view; the most important of these 
is in the garden, in a straight direction; the other, by the 
monastery, affords a survey of the Campanian plain. Ladies 
admitted since the dissolution of the monastery. The surviving 
monks, now only four in number, offer wine and coffee to visitors. 

The **View from Camaldoli embraces the bays of Naples, 
Pozzuoli, and Gaeta, the widely extended capital (of which a great 
portion is concealed by S. Elmo) with its environs, the Lago 
d'Agnano, the craters of Solfatara and Astroni, the promontories 
of Posilipo and Misenum, the islands of Nisida, Procida, and 
Ischia, and the districts of Baia3, Cumse, and Liternum. Towards 
the S. the view is bounded by Capri and the Punta della Cam- 
panella, the ancient promontory of Minerva. The small towns 
of Massa, Sorrento, and Castellamare are visible, Monte Sant' 
Angelo, the smoking cone of Vesuvius, and the luxuriant plain 
at its base. Towards the N. the eye wanders over the expansive 
Campania Felix with its numerous villages, over Nola, Cancello, 
Maddaloni, Caserta, Capua, Monte Tifata, the volcanic group of 
the Rocca Monflna, the lake of Patria, Gaeta, the hills of Formias, 
and the Monte Circello beyond. To the W. extends the open 
sea with the islands of Ponza, Ventotene, S. Stefano, and Isola 
delle Botte. 

A precipitous path, traversing wood and rock, leads from 
Camaldoli to the plain of Pianura. On the S. side of the 
monastery lies the village of Soccavo, beyond it Fuorigrotta, 
above which rises the hill chain of S. Elmo, Vomero, and 

Environs of Naples. 

The charm of Naples consists solely in the singular beauty 
of its environs. The bay, with its promontories and islands and 
the flourishing villages on its shores, presents new beauties at 
every different point of view, and the eye is never tired of gazing 
at the exquisite picture. The nature of the excursions to be 
undertaken from Naples must of course depend on the season of 
the year and the inclination and resources of the traveller. Most 
of them may be accomplished within a single day. In the more 
frequented villages very tolerable inns afford accommodation 
for the night, but in the cold season they are very inferior 
to the hotels of the city. On the other hand, a saving of time 
and expenditure is effected if the traveller is not obliged 

86 Route 5. POZZUOLI. Environs 

to return to Naples every evening. During the fine season, 
therefore, the independent traveller is recommended to give up 
his quarters at his hotel, hut to leave all his superfluous luggage 
behind him. The excursions to Caserta and Capua (described 
at p. 10 and follg.J are most conveniently made from Naples. 
A visit to the islands of Capri, Procida, and Ischia cannot be 
recommended in winter except in perfectly settled weather. As 
to the number of the party, 2 or 4 will be found the most 
convenient and entail the least expense. A careful plan should 
be formed before starting, with the aid of the latest local time- 

With regard to the security of the roads, no apprehensions 
need be entertained on much frequented routes. Before under- 
taking mountain excursions, however, or the journey to Psestum, 
it is a wise precaution to give notice to the authorities, who will 
readily adopt measures to ensure the safety of the traveller. The 
ascent of Mt. Vesuvius is prohibited, when it is apprehended 
that brigands are in the vicinity. It is advisable under all 
circumstances, never to be unprovided with a passport. 

Excursions to many of the different points of interest are 
now greatly facilitated by the railway, with the principal lines of 
which the traveller should be acquainted : 

A. To Salerno (Station PI. G, 4, below the Roman stat.), 
by Portici, Torre del Greco, Torre Annunziata, Pompeii, 
Scafati, Angri, Pagani, Nocera, S. Clemente, Cava, Vietri, 
in 2 hrs.; 5 trains daily. 

B. To Castellamare , by the same line as the above as far 
as Torre Annunziata, in 1 hr. ; 9 trains daily, fewer in 

C. To Caserta and Capua (Roman station, PI. G, 4), 7 and 

12 trains respectively. This excursion is described at p. 10 
and follg. 

To Capua in 1 hr. 40 min. (fares 4 fr., 2fr. 50, 1 fr. 25 c.J. 
To Caserta in 1 hr. 16 min. (fares 2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 85, 95 c). If the 
train which starts for Capua at 9 a. m. be taken, all the objects 
of interest there may be inspected by 2 p. m., when the train 
from S. Maria di Capua may be taken to Caserta (in 26 min.), 
whence a train returns to Naples at 6 p. m. 

The excursions from Naples to Nola and San Severino (R. 13) 
may be similarly arranged. 

5. Pozzuoli, Baiee, Misenum, and Cumse. 

The district to the W. of Naples has from time immemorial been a 
.scene of the most powerful volcanic agency, and as late as the 16th cent, 
vast changes have taken place here, traces of which are encountered by 
the traveller at every step. This tract is scarcely less interesting in an 
historical than in a physical point of view. It was here that Hellenic 




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of AVipteg. POZZUOLI. 5. Route. 87 

civilisation first gained a footing in Italy, and between this portion of the 
P eninaula and the East constant communication was thenceforth maintained. 
The legends of Hellenic tradition are most intimately associated with these 
f? a8 Jf.' and the poems of Homer and Virgil will continue to invest it with 
the highest interest as long as classic literature exists. The prosperity of 
tins lovely coast has long since departed. The grand creations of imperial 
Borne, the innumerable palatial villas of the Roman aristocracy, have long 
been converted into a chaotic heap of ruins by convulsions of nature, and 
have left behind comparatively slight traces of their former magnificence. 
The malaria which prevails in many parts of the district, and the stupendous, 
though slumbering, agencies beneath the soil impart a sombre and melan- 
choly aspect to the scene. But the inexhaustible beauties of Italian nature 
are still invested with the same charms as thev possessed two thousand 
years ago. The islands and promontories, the bays and lakes, and the sin- 
gularly beautiful indentations of the coast constitute the peculiar cha- 
racteristics of this scenery, which is perhaps without rival. 

The excursions in this direction may be regarded as extensions of those 
last described in the vicinity of Naples. How they may best be combined, 
must depend on the inclination of the traveller himself. 

If neccessary they may all be undertaken in a single day by carriage 
(for 4 — 6 pers., 25 fr. ; one-horse carr. for 2 pers. 8—10, 'corricolo' 6—8 fr. ; 
precise agreement as to the excursion necessary). The most convenient 
route is from Naples to the Lago del Fusaro, and back by Baise. The 
road leads through the grotto of Posilipo to Bagnoli and Pozzuoli, to the 
Arco Felice, the ruins of the ancient Cumse, the Lago del Fusaro, and 
Baise, whence the traveller ascends to the Piscina Jlirabilis and the Capo 
Miseno. Then back to Baise, and past the Lucrine lake to the Grotto of 
the Sibyl on the Lacus Avernus ; ascend the crater of Monte Nuovo, return 
by the shore to Pozzuoli, visit the temple of Serapis, the amphitheatre, 
and the Solfatara, and finally return to Naples by the Str. Nuova di 
Posilipo. The excursion may be accomplished conveniently in one day, if 
the visit to Cumse and the ascent of M. Nuovo be omitted from the plan. 
The traveller should start at an early hour (breakfast may be taken at 
Baise). Cumse is chiefly interesting to archaeologists. If the traveller desire 
to visit it, he should proceed first to Baise, inspect the ruins, and then drive 
to Cuinse. The carr. should be quitted beyond the Lago Fusaro, at the 
divergence of the roads, and directed to proceed to the entrance of the 
Grotta di Pietro della Pace, near the Lacus Avernus. Then on foot to the 
Acropolis of Cumse, and thence through the vineyards to the Arco Felice. 
The traveller should next retrace his steps for a short distance in order 
to reach the Lacus Avernus through the Grotta di Pietro, re-enter his 
carriage, and (stopping to visit the Grotto of the Sibyl by the way) drive 
by Baise to Bacoli (refreshments), and thence back to Naples direct, or 
via Procida, etc. Baise should be visited before Cumse, although the route 
is thus prolonged, in order that a guide (l'la — 2 fr.) may be secured there 
for the rest of the excursion, as the traveller if unaided will have difficulty 
in finding the most direct paths. 

These excursions may also be conveniently divided into two. One 
afternoon may be devoted to the two routes between Naples and Pozzuoli. 
the town itself with the Solfatara, and the Lago d'Agnano (one-horse carr. 
5 fr.) , the best arrangement being to proceed first to the Lago d'Agnano, 
there quit the carriage, and walk (in 1 hr.) by the Solfatara and amphi- 
theatre to Pozzuoli (boy to act- as guide '^fr-), where thecarriage is regained. 
Another afternoon to Baise and Misenum, the Lacus Avernus and Cumse 
(7 — 8 hrs. ; one-horse carr. 8 fr.). 

A visit to Procida and Ischia may also be agreeably combined with 
the excursion. From the beach at Miniscola the passage to Procida may 
be accomplished in '| 2 — 3 |4 hr. (l'|2— 2 fr.) ; boats, however, are not always 
to be obtained. About 8 or 9 a. m. a market-boat starts from Pozzuoli 
for Procida (30 — 50 c.) ; a private boat is of course preferable (5—6 fr.). 
Boat from Pozzuoli to Baise for 1 — 3 pers. 1 fr., according to tariff. The 
pedestrian (who should, however, avail himself of a carriage for a part of 
the way), is of course least liable to the annoyances of imposition. 

88 Route 5. POZZUOLI. Environs 

To Pozzuoli is a drive of 1 lir., or a walk of 2 hrs. Tlie carriages, 
by which the constant communication between this town and Naples is 
maintained, are to be found in front of the Cafe Benvenuto in the Str. di 
Chiaia •■, one-horse carr. for the single journey l 1 ^ fr. ; for a single seat ! J2 fr. 
These carriages, however, which are in fact omnibuses on a small scale, 
are not to be found with certainty except in the early morning, and are 
less suitable for excursionists than an ordinary carrozzella (double journey 
4 fr., or returning by the Str. Xuova di Posilipo 5 fr.). The fertile ima- 
gination of the natives lias assigned all kinds of imposing classical names 
to many insignificant and uninteresting objects in this district. Strangers 
are therefore often importuned to inspect worthless curiosities which make 
serious inroads on time, temper, and purse. The only objects of real 
interest »re enumerated in the following description. 

The direct road to Pozzuoli leads by tlie Chiaia, then to the 
r. by the Str. di Piedigrotta and the grotto itself to the village 
of Fuorigrotta (p. 80). At the extremity of the village the 
high-road to Bagnoli leads to the 1. (that to the r. to the Lago 
d'Agnano, p. 80). The high-road then passes between a suc- 
cession of gardens, presenting no objects of interest, and leads 
to the coast (4^2 M-), where the beauty of the scenery begins 
to develop itself. In the foreground is the island of Nisida 
(p. 79). Baynoli possesses warm springs containing salt and 
carbonic acid gas, and baths of considerable repute. Beyond it 
are other springs containing sulphur and iron. The road then 
skirts the sea for l 1 ^ M. Near Pozzuoli, in the lava rocks 
which project towards the sea, are extensive quarries, where 
about 200 galley-slaves are employed. 

Pozzuoli (Ponte di Caligola, in the Piazza, the landlord 
F. Terracina is recommended as a guide ; Bella Italia and Fortuna 
on the quay ; imposition inevitable unless prices are previously 
ascertained), originally the Greek colony Dicaearchia, subdued 
by the Romans in the 2nd Punic war and named by them Puteoli, 
subsequently an opulent commercial city and principal depot for 
the traffic with Asia and Africa, is now a dull town, situated 
on a promontory in the Golfo di Pozzuoli (part of the bay of 
Naples), opposite the Cape of Miseno. 

As the traveller enters the town, he is immediately besieged by guides 
and dealers in spurious antiquities, which are manufactured at Naples, and 
after a certain period of interment re-appear with the requisite coating 
or rust, verdigris, and dirt. If a guide is engaged, his terms should be pre- 
viously ascertained: for the visit to the town, amphitheatre, and temple 
of Serapis 1 fr., with the addition of the Solfatara and Lago d'Agnano 
l'ja — 2 fr. Metro Rwxa, who speaks French, may be recommended. The 
traveller who intends to prolong his drive should order his carriage to 
meet him at the Temple of Serapis. The guides usually conduct the 
traveller, on the way to the amphitheatre, to the magazine of antiquities 
of Canonico Criscio, whose relics though exorbitantly dear are probably 

The town itself presents few attractions. 

In the principal piazza stands the statue of a senator, bearing 
the name of Q. Flav. Mavortius Lollianus, discovered in 1704. 
The head, though also ancient, is not the original, but was 

of Naples. POZZUOLI. 5. Route. 89 

added at a later date. Opposite to it is the statue of Bishop 
Leon y Cardenas, Viceroy of Sicily under Philip III. 

At the quay are the remains of the ancient pier, termed by 
Seneca Pilae, by Suetonius Moles Puteolanae, now Ponte di 
Caligola. Of the original 25 buttresses, which supported 24 arches, 
16 are left. They are constructed of bricks and puzzolana 
nr volcanic earth (three are under water), and bear an inscrip- 
tion recording that the pier was restored by Antoninus Pius. 
A common, but erroneous impression is, that they were con- 
nected with the bridge of boats which Caligula threw across 
the bay of Baise, in order that, clad in the armour of Alexander 
the Great, he might there celebrate his insane triumph over 
the Parthians. 

Near the harbour a marble pedestal, adorned with bas-reliefs 
representing 14 towns of Asia, now preserved in the Museum 
at Naples (p. 68), was found in 1693. 

The Cattedrale S. Proculo, in the upper part of the town, 
occupies the site of a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Cal- 
purnius. In one of the lateral walls 6 Corinthian columns from 
the ancient temple are still preserved. The church contains the 
relics of St. Proculus and two other saints, and the monuments 
of the Duke of Montpensier and Giovanni Battista Pergolese of 
Jesi, the talented composer of the original Stabat Mater, who 
died in 1736 at the early age of 26. 

At the W. extremity of the town a narrow street (bearing 
the inscription 'Bagni e Tempio di Serapide') leads from the sea 
to the *Temple of Serapis, or Serapeum (fee l'^fr.J, known as 
early as 1538, but not completely excavated till 1750. It con- 
sisted of a square court, enclosed by 48 massive marble and gra- 
nite columns, and with 43 small chambers adjoining. The portico 
rested on 6 Corinthian columns (3 of which remain), bearing a 
rich frieze. In the centre of the court stood a circular temple, 
surrounded by a peristyle of 16 Corinthian pillars of African 
marble, which have been transferred to the theatre of the palace 
at Caserta (p. 10), the bases alone being left. The interior 
was approached by 4 flights of steps. The pavement declined in- 
wards towards the centre, where the statues of Serapis, now in 
the museum at Naples, were found. Two inscriptions found here 
mention the restoration of the temple by Marcus Aurelius and 
Septimius Severus. The lower portions of the ruins are under 
water, but the level of the ground has recently been raised, in 
order to prevent unhealthy exhalations. 

In the course of centuries a species of shellfish (lithodomus, or modiola 
lithophaga, still found in this vicinity) undermined the bases of the central 
columns, whilst the upper parts remained intact. Interesting observations 
may be made here with respect to the alterations which have at different 
periods taken place in the level of the sea. That it had risen considerably, 
even in ancient times, is proved by the fact that mosaics have been found 
6 ft. below the present level of the pavement. After the decline of 

90 Route 5. POZZUOLI. Environs 

heathenism the sea continued tu rise, as the different watermarks testify. 
Subsequently the lower part of the edifice was buried to the depth of 12 ft., 
probably by an eruption of Solfatara, and thus protected against the farther 
invasions of the Crustacea. These extend to a height of 9 ft., so that at 
one period the sea-level must have been at least 20 ft. higher than at 
present. This great alteration was occasioned by the convulsion which 
resulted from the eruption of Monte Nuovo (p. 92) in 1538. Since the 
last century the ground has again been gradually sinking. The salt 
springs in the ruins were called into existence by the last eruption. 

The Temple of Neptune is a name applied to another ruin, 
to the W. of the Serapeum, consisting of a few pillars rising 
from the sea. In the vicinity, also under water, is situated the 
so-called Temple of the Nymphs, from which a considerable num- 
ber of columns and sculptures have been recovered. Somewhat 
farther on, a few scanty fragments indicate the site of Cicero's 
Puteolaneum, a villa delightfully situated on the coast, with 
shady avenues, which the orator in imitation of Plato termed 
his Academy, where he composed his 'Academica ' and 'DeFato'. 
When, A. D. 138, Hadrian died at Baiae, he was interred within 
the preoincts of Cicero's villa, where Antoninus Pius afterwards 
erected a temple. 

The most interesting and perfect of all these ruins is the 

"Amphitheatre (fee Y2 f r -)i situated on the eminence behind 
the town (the route thither is by the farther angle of the prin- 
cipal piazza, to the r. ; the traveller then passes through an 
archway, ascends the street, and turns to the 1.). 

It rests on three series of arches, which were surrounded by 
an external court ; the two principal entrances were adorned with 
triple colonnades. The interior contained four tiers of seats in 
several compartments (cunef), connected by flights of steps. The 
imperial seat was distinguished by Corinthian columns of black 
marble. The arena, 369 ft. long, 216 ft. broad, was excavated 
in 1838, when a number of subterranean passages and receptacles 
for the wild beasts, etc., 98 paces long and 53 broad, were dis- 
covered, which serve to convey a distinct idea of the arrange- 
ments and machinery of the ancient amphitheatres. By means 
of a water conduit (1. of the principal entrance) the arena could 
be laid under water when naval combats were to be represented ; 
the outlet is in the principal passage. The entrances for the 
gladiators, and the air holes and outlets of the dens of the ani- 
mals are easily recognised. The celebrated gladiator-combats 
under Nero, when he received Tiridates, King of Armenia, as a 
guest at his court, took place here, and even the emperor him- 
self entered the arena. Under Diocletian St. Januarius and his 
companions were in vain thrown to the wild beasts here, as an 
inscription on the chapel dedicated to him records, before they 
were put to death near the Solfatara. The high ground near 
the amphitheatre commands a fine view in the direction of 

of Naples. SOLFATARA. 5. Route. 91 

Above the amphitheatre a theatre was situated, the ruins of 
which have not yet been excavated. Other ruins in the vicinity, 
externally of square, internally of circular construction, aTe be- 
lieved to have been either Baths or a Temple of Diana. The 
Villa Lusciano contains the so-called Labyrinth, really a piscina, 
or ancient reservoir. The Piscina Grande, with vaulted ceiling, 
resting on three rows of 16 columns each, still serves as a re- 
servoir, and was doubtless once connected with the ancient Julian 
aqueduct from the Pausilypon to Misenum. 

Ancient tombs have frequently been discovered on the old 
roads, the Via Campana leading to Capua, the Via Puteolana to 
Naples, and the Via Cumana to Cuinae. They are generally in 
the form of temples or towers, sometimes decorated with fine 
reliefs and paintings. On the eminence half-way between Poz- 
zuoli and the Solfatara, where St. Januarius was beheaded in 305, 
stands a Capuchin Monastery, erected in 1580, whence there is a 
magnificent prospect of the bay. 

The puzzolana or volcanic earth, which yields an indestruc- 
tible cement, derives its name from Pozzuoli. 

Near the amphitheatre a path to the r. leads to the *Solfatara 
(donkey from Pozzuoli 1 fr., but walking far preferable; ad- 
mission to the Solfatara '/2 fr. for each pers. according to tariff), 
the crater of a half extinct volcano, an oblong space enclosed 
by hills of pumice-stone, from fissures ('fumaroli') in which 
vapours and sulphureous gases ascend. The ground is hollow 
in every direction. The ancients (Strabo) termed this crater Forum 
Vulcani, and believed it to be in communication with Ischia and 
the Campi Phlegrsei. The only eruption of which we know, 
attended with an emission of lava, took place in 1198. A manu- 
factory of alum, founded here during the last century, speedily 
fell to decay, and the site is now occupied by a stucco manu- 
factory. Above it, towards the E., rise the Colles Leucogaei, 
the white hills whose light coloured dust was so highly prized 
by the ancients for colouring groats and other kinds of grain. 
Here several small brooks containing alum have their source, 
/ Pisciarelli, the Fontes Leucogaei of the ancients (Plin. Nat. 
Hist. XXXI. 2), which fall steaming into a ravine between the 
Solfatara and tie Lago d'Agnano, and are frequently employed 
as a remedy for cutaneous diseases. The ground is warm and 
saturated with gas in every direction. The margin of the crater 
may be traversed on the E. side, and the Lago d'Agnano (p. 80) 
reached by footpaths in '/j hr. ; but the latter may be most con- 
veniently visited on the way from Naples to Pozzuoli (p. 88). 

The high-road which leads towards the W. from Pozzuoli divides near 
the Monte Nuovo (l 1 ^ M.) ; to the r. to the Lacus Avernus, Arco Felice, 
and Cumse ; to the 1. to Baise and Misenum. One-horse carr. from Pozzuoli 
to Cumse or Baiee 3 — 4 fr., to both places 5 — 6 fr. The donkeys of Pozzuoli 
cannot be recommended (2 — 3 fr. for the afternoon). Passage by boat to 
Baiee in 1 ji—l hr., 1 fr. for 3—4 pers. according to tariff. 

92 Route 5. LACUS AVERNUS. Environs 

Leaving Pozzuoli by the villa of Cicero, and proceeding W. 
by the shore of the bay, the traveller reaches (1^2 M.) Monte 
Nuovo (456 ft.), a volcanic production of comparatively recent 
origin. Its upheaval took place on Sept. 30th, 1538, after a violent 
earthquake. The hill is in the form of an obtuse cone, in the 
centre of which is an extinct crater of considerable depth, en- 
closed by masses of pumice-stone, trachyte, and tufa, distinctly 
indicating its origin. The ascent is interesting. 

The road to Baise, diverging to the 1. near Monte Nuovo, 
traverses the narrow strip of land which now separates the 
Lacus Lucrinus from the sea. 

The Lacus Lacrinus was in ancient times celebrated for its 
oysters. It was separated from the sea by a breakwater, termed 
the Via Herculea, from the tradition that the hero employed it in 
driving the bulls of Geryon across the swamps. It subsequently 
fell to decay and was again repaired, but greatly damaged by 
the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. A portion of it, 250 yds. 
in length, is still visible beneath the surface of the water, where 
remnants of the Portus Julius, or harbour constructed by Agrippa, 
may also be distinguished. At the present day, instead of the 
once famed oysters, the lake yields the spigola, a fish considered 
a delicacy by the Neapolitans. 

At a short distance inland, bounded on three sides by 
chestnut and vine-clad hills, lies the celebrated *Iiacus Avernus, 
regarded by the ancients as the entrance to the infernal regions 
on account of its sombre situation and environs. Tradition alleged 
that no bird could fly across it and live, owing to the poisonous 
exhalations, and that the neighbouring ravines were the abode 
of the ghastly and sunless Cimmerii, mentioned by Homer 
(Odyss. XI.). Virgil, too, represents this as the scene of the 
descent of ^Eneas, conducted by the Sibyl, to the infernal regions. 
Augustus, by the construction of the Julian harbour, and by 
connecting this lake with the Lacus Lucrinus, was the first to 
dispel these gloomy legends. Horace and Virgil accordingly 
extol the harbour as a prodigy. The Roman fleet more frequently 
lay in the Lucrine than the Avernian lake. The canals and 
wharves of Agrippa were still in existence in 1538, but the 
upheaval of the Monte Nuovo destroyed every vestige of them, 
half filled the Lucrine lake, and so altered the configuration of 
the neighbourhood that the two lakes are now quite separate, and 
the intervening space is completely overgrown with underwood. 

The Lacus Avernus is of circular form, now about l'/2 M. in 
circumference, 4 ft. above the level of the sea, and 200 ft. in depth. 

In 1858, the plan of connecting it with the bay of Raise by 
means of canals, in order to afford a secure harbour for vessels 
of war, was again revived, but two years later abandoned. 

The grottoes and cuttings observed in the S. side of the 

of Naples. ISAIA. 5. Route. 93 

lake, hewn in the tuffstone rock, were probably connected with 
the works of the Portus Julius. One of these caverns is now 
termed the Grotto of the Sibyl. It is entered by a gateway of brick, 
and consists of a long, damp passage hewn in the rocks and 
ventilated by vertical apertures. About midway between the two 
lakes a narrow passage to the r. leads to a small square cham- 
ber, the 'Entrance to the Infernal Regions'. Near it is a cham- 
ber with mosaic pavement and the arrangements for a warm 
bath. It contains luke-warm water, 1 ft. in depth, which flows 
from a spring in a neighbouring chamber, and is termed by the 
guides the 'Bath of the SibyV. The entire grotto is 280 paces 
in length, and blackened with the smoke of the torches. Another 
entrance in the vicinity is now obstructed. A visit to these 
grottoes is anything but attractive, and should not be attempted 
by ladies. (Visitors are carried by the guides. Torches neces- 
sary, the proximity of which is disagreeable, 1 fr. each ; admission 
to the grottoes 1 fr. for each pers.; bargaining necessary, as 
the custodian frequently demands 2 — 3 fr.) On the W. side 
of the Lacus Avernus is another long passage, which served to 
connect the lake with Cumae (p. 97). On the E. side are the 
interesting ruins of once magnificent Baths, sometimes termed a 
Temple of Apollo, or Pluto, or Mercury. 

We now return to the high-road to Baia. Beyond the Lucrine 
lake are situated Le Stufe di Tritoli, the ruins of ancient baths. 
In the immediate vicinity a path on the slope of the mountain 
leads to the Bagni di Nerone, a long, narrow, dark passage in 
the rock, at the farther extremity of which several warm springs 
take their rise, termed Thermae Neronianae by the ancients, and 
in modern times sought by invalids. The water is sufficiently 
warm to cook eggs (for which 1 fr.; access to the baths !/ 2 fr.). 
These passages contain no object of interest, and are so satur- 
ated with water and of so high a temperature that a visit to 
them is anything but pleasant. 

As Baia {Hotel delta Regina, poor, no fixed charges ; Oiosa- 
fatto de Lucio is recommended as a guide, l'/o — 2 fr. for the 
afternoon, according to agreement), the ancient Baiae, is ap- 
proached, innumerable fragments of ancient masonry, passages, 
halls, mosaic pavements, etc. are observed on the hill to the r., 
now overgrown and buried in rubbish. 

The splendour of Baiae rapidly declined after the fall of the Roman 
empire. In the 8th cent, it was sacked by the Saracens, and in 1500 entirely 
abandoned by its inhabitants. Shortly afterwards the viceroy Don Pedro 
de Toledo erected a Fort here, to which a lighthouse on the promontory 
was subsequently added. Baise as a Roman watering-place is very fre- 
quently spoken of in the time of Cicero, Augustus, Nero, and Hadrian. 
'Nothing in the world can be compared with the lovely bay of Baiae 1 , 
exclaims the wealthy Roman in one of Horace's Epistles (I. 85), who is 
desirous of erecting for himself a magnificent villa there. As a foundation 
for such edifices vast piers of which traces may still be distinguished, 
were thrown out into the sea. Luxury and profligacy soon took up their 

94 Route 5. BACOLI. Environs 

abode here, and the desolate ruins which now alone encounter the 
eye point the usual moral. Three of the larger halls belonged to dif- 
ferent Baths. 

First, to the r. of the road in a vineyard, stands an extensive 
circular building, with a vaulted ceiling open in thS centre, and 
4 recesses in the walls, evidently a bath, but styled a * Temple 
of Mercury, and by the peasantry il troglio (trough). There is 
a remarkable echo in the interior (fee 30 — 50 c. ; old women 
here offer to dance the tarantella for the entertainment of tra- 

Somewhat farther to the r. is the above mentioned osteria 
styled 'Hotel della Regina'. About 100 paces beyond, to the 1. 
by the small harbour where the boats from Pozzuoli land, is 
situated an octagonal structure with vaulted ceiling, in the interior 
circular, and 25 paces in diameter, with remnants of the ancient 
lateral chambers, and of the windows and staircases, somewhat 
resembling the Minerva Medica at Rome, now termed the *Temple 
of Venus. (As this is a public thoroughfare, no gratuity need 
be given.) 

The third ruin, in a vineyard to the r., a massive octagon, 
circular in the interior, and with four recesses and traces of a 
water-conduit, is now termed a *Temple of Diana (fee 30 — 50 c). 

From the harbour of Baice an excursion may be made by boat (3 — 4 fr.) 
to the Cento Camerelle (see below), Piscina Mirabilis, and Misenum. 

The high road skirts the bay, and then ascends a slight emi- 
nence, passing the fort of Baiee to the 1. 

Between the fort and Capo Miseno, 1 M. from the former, 
above the Mare Morto, lies the village of Bacoli, which derives 
its name from the ancient Villa Bauli. [Trattoria del Monte di 
Procida, good wine from the Monte di Procida, see p. 97. The 
drivers sometimes deny the existence of the trattoria.) The 
traveller leaves his carriage on the high road, follows the 
principal street through the village, and in 8 min. reaches the 
Piscina Mirabilis situated above it. If time be limited, a visit 
to the Cento Camerelle and other relics may well be omitted. 
(Guide 1/2— 1 fr.) 

The Villa Bauli is celebrated in history as the frequent residence of 
distinguished Romans. It was here that Nero planned the murder of his 
mother Agrippina, March, A. D. 59. The horrible crime was afterwards 
perpetrated at her villa on the Lucrine lake. The tomb of Agrippina, of 
humble pretensions as Tacitus informs us (Ann. 14, 9), was situated on 
the height by the road to Misenum, near the villa of Csesar. The spot 
can no longer be exactly determined. What is commonly termed the 
Sepolcro di Agrippina, on the coast below the village, a semicircular pass- 
age with vaulted ceiling, reliefs, and paintings, is really the ruins of a 
small theatre. Extensive ruins near this, partly under water, belong, it 
is said, to the villa of the eminent orator Hortensius, and may be visited 
by boat. Even the pond in which he reared his favourite lampreys is 
alleged to be visible. In this villa Nero is said to have sanctioned the 
proposition of his freedman Anicetus, commander of the fleet, to drown 
his mother Agrippina by submerging her in a ship. The attempt, however, 
failed, as she succeeded in escaping in a small boat. 

of Naples. CAPO MISENO. 5. Route. 95 

The Villa of Julius Caesar, on the height near Bauli, was afterwards 
the property of Augustus, and was occupied by his sister Octavia after the 
death of her second husband II. *ntony; and here she lost her hopeful 
son the youthful Marcellus, whom Augustus had destined to be his suc- 
cessor. It is believed by many that subterranean chambers, known as 
the Cento Camerelle, or Carceri di Nerone, or the Labyrinth, were portions 
of the basement story of this villa (fee >|2 — 1 fr.). 

On the height between Bacoli and the marshy Mare Morto 
is situated the * Piscina Mirabilis (fee l / 2 fr. ; the custodian's 
house is on the r., near the Piscina; vases and other antiquities 
may he purchased of him at reasonable prices), a reservoir at 
the extremity of the Julian Aqueduct, 234 ft. in length, 88 ft. 
in width, with a vaulted ceiling supported by 48 massive co- 
lumns, admirably preserved. From the roof of a cottage (good 
wine) somewhat higher, a fine view is obtained, but inferior to 
that from the Capo Miseno. Those who purpose visiting the 
latter cannot ascend to it direct through the vineyards, but must 
retrace their steps through the village. 

From Bacoli the traveller drives in 5 min. to the bridge by 
the harbour of Misenum, beyond which carriages are not allowed 
to proceed. The Capo Miseno is an isolated mass of rock rising 
from the sea. Its remarkable form once gave rise to the belief 
that it was an artificially constructed mortuary tumulus of very 
ancient origin. Thus Virgil (JEn. 6, 232) describes it as the- 
burial-place of the trumpeter Misenus : 

At pius JEneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 
Imponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque 
Monte sub aereo, qui nunc Misenus ab Mo 
Dicitur aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 

The promontory was originally only connected with the main- 
land by the narrow Spiaggia di Miniscola, which runs towards 
the Monte di Procida. An embankment bearing the road now 
forms an additional link. It separates the Mare Morto from 
the harbour, and has rendered the former so shallow that it 
is now employed in the preparation of sea-salt. In ancient times 
a wooden bridge was occasionally erected on the site of this 
embankment. In connection with the works at the Lacus Avemus 
and the Lacus Lucrinus, a vast war harbour was constructed at 
Misenum by Agrippa by order of Augustus, in order to serve as 
a receptacle for the Roman fleet on this coast, like Ravenna in 
the Adriatic. It consisted of three basins, two outer, one on 
each side of the promontory termed Forno, and one inner, the 
present Mare Morto. The Punta di Pennata, which bounds the 
harbour of Misenum on the N., was penetrated by a double 
subaqueous passage for the purpose of preventing the accumu- 
lation of sand at the entrance. A pier was also constructed on 
pillars, three of which are still visible under water. Important 
relics of antiquity abound in the neighbourhood, but it is a dif- 

W> Route 5. MISENUM. Environs 

ricult matter now to ascertain their destination. Even the situ- 
ation of the town of Misenum is not precisely known, although 
it probably lay near the modern village of that name. Scanty 
remnants of a theatre are still recognised near the small pro- 
montory II Forno. Some ruins on the height above are sup- 
posed to belong' to the once"famous villa of Lucullus, afterwards 
the property of Tiberius, who died here, and subsequently that 
of Nero. The Grotta Dragonara, a long subterranean passage on 
the W. side of the promontory, with vaulted roof, supported by 
twelve pillars, is variously conjectured to have been a naval 
depot or a reservoir for water. 

Misenum was indebted for its importance to the fleet stationed 
here. In the year A. D. 79 the latter was commanded by the 
Elder Pliny, who perished during the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius 
(p. 107). In 890 the town was destroyed by the Saracens. 

A walk to the summit of the promontory and back occupies 
about I 1 /* hr. The road leads from the bridge, past the white 
powder-mill, to the church of Misenum. Ruins of ancient 
buildings are observed in every direction. A boy may be en- 
gaged in the village as a guide for a few soldi ('in coppa' signi- 
fies 'to the top'). The main road to the Tenuta is followed, 
but shortly before the latter is reached the traveller ascends to 
the r. and traverses woods and vineyards by means of narrow 
and precipitous paths. The summit is crowned with a ruined 
castle. Towards the sea are situated two picturesque mediaeval 
watch-towers, one of which has recently been superseded by 
a new lighthouse. The **View hence is one of the most remark- 
able in the environs of Naples. It embraces the bays of Naples 
and Gaeta with the surrounding heights. The peculiarity of the 
scene consists in the fact that the spectator appears to stand in 
the midst of a complicated assemblage of straits, peninsulas, 
bays, lakes, and promontories. The bay of Naples resembles a 
vast lake ; the eye reaches the open sea on the farther side 
alone, between the islands of Capri and Ischia. 

To the W. of Capo Miseno and the Mare Morto rises the 
Monte di Procida, a volcanic rock, covered with vineyards, yield- 
ing excellent wine, and fragments of ancient villas. 

The long, narrow strip of land between Capo Miseno and 
the Monte di Procida, which separates the Mare Morto, or old 
harbour, from the sea, is termed Miniscola, or Miliscola, said to 
be contracted from Militis Schola , an ' exercising-ground for 
soldiers'. Opportunities of crossing the Canale di Procida from 
this point to Ischia or the less distant Procida may generally 
be obtained here (l'/i — 2 fr.). 

The plain between the Mare Morto and the Lago del Fusaro, bounded 
on the N.E. by Monte Selvaticni, and on the S.W. by the Monte di Procida, 
has been termed Campi Elyxii by antiquarians, who have endeavoured to 
identify this district with that described in the 6th bk. of the .^Eneid. It 

of Naples. CUMiE. 5. Route. 97 

is admirably cultivated in the form of gardens and vineyards, and poss- 
esses numerous tombs, most of them, according to the inscriptions which 
are now preserved in the Museum at Naples, being those of sailors of 
the Misenian fleet. They are situated on the ancient road from Cuma; 
to Misenum, especially at the place now called Mercalo di Sabato, 3 |» M. 
from Bacoli. 

Where the road to the 1. near the Monte Nuovo leads to 
Baia, that to the r. gradually ascends to Cumae. The Lauus 
Avernus soon becomes visible to the 1. below. Where the road 
divides, that to Cuma; leads to the 1. and soon reaches (3 M. 
from Pozzuoli) the *Arco Felice, a huge structure of brickwork, 
64 ft. in height, 19 ft. in width, situated in a deep gully. On 
the summit are traces of a water-conduit. The arch may have 
been exclusively destined for the latter purpose, or it may also 
have carried a road over the higher ground. About 400 paces 
beyond the Arco Felice, on the road to Cumae, an ancient paved 
way diverges to the 1. to a vaulted passage, termed La Grotta 
delta Pace (after Pietro della Pace, a Spaniard who explored 
it in the 16th cent.), constructed by Agrippa, and affording the 
most direct communication between Cuma? and the Lacus Avernus. 
This tunnel, upwards of 1 /2 -^- i" length, is lighted at intervals 
by shafts from above. Travellers from Cumae, or those who wish 
so to combine the excursion to Baia with a visit to the Lacus 
Avernus as not to be obliged to traverse the same ground twice, 
may avail themselves of this grand tunnel in order to reach the 
N.W. bank of the lake (for pedestrians only). 

The scanty ruins of the ancient Cumaj are l'/a M. distant 
from the Arco Felice. (Road bad; driving practicable for a short 
distance only.) About mid-way, where the road to the 1. di- 
verges to the Lago del Fusaro, is situated an Amphitheatre with 
21 tiers of seats, partially concealed by earth and underwood. 
On both sides of the road and at the foot of the rock of Cumae 
numerous tombs have been discovered, many of whioh were 
examined by the Count of Syracuse, and yielded a valuable col- 
lection of vases and precious relics of every description. Some 
of these are now preserved in the museum at Naples (raccolta 
Cumana, p. 71), others, formerly in the collection of the Marchese 
Campana, are now in the museums of Paris and St. Petersburg. 

Cumae, or Cyme, the most ancient Greek colony in Italy, was 
situated near the sea on a volcanic eminence (trachyte), which 
rises from the extensive plain between the Monte di Procida and 
the mouth of the Volturno. 

The town is said to have been founded by iEolians from Asia Minor 
B. C. 1050, or at an even earlier period, and exercised the most widely- 
extended influence on the civilisation of the Italian peninsula. All the 
different alphabets of Italy were derived from the Cumsean ; and Cumse was 
the centre whence the Hellenic forms of worship, and with them Hellenic 
culture, became gradually diffused among the aboriginal tribes. Rome 
received the mysterious Sibylline books from Cumae, and the last of the 
Tarquinii died here in exile. The city, which once boasted great wealth 
B.edekkk. Italy III. ith Edition. 7 

98 Route 5. LAGO DEL FUSARO. 

and commercial prosperity, was frequently seriously imperilled by the 
attacks of the neighbouring tribes, especially the Etruscans, who were 
signally defeated in a naval battle B. C. 474 near Cumse, by Hiero of 
Syracuse, the ally of the citizens. Pindar celebrates this victory in the 
first Pythian ode, and a helmet of the enemy dedicated at Olympia as a 
votive offering from the spoil was found there (now in the British Museum). 
At the close of the 5th cent. Cumiv participated in the general decline of 
the Hellenic towns. In 420 it was stormed by the Samnites, and in 337 
taken by the Romans, after which it became a Roman municipium of 
little importance. Under the emperors it fell entirely to decay, but was 
restored by the Goths. In the 9th cent, it was burned by the Saracens, 
and in the 13th it was finally destroyed as a stronghold of pirates by the 
inhabitants of Naples and Aversa. 

Fragments of the huge external walls of the lofty *Acropolis 
are still standing. Beautiful prospect thence towards the sea, 
Gaeta, and the Ponza Islands, and (^to the 1.) of the Lago Fusaro, 
Isohia, etc. Considerable remnants of the anoient fortifications 
are preserved, especially on the E. side and by the S. entrance. 
The rock on which this castle stands is perforated in every 
direction with passages and shafts. One of these, with numerous 
lateral openings and subterranean passages, is thought to cor- 
respond with the description which Virgil (\<En. VI. 41) gives of 
the Grotto of the Sibyl, which had a hundred entrances and as 
many issues, ' whence as many voices resound, the oracles of 
the prophetess'. The principal entrance is on the side of the 
hill towards the sea, but most of the passages are choked up. 
It is believed that one of the passages leads to a large, dark 
cavern in the direction of the Lago del Fusaro, but investigations 
have been abandoned as dangerous. — Few traces are now left 
of the temples of Apollo, Diana, the Oiants, and Serapis, where 
recent excavations have brought a number of sculptures and 
columns to light. The scanty ruins are concealed among vine- 
yards and underwood. 

To the S. of Cumse is situated (l'/o M.) the Lago del Fusaro, 
perhaps once the harbour of Cumae, to which the poetical name 
of the Acherusian Lake is sometimes applied. It is still, as in 
ancient times, celebrated for its oysters. In the centre is a 
pavilion, erected by Ferdinand I. The lake is believed to be 
the crater of an extinct volcano, and as late as 1838 emitted 
such volumes of mephitic gases that the oysters were destroyed 
by them. At the S. end of the lake is a Roman emissarius, the 
Face del Fusaro, which connects it with the sea. To the N. of 
the latter, on a projecting tongue of land, stands the Torre di 
Gaveta, with extensive ruins of the villa of Servilius Vatia, who 
retired hither when Nero's folly and tyranny at Rome had be- 
come insufferable. — A rough road leads from the Lago del 
Fusaro, passing numerous relics of ancient tombs, to (1 M. ) 


6. Procida and Ischia. 

C'omp. Map, p. 80. 

A visit to these charming islands requires 2 days. The easiest mode 
of reaching them varies according to the season and the weather. In 
summer, from the beginning of June, when the mineral baths of Casa- 
micciola (p. 101) in Ischia are much frequented, steamboats (English and 
Italian companies) ply between the main-land and the islands (offices, 
Molo Piccolo 36); at 8. 30 a. m. and 2 p. m. in 2'(a hrs. to Procida, Ischia, 
and Casamicciola ; 1st cl. 5 fr., 2nd cl. 3 fr. 50 c., return-ticket 6 fr. ; 
embarkation or landing at Naples 20 c. for each pers., at Procida and 
Ischia 10 c, at Casamicciola 20 c. The boatmen are of course rarely 
satisfied with these charges (fixed by tariff), but no attention need be paid 
to their gesticulations. The steamers are small, unpunctual, and occa- 
sionally crowded. When the traffic is dull they sometimes reduce their 
fares , return- tickets (available during the season) are generally issued at 
6 and 5 fr. In winter the communication is maintained by r steamboat once 
weekly. Unattractive as these vessels are, they afford the easiest means 
of reaching the islands. Market-boats to Procida Oh f r - each pers.) 
perform the passage of 14 31. in 2 hrs. if the wind be favourable, but 
sometimes not in less than 5 — 6 hrs. A market-boat also starts from 
Pozzuoli (p. 88) ; rowing-boat thence to Procida 6 fr. The passage is 
shortest from Miniscola (p. 96), about 2'|4 31. (2 fr.), but boats are not 
always to be had. 

A visit to Procida occupies a few hours only. It must depend on cir- 
cumstances whether it is accomplished in going or returning. In the former 
case the traveller lands at the town of Procida on the N. side, ascends to 
the fort for the sake of the view, and then traverses the island longitu- 
dinally to the creek of Chiaiolella (2 31.), where boats are found for the 
crossing to Ischia (l 1 ^ fr.). Thence the traveller may proceed on foot (or 
donkey l'| 2 fr.) to Casamicciola, and there pass the night. On the 2nd day 
he may ascend the Epomeo (p. 102), and either return to Casamicciola or 
descend to Forio ; thence by steamboat to Xaples, or only to Ischia if he 
should contemplate a visit to Capo Miseno and Pozzuoli before returning 
to the city. Good inns at Procida, Ischia, and Casamicciola ; the latter is 
preferable on account of its delightful situation. The passage from Ischia 
to Capri may be accomplished by rowing-boat in 6 hrs. in favourable 
weather (20 fr.). 

Procida, the Prochyta or Prochyte of the ancients, is, like 
its sister island Ischia, with which it appears once to have been 
connected, of volcanic origin, being composed of pumice-stone 
and lava. It consists of two contiguous craters, which now con- 
stitute two semicircular bays, their S. margins having been destroyed 
by the action of the sea. A third and smaller crater forms 
the creek of Chiaiolella, and a fourth the neighbouring island 
of Vivara, which has been separated from Procida by some con- 
vulsion of nature. The island is 3 M. in length, varying in 
width, in some places very narrow; population 13,810, whose 
occupations are fishing, the cultivation of fruit, and the production 
of wine. The surface is somewhat flat compared with that of 
its more majestic sister isle. 

As it is approached, the most conspicuous object is the 
fort, situated on the Punta di RoccioUi, the \.W. extremity. 
Beneath lies the town of Procida, facing the N., partially built 
on the higher ground above, and then extending towards the 

100 Route 6. ISCH1A. Environs 

S. side. The white, glistening houses with their flat root's 
present a somewhat oriental aspect. On festivals, especially 
that of St. Michael (Sept. 29th), the women in commemoration 
of their ancient origin assume the Greek costume (red upper 
garment with gold embroidery"), and perform their national dance, 
the tarantella. 

The principal landing-place is on the N. side. The steam- 
boats, however, occasionally pass on the S. side in unfavourable 
weather. From the N. landing-place the traveller ascends by the 
Cafe del Comniercio, and follows a street to the 1. leading to the 
Piazza, whence a pleasing prospect towards the S. is enjoyed. A 
memorial tablet was placed here in 1863, recording the names of 
twelve inhabitants of the island who were executed at the time of 
the reaction of 1799. (About ! /2 M. farther, in the Str. Beneficio 
to the r., is the *Trattoria di Campagna, which also affords ac- 
commodation for the night.) The route to the fort, situated on 
a precipitous rock commanding a magnificent view, ascends to 
the 1. 

A road from the town leads S., passing numerous groups of 
houses, to the creek of Chiaiolella (2 3 / 4 M."), below the ancient 
castle of S. Margarita and near the small olive-clad island of 
Vivara, whence Ischia may be attained in 8/4 hr. As the latter 
island is approached it presents a most beautiful picture, with 
its picturesquely shaped mountains, commanded by the lofty 
Epomeo, and luxuriantly clothed with rich vegetation. On the 
shore extends a long row of white houses, situated on streams 
of lava which descend to the sea, and commanded by the im- 
posing fort. Towards the N.E. the sharply defined outlines of 
the mountains of Terracina may be distinguished; more to the E. 
the broad, pyramidal mountain of Gaeta ; to the S.E., beyond 
Procida, rises Vesuvius. 

Ischia, the Pithecusa, JEnaria, or Inarime of the ancients, 
the medieval Iscla, the largest island near Naples, is upwards 
of 15 M. in circumference, not taking the numerous indentations 
into account, and has a population of 28,000, who are prin- 
cipally engaged in fishing and the culture of the vine and 
other fruit. The climate is genial, the soil extremely productive 
(white wine, light and slightly acidj ; the scenery singularly 
beautiful, for which it is indebted to its volcanic origin. Monte 
Epomeo (the ancient Epomeus, or Epopos) was an active volcano 
at a much earlier period than Vesuvius, and in consequence of 
its eruptions was deserted in B. C. 474 by the greater number of 
its Greek inhabitants. Eruptions also took place in B. C. 92, and 
under Titus, Antoninus Pius, and Diocletian. According to the 
ancient poets, the giant Typhosus, transfixed by the thunderbolt 
of Jupiter, lay buried beneath this mountain, like Enceladus 
under .Etna, periodically groaning and occasioning fearful erup- 

of Naples. ISCHIA. C. Route. 101 

tions of Are. The most recent eruption recorded took place in 
1302. The stream of lava which on that occasion descended to 
the sea near Ischia is not yet covered with vegetation, and re- 
sembles a black seam intersecting the landscape. 

After the fall of Home Ischia suffered many attacks and devastations 
at the hands of the different lords of Italy, especially the Saracens in 813 
and 847, the Pisans in 1135, and the Emp. Henry VI. and his son 
Frederick II. In 1282 it revolted with Sicily against the Anjou dynasty, 
but was subdued by Charles II. of Naples in 1299, and has since been 
united with the kingdom and shared its vicissitudes. The celebrated 
general, the Marchese Pexcara, was born in 1489 at the castle of Ischia, 
which was afterwards gallantly defended by his sister Constance against 
the forces of Louis XII. of France. As a reward, her family were invested 
with the governorship of Ischia, which they retained till 1734. In 1525 
l'eseara's widow, Yittoria Colonna, celebrated alike for her talent and 
beauty, the poetical friend of Michael Angelo, retired to Ischia to mourn 
her husband's loss. So too Maria of Arragon in 1548, widow of the Mar- 
chese del Vasto. 

The charming situation of this island has attracted numerous 
visitors in all ages, and its fascinating influence is as powerful 
as it was in ancient times. A sojourn here during the height of 
summer is strongly recommended on account of the refreshing 
coolness of the air. The N. side, having been most exposed 
to volcanic action, is far more beautiful than the S. The 
principal towns are Ischia, Casamicciola, and Forio. 

Ischia (Locanda Nobile in the Piazza, tolerable ; Trattoria of 
Giuseppe Buono), the capital of the island, with 6546 inhab., and 
the seat of a bishop, contains nothing to interest the traveller. 

The view from the lofty isolated Fort, erected by Alphonso 1. 
of Arragon and connected with the land by a stone pier, is 
very fine ; but access can only be obtained by permission of the 
commandant, who sometimes declines to grant it. The town, 
picturesquely situated on the coast, extends from the fort to 
the Punta Molina. 

The route to Casamicciola (4'/. 2 M.) is at many places very 
beautiful. It leads to the baths in the vicinity, crossing the 
Lava dell' Arso, or lava-stream of 1302, which, however, did not 
descend from Epomeo, but from an inferior crater in the vicinity, 
where slag and pumice-stone are still observed. The Lake of 
Ischia in the neighbourhood, about 1 ] / 4 M. from the town, an 
ancient crater filled with salt water, has in modern times been 
connected with the sea in order to afford refuge to vessels over- 
taken by stormy weather. To the 1. of the lake is situated the 
royal Casino or villa, with beautiful grounds. 

The road then turns inland and ascends to the loftily situated 

Casamicciola (landing-place l>/ 4 M. distant; boat to or from 
steamer 20 c. each pers. ; donkey to the hotel '/ 2 fr- > tne road 
from the landing-place thither, ascending to the r., cannot lie 
mistaken; order strictly maintained at the landing-place by the 
authorities), a village with 3690 inhabitants, and in summer 

102 Route6. ISCHIA. Environ* 

( May to September) a much frequented watering-place on account 
of its numerous thermal springs (containing salt, soda, carbonic 
acid, and sulphur). Other visitors also frequently take up their 
summer quarters here. Lodgings may be procured here or at 
Forio (see below). 

The hotels are also adapted for a stay of some duration ; for passing 
travellers the charges are as high as those of first class hotels, although 
the accommodation does not warrant it. They are all detached, situated 
in gardens , and commanding magnificent prospects. ~ Hotel Bellevue, 
the yellow house farthest to the r. with the finest view, visited by Gari- 
baldi in [863. La Gkan Sentinella , a grotesque - looking , pink house, 
delightfully situated; previous understanding neccessary ; pension about 6 fr. 
: A'illa i>e Rivaz , pension 8 fr. Lower down: ::: Hotel i>es Etrangers, a 
comfortable house, English landlady, pension 7 fr. ; Villa Sauve (French), 
pension 8 fr. ; Pension Villa Pisani ; Gran Bketaona , still lower, to 
the 1. by the public rooms. 

Many delightful walks and excursions may be taken from 
this point. Thus to the village of Lacco, situated on the lava- 
stream, and forming the N. W. extremity of the island. Here 
the church and monastery of St. Restituta, the patroliess of the 
island, are situated, on the occasion of whose festival (May 17th) 
numerous Greek costumes and dancers of the tarantella are ob- 
served. In the vicinity of the monastery and in the garden 
attached to it are the sources of springs of very high temperature, 
ami therefore employed for vapour-baths. 

Forio, the most populous place in the island after Ischia, 
with 5791 inhabitants, and scattered irregularly along the W. 
coast, is 3 M. distant. The Franciscan monastery by the sea 
merits a visit on account of the beauty of its situation. 

The ascent of the mountain **Epomco (2782 ft.), the finest 
of all the excursions, may be undertaken from any of the prin- 
cipal towns, and occupies 2 — 3 hrs. A direct, but precipitous 
and fatiguing path ascends from Casamicciola. Donkeys are 
generally used for the ascent (3 — 4 fr., at the hotels 5 fr. are 
demanded). Those who desire to return by the steamboat the 
same day should descend to Ischia or Forio, and thus become 
acquainted with the greater part of the island. The whole ex- 
cursion from Naples, the ascent of Epomeo, and return to the city, 
can be accomplished in a single day if necessary ; but it need 
hardly be added that such a hurried expedition cannot afford much 
enjoyment. The afternoon and evening light is the most 
favourable for the view. 

The route from Casamicciola first descends to the 1. by the 
public rooms and follows the road to Ischia. The footpath then 
ascends to the r., occasionally traversing precipitous ravines. 
The vegetation changes ; beneath are vineyards, then chestnut- 
woods, and tinally barren, rocky ground. Beyond the culminating 
point of the pass, the path skirts the S. side of the mountain, 
beneath the principal peaks, and ascends in long zigzags, till 

of Kaples. ISCHIA. 6. Route. 103 

the Hermitage is attained (donkey 2^/ 2 hrs. ; on foot by the 
more direct path in 2 hrs.). 

On the summit is a hermitage and a chapel dedicated to »S. 
Nicola, hewn in the volcanic rock. Wine and bread may be 
obtained here, and in any case a trifling donation is expected. 
Passages and steps cut in the rock ascend to the **Belvedere, 
commanding a singularly magnificent panorama, the most ex- 
tensive in the vicinity of Naples, and embracing the three bays 
of Gaeta, Naples, and Salerno. At the feet of the spectator lies 
the island of Iachia itself; to the W. the open sea; to the E. 
the coast of Italy from Terracina, the promontory of Circello and 
the Ponza islands to Capo Miseno, Vesuvius, the Capo Campa- 
nella and Paestum ; in the foreground Procida, the indentations 
of the Bay of Naples, to the r. the island of Capri; towards 
the N. the distant snowy peaks of the Abruzzi. 

The descent by the villages of Fontana, Moropano, and Casa- 
bona, and finally across a desolate field of lava to Ischia, occupies 
2'/4 hrs. ; by Panza to Forio about the same time. The ascent 
and descent are equally interesting, affording the most charming 

The following extracts from the writings of Nirnlovius, an eminent 
German author, and husband of Goethe's niece, although dating from 1792, 
are still in most respects applicable to the Ischia of the present day. 

"The climate of this charming island is genial, the sky rarely overcast, 
the winters mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied by nature with the 
necessaries of life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs, and 
all kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in the rich volcanic soil. Here and 
there groves of young oaks and chestnuts are observed. Orange, pome- 
granate, fig, and arbutus trees are the most common in the gardens; the 
myrtle and mastich-tree form the most frequent underwood in the unculti- 
vated parts. The inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar dialect, 
costume, and figure. Fashion is unknown. The island cannot boast of a 
single carriage or horse. The king himself on landing here must, like the 
humblest inhabitant, have recourse to a donkey, unless he prefers to 
walk .... Nowhere have we seen the tarantella, or national Neapolitan 
dance, in greater perfection than here. It is usually performed by two 
girls; a third plays on the tambourine and sings. The woes of an absent 
or unhappy lover are usually the theme of the song. In many of them 
the Madonna and Cupinto (Cupid) are depicted as in perfect harmony with 
each other. The dancers stand opposite to each other, grasp the corners 
of their broad aprons, and commence their evolutions. They place their 
arms alternately akimbo, while the disengaged hand grasping the apron 
raises it high in the air, and occasionally draws it tightly across the knee. 
The posture and the manipulation of the apron changes incessantly. At 
one time they flit past each other, at another with a slight curtsey and 
sweep of the foot give the sign to meet again, whereupon they relinquish 
their hold of the aprons and career round in a circle, striking their casta- 
nets with upraised hands, or imitating the sound with their fingers. The 
caprice of the dancer is capable of imparting an entirely different character 
to the dance, which is generally intended to manifest the state of the feel- 
ings. Fortunata, a relative of our host, performed the dance one evening, 
at our request, with an uncouth Lombard youth, and the expression of the 
dance was one of bitter derision," 


7. Mount Vesuvius. 

Comp. Map, p. 86. 

H e r c u I a n e u m. 

The ""Ascent of Mount Vesuvius may be undertaken from Resina near 
Portici, or from Pompeii. The whole excursion occupies about 7 hrs., but 
an entire day should be allowed, in order to leave sufficient margin for 
rest, refreshment, and the journey from Naples and back. Or the ascent 
may be combined with a visit to Herculaneum Qr to the garden of La 
Favorita. Licensed guides are to be found at Portici, Resina, and Pompeii, 
without one of whom the excursion should not be attempted. From 
Pompeii the expedition is less costly (guide 5 fr.) and the traveller is less 
exposed to annoyance, but the route is less interesting and somewhat 
longer, and the ascent is more fatiguing owing to the loose sand which 
has to be traversed. The more interesting route from Resina is also pre- 
ferable as it passes the chief lava-streams of the eruption of April , 1872. 
Guides are to be found at Pompeii at the railway station (where Itomenico 
may be enquired for), at Resina at the Offleina delle Guide del Vemvio, 
to the 1. in the principal street, about 1 \-z M. from the station. — A car- 
riage-road ascends Vesuvius as far as the Osservatorio and the tavern 
termed the 'Hermitage'. Carriage with three horses thither from Naples 
about 30 fr. ; thence to the summit an ascent of 1 3 |4 hr., the last part being 
very fatiguing, especially since the late eruption which lias covered the 
entire mountain with scoriae and ashes. This mode of making the excur- 
sion is recommended to good walkers , who will find guides awaiting 
their arrival ; or they may prefer to order horses beforehand. Riding, 
however, is not always practicable here , and it frequently happens that 
the whole of the latter part of the ascent must be made on foot. A 
single traveller will always find Resina the most convenient starting 
point. — The ascent is free from danger unless the traveller impru- 
dently courts it. — Expense for a single traveller 15 fr. , for members of 
a party somewhat less : guide 6 fr. (one sufficient, even for a party), horses 
5 fr. (generally good), donkeys 4 fr. (rather slower). Assistance by means 
of a strap in the ascent of the cone, 2 fr. (unnecessary except for delicate 
persons). Chaise-a-porteurs with 8 bearers from Resina to the summit 60, 
from the Hermitage 40, from the foot of the cone 30 fr. All these charges 
have been fixed by a tariff of the JIunicipio. A stick, which may be hired 
at the office for 25 c, will be found almost indispensable to walkers. — 
Numerous attacks are of course made on the traveller's purse en route. 
At almost every cottage on the way the genuine 'Lachriniae Christi 1 is 
offered for sale, and the traveller will often be amused to observe the 
telegraphic signals which pass between the guides and the innkeepers. 
The wine here is generally good, but had better not be partaken of before 
the ascent. The hermit usually charges 2 fr. per bottle, but it may be 
purchased of the peasants for 1 fr. (about double the market-price). A 
number of individuals usually pursue the traveller at the commencement 
of the ascent, hoping to profit by his inexperience or good nature. All 
necessary arrangements having been previously made, no attention should 
be paid to their representations. Oranges or other fruit should be provided 
by the traveller. Eggs for cooking at the crater may also be brought, or 
they may be purchased on the mountain itself (not for less than 'la fr.). 
It may also be mentioned here that the people at the office at Resina 
-- occasionally have the effrontery to thrust several guides, who are sometimes 
, even mounted, on the inexperienced traveller. This is a gross imposition, 
i which the traveller should resist by every means at his disposal. In such 
cases the 'tariffa' should be consulted as to the proper charges. At the 
termination of the expedition the guide, if the traveller has been satisfied 
with his services, expects a gratuity in addition to his regular charge. 
Ladies who do not shrink from a fatiguing walk of 1 hr. may accomplish 
the ascent without difficulty, and should they consider the ascent of the 
cone, which consists of slag and loose ashes, tun arduous a task, they are 

MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 105 

recommended at least to drive as far as the Osservatorio, where a view of the 
lava-fields will be found very interesting. Chairs from the foot of the cone 
to the summit, with 8 porters, 20 fr. Large parties are recommended to 
order their horses and guides on the previous day if possible. In winter, 
when the mountain is covered with snow, the ascent is far more difficult. 
In summer the traveller should start as early as possible, so as to attain 
the summit before the sun becomes unbearably hot. 

As every fresh eruption causes changes in the direction of the bridle- 
path, an elaborate description of the route would soon be rendered useless. 
The following sketch of an ascent undertaken in September, 1S71, will 
convoy to the traveller a general idea of the nature of the expedition. 

'Took one-horse carriage (2 fr. according to bargain) at 8. 40 a. m. 
from the Villa at Naples, reached Porta del Carmine at 9. 20 (several 
stoppages), and the office of the guides at Resina at 10. 10. Started on 
donkey-back at 10. 25 (no horse to be had, because too late) ; 10. 30, left 
the town behind and followed a rough road through vineyards; 11, road 
turns to the X., fine view ; lava-stream of 1868 becomes visible ; still nearer, 
that of 1858. At 11. 15 passed the huge lava wall of 1858, which the 
carriage-road also crosses ; then followed the latter. Passed the Hermitage 
and the Osservatorio at 1'2; at 12. 10 had to dismount. Crossed the lava 
field of 1871 on foot in 20 min. ; lava still hot, though 7 months old, 
passage laborious and requiring much caution. At 12. 45 reached the Atrio 
del Cavallo at the foot of the cone, to which point riding is generally 
practicable. Declined the 'aiuto 1 offered by two men with straps. Mounted 
without difficulty to the new crater which has been formed on the N. 
side of the cone, reaching it at 1. 30. The crater, a miniature Vesuvius in 
itself, presented the most fantastic shapes and the most brilliant colours 
(yellow, green, and white), and was smoking densely. Cuide offered to 
conduct us to brink of crater, and the attempt was made with bandaged 
mouth and nose, but fumes of sulphur too overpowering. Then a very 
fatiguing scramble of 10 min. over loose debris to the top. The great 
crater formerly here is now divided into three smaller craters, all of which 
were smoking. Prevailing colour sulphur-yellow. Craters inaccessible. 
Stones thrown in made a strange unearthly noise. View clouded. Started 
on descent at 2. 15, waded through black sand more than ankle-deep., but 
fortunately not very long; regained donkey at 2.45. In order not to have 
to cross lava of 1871 a second time, and for the sake of returning a shorter 
way. had directed donkey-attendant to take it round to a point farther S. 
(for which he got an additional franc, according to stipulation). Then 
rode along the lava wall of 18tl7. At 3 passed along a ridge between two 
craters of 1861, and soon reached lava wall of 1822. At 3. 10 saw first 
vegetation which has inserted itself between the lavas of 1822 and 1858. 
Next crossed the lava of 1858; 3. 20, reached vineyards; 3. 45 halted at a 
cottage above Resina, enjoyed some delicious grapes, and paid 1 fr. for a 
bottle of good red wine. Reached Resina at 4. 20, and paid fee at office 
of guides. Took walk in the Favorita, drove back in one-horse carriage 
to Naples in time for supper at 7. Expenses : Carriage and fee 2^4, guide 6, 
fee l'|2 (because well satisfied with him), donkey 4, attendant for care of 
donkey 3, stick l \^ wine and grapes 1 ').(, gratuity at La Favorita l j-2, car- 
riage back to Naples 2 ] J* fr. ; total for whole excursion 21 fr. 1 
fasted; back to Pompeii in 2 hrs., arriving at 11 a. m. Expenses: 3 horses 
15 fr., 1 guide 5 fr., porter 2 fr. 1 

To Portici 14 trains daily in 16 min. ; fares 75, 55, or 30 c. On arriving 
at the station guides offer their services, which should be declined. The 
road to the r. leads to ( 3 j4 M.) Resina, where the guides"' office (p. 104) is 
on the 1. in the principal street. 

Railway to Portici, see p. 114. 

The High Road is also still much frequented as the distance 
to and from the different railway stations is inconvenient (one- 
horse carr. to Resina 2 fr., or in some cases 2 fr. 60c; comp. p. '2(> ; 
omnibus from the Largo del Castello every V.> hr. 50 c not to 

106 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environs 

be recommended). It quits Naples by the Porta del Carmine, 
traverses the Marinella, crosses the river Sebeto by the Ponte 
della Maddalena, passes the barracks of the Granili to the r., 
then leads along the coast, which, however, is so covered with 
villas and other houses that the road resembles a long, dusty 
street, rather than a country road. The first village reached is 
S. Giovanni a Teduccio, which on the 1. is adjoined by the 
small town of La Barra. Portici (with 11,228 inhab.) is next 
reached, through the castle of which, erected by Charles III., 
the road leads. Then Resina (12,557 inhab.), built on the 
lava-stream which overwhelmed Herculaneum. The entrance to 
the excavations (2 fr., on Sundays gratis) is to the r. in the 
principal street, 2 min. walk beyond the office of the guides 
(comp. p. 104). About i/ 4 M. farther, on the r., is situated 
the royal chateau of La Favorita (permesso to be obtained in 
the Pal. Reale at Naples, p. 40; gratuity >/2 ?*■)■ Th e interior 
hardly merits a visit, but the garden contains pleasant grounds 
extending under the railway and down to the sea. A casiuo in 
the grounds affords a fine view of the peninsula of Sorrento. 
The green vegetation and the quietness of the garden will be found 
most grateful after a hot and exciting day spent on Mt. Vesuvius. 
Mount Vesuvius, sometimes termed Vesevus by ancient poets 
(e. g. by Lucretius and Virgil), rises isolated from the Campanian 
plain, in the vicinity of the sea. The height varies, according 
to the different effects of the eruptions, from 3900 to 4300 ft. ; 
in 1845 the height was 3900 ft., in 1868 it had increased to 
4255 ft. The N. E. side of the mountain is termed Monte Somma, 
of which the highest peak is the Punta del Nasone (3642 ft.). 
A deep valley, the Atrio del Cavallo, separates Somma from 
Vesuvius proper, which consists of a cone of ashes with the 
crater in the centre, the 'Forge of Vulcan'. Vesuvius forms the 
S. E. extremity of this highly volcanic district, of which Ischia, 
Procida, the Solfatara, and the Monte Nuovo were formerly active 
craters, but have been extinct for the last three centuries. The 
case was in ancient times reversed, as we are informed by the 
geographer Strabo (V. 4), who lived tinder Augustus : ' Mount 
Vesuvius is covered with beautiful meadows, with the exception 
of the summit. The latter is indeed for the roost part level 
but quite sterile. For it has an appearance like ashes, and 
shows rugged rocks of sooty consistency and colour, as if they 
had been consumed by Are. One might conclude from this that 
the mountain had once burned, and possessed fiery abysses, 
and had become extinguished when the material was exhausted. 
And just from this cause its fertility may arise, as in the case of 
Catania the eruption of ashes from JEtnn renders it so productive 
of wine'. About 50 years later, in the time of Nero, A. D. 63, the 
volcanic nature of the mountain manifested itself by a fearful 

of Naples. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Koule. 107 

earthquake, which destroyed a large portion of the prosperous 
environs, and greatly damaged Herculaneum and Pompeii. This 
was repeated at Naples in 64, and again at intervals till the 
reign of Titus, when, on Aug. 24th, 79, the first (recorded) 
eruption took place with appalling fury, devastated the country 
tar and wide, and covered it with showers of ashes and vast 
streams of lava. On that occasion, it would appear, the peak 
now called Vesuvius was formed. Previously it had been a 
rounded crater; the S. side, where Vesuvius now rises, being 
the lowest. The crater-like form of M. Somma is still distinctly 
recognisable, although somewhat concealed by the more recent 
deposits of ashes. In those days of terror, Pompeii, Hercula- 
neum, Stabia, and other villages of this smiling district were 
overwhelmed. The naturalist Pliny, in command of a section 
of the fleet then stationed at Misenum, also perished on this 
occasion. He had ventured too near the scene of desolation, both 
as an observer and for the purpose of rendering aid to the 
distressed, when he was suffocated near Castellamare by the 
ashes and exhalations. His nephew, the younger Pliny, in two 
letters (Epist. VI. 16, 20) to his friend the historian Tacitus, 
gives a graphic description of this fearful phenomenon. He 
mentions the premonitory earthquakes, day turned into night, 
the extraordinary agitation of the sea, the dense clouds over- 
hanging land and sea, and divided by incessant flashes of 
lightning, the emission of Are and ashes, the cries of distress 
of the fugitives. A similar description is> also given (under 
Alex. Severus. A. D. 222) by Dio Cassius (LXVI. 23), who de- 
scribes two fearful colossal figures which hovered over the moun- 
tain. Thus Herculaneum and Pompeii were lost to the world 
until accidentally discovered 17 centuries after their destruction. 
The eruptions of Vesuvius have been repeated at intervals with 
varying violence, down to the present day. The next took place 
in 203, under Septimius Severus, and another in 472, from 
which showers of ashes were carried as far as Constantinople. 
Down to 1500 nine eruptions are recorded, from that date to 
the present time forty-eight. The mountain has been known to 
be quiescent for several centuries in succession, while at other 
periods its activity has been almost uninterrupted, e. g. from 
1717 to 1737. One of the most terrific eruptions of Vesuvius, 
after it had been quiescent since 1500, whilst meanwhile in 
1538 the Monte Nuovo near Pozzuoli had been formed, and 
.Etna had been labouring incessantly, was that of Dec. 16th, 
1631, the first of which we possess detailed descriptions. A 
huge cloud of smoke and ashes rising in a conical form, cast 
a profound gloom over Naples in the middle of the day, and 
extended with incredible rapidity over the southern portion of 
Italy, as far as Tarentum. Heavy stones were thrown to a dis- 

108 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environs 

tanoe of 15 M. (one which fell at the village of Somma was 
25 tons in weight), while the earth was convulsed by a violent 
earthquake, and seven streams of lava poured from the summit, 
overwhelming Bosco, Torre dell' Annunziata, Torre del Greco, 
Ilesina, and Portici. No fewer than 3000 persons perished on 
that occasion. The following year an eruption of ^Etna also 
took place, although that mountain is usually quiescent when 
Vesuvius is in an active state. An eruption in 1707 was of a 
very alarming nature, lasting from May to August, and covering 
Naples with dense showers of ashes, to the terror of its in- 
habitants. Those of 1737, 1760, and 1767 emitted considerable 
quantities of lava and scoriae, which descended on Portici, and 
in that of 1767 even to Naples. One of the most stupendous 
of these phenomena took place in August, 1779, when a vast 
number of red-hot stones were hurled to a height of 2000 ft., 
some of them exceeding 100 lbs. in weight, spreading terror 
among the inhabitants far and wide. The lava eruption of 1794 
was even more fatal in its effects ; the streams precipitated 
themselves into the sea by Torre del Greco, heating the water 
for a considerable distance ; upwards of 400 lives were lost, 
and the ashes were carried as far as Chieti and Taranto. Erup- 
tions during the present century took place in 1804, 1805, 
1822, Feb. 1850, and May 1855; in June 1858 the upper 
crater sank 180 ft. below its former elevation ; and on Dec. 8th, 
1861, an outbreak remarkable for its violence, and interesting 
from the circumstance of its having been witnessed by Hum- 
boldt and other men of science, devastated Torre del Greco. 

After this the mountain remained quiescent until 1865. In 
November of that year the lava began to overflow, and by November, 
1868, had forced a passage for itself through a Assure on the North 
side of the cone. No change occurred during 1869 and 1870, but 
in January 1871, the mountain showed renewed symptoms of 
internal disturbance by the emission of a stream of lava through a 
fissure on the N.E. side. This was followed by another on the 
W. side about the end of October, and in the early part of 1872 
these phenomena gradually increased in violence, until at length 
they culminated in the great eruption of 24th-30th of April of that 
year. During that time the lava burst forth on every side — on the 
N.E., S.W., and more particularly at the Atrio del Cavallo (p. 106), 
from which a huge stream issued with such suddenness as to over- 
take and destroy 20 persons out of a crowd of spectators who wore 
watching the spectacle. The torrent descended to Massa and St. 
Sebttstiano (one-horse carriage from Portici to this point 3 fr.), and 
passed beneath these villages, which it partially destroyed, in a 
stream upwards of 1000 yds. wide and 20 ft. deep. At the same 
time, amidst terrific thundering, the crater hurled forth immense 
volumes nf smoke mingled with red-hot stones and lava to a height 

of Naples. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 109 

of 4000 ft., whilst clouds of ashes, rising to double that height, 
were carried by the wind as far as C'osenza. The peak of Vesuvius 
had been increased considerably in height by the various eruptions 
since 1858, but has again sunk since that of 1872. The cone also 
is subject to continual change, varying with the nature of the 
eruptions. Sometimes there is one crater only, with a single 
orifice in the centre ; at other times there are two or three 
craters adjacent. The lower slopes of Mt. Vesuvius rise from 
the sea at an angle of 10°, while the active cone has a gradient 
of 29 — 30°. Monte Somma rises almost perpendicularly from 
the Atrio del Cavallo, but slopes very gradually towards the 
plain (at an angle of about 3° only). 

Notwithstanding the long series of works on the subject 
which have appeared since 1631, the cause of these volcanic 
phenomena is still to some extent based on mere conjecture. 
It is highly probable that they are intimately connected with the 
water of the sea, near which all the principal volcanoes are 
situated. There is reason to believe that the enormous clouds 
of steam generated during eruptions are due to some temporary 
communication of the water with the burning liquids of the in- 
terior of the earth, and that the premonitory earthquakes are 
occasioned by the vapours and gases as they expand and endeavour 
to find an outlet. The red-hot fluids expelled from the volcano 
by means of these vapours are termed lava. When, however, 
they are broken by the vapours into fragments, the larger of 
these are known as lapilli (rapilli) or scoriae, whilst the minute 
portions form volcanic sand or ashes. When freed from the 
pressure of the lava, the vapours rise to a height of about 
10,000 ft., in form somewhat resembling a pine, carrying dense 
masses of rapilli and ashes along with them ; they are then con- 
densed in the air, and descending give rise to the formidable 
streams of mud (lave d'acqua) which proved especially destructive 
to Herculaneum. Vesuvius has of late been active in the manner 
described, although to a very limited extent, ejecting vapours 
and stones with a roar resembling that of distant artillery. Its 
effects, however, are at present confined to the formation of the 
cone in the crater. More serious eruptions are accompanied by 
loud subterranean noises, earthquakes, and (owing to the elec- 
tricity produced by the unwonted pressure of the air) flashes of 
lightning. The temperature of the lava as it descends oc- 
casionally exceeds 2000° Fahr. The volume of the streams, as 
well as their velocity, depends on a variety of external cir- 
cumstances. The surface of the lava ultimately becomes disinte- 
grated into black sand. The smoke which ascends from the 
crater is more or less dark in colour, according to the quantity 
of ashes ejected by the steam mingled with it. The appearance 
of Are at night is not flame, but the reflection of the molten 

110 ttouteT. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environ* 

lava in the interior of the crater on the rising clouds of vapour 
and ashes. 

Of the Minerals ejected by the volcano, most of which are 
found in the older lava of M. Somma, or in masses of rock 
thrown up during eruptions, about 40 species, according to the 
investigations of Professor Scacchi of Naples, are at present 
known. In the lava stream of 1855 the remarkable cotunnite, 
a chloride of lead, was detected in great abundance. Most of 
these minerals may be purchased from the guides at Resina 
(e. g. Andrea Anastasio, with the sobriquet Maccarone); the 
exorbitant prices they demand of course require to be reduced. 
The well known, so-called lava articles of Naples do not consist 
of lava at all, but of a kind of limestone thrown up by Mt. 
Vesuvius or Mte. Somma at some remote period. It resembles 
marble, and is of a whitish grey, and sometimes greenish or 
reddish colour. 

A Meteorological Observatory, erected in 1844 above the 
so-called Hermitage (now a tavern), 2218 ft. above the level 
of the sea , contains , in addition to the usual instruments , a 
'sismograph', or apparatus for recording the phenomena of earth- 
quakes. The first director of the observatory was the celebrated 
Melloni. The present director Palmieri has published an in- 
teresting account of the recent eruption (Incendio Vesuviano 
del 26 Aprile 1872, con Ulustrazioni). Beyond the observatory 
there is a guard-house with gensdarmes, whose duty is to protect 
the interests of travellers. On the lower slopes of Vesuvius is 
produced the celebrated 'Lachrimse Christi' wine. The name is 
applied indiscriminately to the produce of the entire district. 
The wine is generally rich and full-bodied, and varies little in 

The ascent of Vesuvius is unquestionably an excursion of 
extreme interest, though not to be accomplished without fatigue. 
It should not be attempted in stormy or rainy weather. The only 
danger the traveller incurs is in approaching the crater without 
proper precautions, or, when in the interior, in being exposed to 
sulphureous vapours and occasional showers of stones. Thus in 
1854 a young German, incautiously approaching the aperture of 
the active cone, lost his footing, was precipitated into the interior, 
and killed by the fall. As the mountain was in a quiescent 
state, his body was recovered. The guides are in the habit 
of making impressions on the hot lava with copper coins, roasting 
eggs, and exhibiting other experiments. The only risk in 
approaching sufficiently near to follow their example is that of 
damaging the soles of one's boots. 

The ascent is most interesting when the mountain 'labours', 
or ejects scori*, etc., a condition indicated by the smoke during 
the day and the reflection of lire at night, which may be observed 

ft/' Naples. HERCTJLANEtJM. 7. Route. 1 1 1 

at Naples. Even if its state is that of perfect repose, which is 
not often the case, the fatigue of the ascent is repaid by the 
imposing appearance of the crater and the extensive prospect 
commanded by the summit. 

The ascent of Monte Somma (3642 ft.j is also interesting, 
especially to geologists and botanists, and affords a fine view, 
but has of late years been considered hazardous, the neighbour- 
hood being an occasional haunt of banditti. 

Herculaneum lies beneath the modern Kesina. A visit to 
the remains of this ancient town hardly requires an hour. 

The town, the Herarleia of the Greeks, Herculaneum of the Romans, 
derived its name from the worship of Hercules peculiar to the place. 
Tradition attributed its foundation to the hero himself, who during his 
wanderings in the West visited this district. It was inhabited by Oscans, 
the aboriginal natives of the country, by Etruscans, and by Samnites, 
before it became subject to Rome. Owing to its salubrious situation on a 
height, between two rivers, and being near the sea and the harbour of 
Resina, it became a favourite site for Roman villas (thus that of Servilia, 
sister of Cato of Utica). The spot retained its name even after the total 
annihilation of the town by the eruption of 79. A number of poor families 
then took up their abode here, but in 472 their village was again destroyed 
by an eruption, which altered the configuration of the entire coast. Sub- 
sequent eruptions increased the depth of ashes and lava, beneath which the 
old town was buried, from 70 to 119 ft., the latter being the depth of the 
remains at the present day below the level of the soil on which Portici 
and Resina stand. The discovery of Herculaneum took place in 1719. 
Prince d'Elboeuf of Lorraine, whilst erecting a casino at Portici, caused a well 
to be dug to supply it with water. At the depth of 90 ft. the ancient 
theatre was attained, where a number of statues were found. Two of these, 
beautiful portrait-statues of an old and a younger woman, are now in the 
museum at Dresden. During the next 30 years the excavations were dis- 
continued, but in 1737 Charles III., when engaged in erecting a palace at 
Portici, recommenced operations, which were unfortunately directed by 
unskilful hands and led to no satisfactory result. Nor was it an easy task 
to remove the huge masses of tuffstone and lava which covered the ruins, 
the more so as the buildings and streets of Portici and Resina were thereby 
undermined. In 1750 a long, narrow passage was hewn through the rock, 
leading to the theatre, which lies 69 ft. below the level of the street, and 
this is the entrance at the present day. In 1755 the Aecademia Ercolanese 
was instituted for the investigation of the antiquities discovered, and 
under their auspices was published the 'Pitture d'Ercolano' in 9 vols. 
(Napoli, 1757), which caused a very great sensation in the learned world. 
The excavations during the next 50 years were conducted too superficially 
and unsystematically, but progressed more favourably under the French 
kings Joseph Napok-on (1806—1808) and .loachim Murat (1808—1815). Under 
the Bourbons operations were suspended till 1828. Many of the most in- 
teresting objects were excavated and again covered; thus the theatre, a 
portion of the forum with its colonnades, a basilica similar to that of 
Pompeii, private houses, etc. Although the works were carried on without 
any definite plan, the yield was remarkably rich and has furnished the 
museum of Naples with a large proportion of its most valuable treasures : 
statues, busts, mural paintings, inscriptions, utensils of all kinds, etc. In 
the chamber of one house the extensive papyrus library of 3000 rolls was 
discovered. The excavations were recommenced with great ceremony in 
1868, but as they are conducted on a limited scale no great results have 
yet been obtained. In due time, however, a number of interesting dis- 
coveries may confidently be expected. 

The interest which Herculaneum at present offers to the 
traveller is but limited. A convenient opportunity, however, 

112 Route?. HERCULANEUM. 

of visiting it should not be neglected. The excavations are 
situated 1 M. from the railway-station of Portici. The main 
street is followed to the r. for about 7 min. ; then to the 1. by 
the road ascending to Kesina. In 6 min. the long street which 
forms the principal portion of the contiguous villages of Portici 
and Resina is reached. This is followed to the r. for 7 min. 
(guides, who importune travellers by the way, entirely super- 
fluous), to the point where a viaduct carries the road over a 
lower street (Vicolo di Mare). At the corner to the r., indicated 
by an inscription on the side towards the Vicolo, is the entrance 
to the Theatre (admission to this and the other excavations 2 fr. 
each person, entitling the visitor to a guide ; Sundays gratis ; no 
fees), to which a long flight of 100 or more steps descends. 
The light of the flickering candle is inadequate to enable the 
visitor to form an accurate idea of the structure. Owing to the 
buttresses built to support the rock above, the place rather 
resembles a subterranean labyrinth of profound darkness than a 
theatre. It contains 19 tiers of seats in 6 compartments (cunei) : 
between these, 7 flights of steps ascended to a broad corridor, 
above which a colonnade with 3 more tiers of seats was situated. 
The number of spectators it could contain has been variously 
computed at from 10,000 to 3f),000, the former number being 
the more probable. The orchestra lies about 87 ft. below the 
level of the modern Resina, and is faintly lighted from above 
through the shaft of the well which was the occasion of the dis- 
covery. One inscription records that L. Annius Mammianus Rufus 
erected the theatre, another that Numishis, son of Publius, was 
the architect. Pedestals for statues, with inscriptions, are situated 
on either side of the proscenium. 

A visit to the buildings brought to light by the Scavi Nuovi 
of 1828 to 1837, and resumed in 1868, is of far higher interest. 
The above mentioned Vicolo di Mare is descended for 4 min. ; 
the entrance is by an iron gate to the 1. (fee 1 / 2 fr.). Here a 
street, part of a large private house, and several houses destined 
for industrial objects have been excavated. They lie 40 ft. 
below the present level of the surface, and the different layers 
of the superincumbent lava are readily distinguished. The houses 
with their fittings and decorations resemble those of Pompeii. 
The building-material is a yellow tuff-stone from Monte Somma, 
of a very soft consistency, which accounts for the thickness of 
the walls. 

The objects found at Herculaneum prove that it was a much 
more wealthy town than Pompeii, and this is also obvious 
from the more regular and substantial construction of the build- 
ings. The garden of the principal house, that of the Argus, 
is one of the most interesting objects. It is enclosed by an 
arcade of 20 columns and 6 buttresses. To the r. of it is a 

POMPEII. 8. Route. 113 

•triclinium with a painting (not now visible) of Argus and Ino, 
from which, the house derives its present appellation. Towards 
the sea, the vicinity of which at that period is indicated by the 
great decline of the street, are situated magazines, 3 storeys in 
height, and well preserved. 

8. Pompeii. 

Comp. Map, p. 86. 

Pompeii is reached by railway from Naples in 50 min., 4 trains daily 
(one every 3 hrs.) ; fares 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 55, 80 c. The time devoted to the 
ruins must depend on the inclination of the traveller. A superficial in- 
spection may be accomplished in 3 hrs. ; but in order to summon up from 
these mutilated walls a tolerably accurate picture of ancient times, frequent 
and prolonged visits and patient observation are indispensable. The enthu- 
siasm called forth by the discovery of Pompeii and the fascination attaching 
to the name are calculated to raise the expectations of the non-archaeologist 
to too high a pitch. The remains are simply the ruins of a town destroyed 
by fire, which have been extricated from the rubbish accumulated during 
17 centuries. The moveable objects found here and the principal mural 
paintings have been removed to the Museum at Naples. That this was a 
most desirable course is obvious from the injurious effects produced by 
exposure to the air on those left behind. A museum in the town itself 
(Porta Marina) is now in course of formation, for the reception of objects 
of local interest. The restoration of an entire house in the ancient style 
is also contemplated, and would doubtless be most instructive. 

Admission to Pompeii on Sundays gratis, on other days 2 fr. (if the 
ruins be quitted and re-entered the entrance-money is exacted a second 
time). A guide is then assigned to the visitor, and is bound to accompanv 
him during the entire visit (any number of hours between sunrise and 
sunset) and pilot him through the ruins. These guides are 32 in number, 
and each is provided with a badge (numbered according to the seniority of 
the wearers, No. 1 being the oldest). One of those who speak French 
will be assigned to the traveller on application. They are strictly for- 
bidden to accept any gratuity, but the offer of a cigar or other refreshment 
will ensure their civility. The guide-books, drawings, and photographs 
which they offer for sale are of a very inferior description and should at 
once be declined. Complaints made to the inspectors (soprastanti), or 
better still to the director, Comm. Giuseppe Fiorelli at Naples, are sure to 
be attended to. The discipline and order maintained by the latter are 
deserving of the highest commendation. Permission to draw, take mea- 
surements, etc., is obtained at the Segreteria of the Museum at Naples 
(comp. p. 62), where the applicant must show his passport. Artists or 
students who desire to make lengthened studies may, on application at 
the office and production of their passports, obtain a free ticket of admis- 
sion available for a fortnight, which they are most liberally permitted to 
renew as often as they desire. 

Before visiting Pompeii the traveller is strongly recommended to form 
a previous acquaintance with it from books and plans. The more familiar 
the objects are to him, the greater will be his enjoyment. Implicit confi- 
dence cannot be placed in the guides for anything beyond mere technical 
explanations. Those who visit the ruins once only should avoid occupying 
much of their time with the minutiae, as the impression produced by the 
whole is thereby sacrificed, or at least diminished. On account of the" phy- 
sically and mentally fatiguing nature of the expedition, the stay should not 
be extended much beyond 3 hrs. In summer the streets of Pompeii are 
often insufferably hot ; the evening is therefore the most enjoyable time for 
the visit, when the lights and shades on the surrounding mountains and the 
illumination of the ruins by the declining sun invest the place with almsot 
B^dekek. Italy III. 4th Edition. g 

1J4 RouteS. TORRE DEL GRECO. Environs 

magic fascination. The traveller should, if possible, contrive to visit it at 
least twice. On Sundays he will be at liberty to explore the ruins without 
a guide. 

From the railway-station Pompeii is reached in 5 min. by the Porta 
della Marina. This route, according to which the following description is 
arranged, leads direct to the Forum in the centre of the town. Some 
travellers, however, prefer to make a circuit of l |* hr., so as to com- 
mence with the Street of Tombs, outside the Gate of Herculaneum, in 
which case the principal points are visited consecutively, the Amphitheatre 
forming the termination. A drive from Naples to Pompeii by the high 
road, occupying about 2 hrs., is not unpleasant (carr. about 20 fr.), except 
in hot weather when the road is disagreeably dusty (as indeed are all 
the roads around Pompeii). As far as Torre del Greco (see below) the road 
is flanked with houses on both sides , beyond which it is enlivened by a 
busy traffic. At Pompeii the traveller alights at the street of tombs, 
and orders the carriage to meet him at the Amphitheatre. Opposite the 
entrance of the railway-station is the Hotel Diomede (tolerable, colazione 
3. pranzo 4 fr. , pension 5 fr.) -, 7 min. walk farther, opposite the 3rd en- 
trance (Porta di Stabia) is the Hotel di Raffaele Cristiano, a good, but very 
unpretending inn (pension 4 fr.). Hdtel du Soleil , new and well spoken 
of (pension 4'|2 fr.). The two latter are chiefly frequented by artists. 

The railway (best views to tlie right) from Naples to Pompeii 
( Salerno and Eboli) traverses the suburbs and crosses the in- 
significant river Sebeto which bounds the city on the E. The 
extensive red buildings on the r. are the Granili, used as bar 
racks and (as their appellation indicates) corn-magazines. Shortly 
after passing these, a retrospect is obtained of S. Elmo, sur- 
mounting the heights above the city. The district is densely 
peopled ; the first village is the straggling S. Giovanni a Teduc- To the right the view becomes less circumscribed ; Naples, 
the Posilipo, beyond which rise the mountains of Ischia, the 
island of Capri opposite, and the peninsula of Sorrento beyond 
it are now visible. Stat. Portici, with 11,228 irihab., lies on 
a small harbour, formed by a molo. A fine view is now enjoyed 
from the railway of the Bay of Naples with the Castello dell' 
Ovo and Pizzofalcone, commanded by Camaldoli ; in the back- 
ground the Capo Miseno and the mountains of Ischia. 

Farther on, to the 1., Vesuvius and Resina (R. 7). The line 
skirts the coast and intersects the huge lava-stream of 1794, 
40 ft. in thickness and 2000 ft. in breadth, near stat. Torre del 
Greco, a flourishing town of 9294 inhabitants, erected on the 
lava-stream of 1631 , which destroyed two-thirds of the place. 
The lava-streams of 1737 and 1794 also caused great damage. 
The earthquake of 1856, and especially the eruption of Dec. 8th, 
18(51, proved still more destructive. A series of 11 small 
openings were formed immediately above the town, whence 
vast showers of ashes were precipitated, whilst the shore in the 
vicinity was upheaved to the extent of 3 ft., causing the ruin of 
many houses. Although the entire base of Vesuvius as far as 
Torre dell' Annnnziata is covered with traces of similar cata- 
strophes, yet the inhabitants appear never to be deterred from re- 
building their dwellings, a circumstance which has given rise to 

■ _-/?j-: v Ed.h r cit/nei' Dwrn 

h§.(asa di jVarcoZucrexio 

bl.Foro civile 

58. PartXheono Teini>io diJlunuMo 

j9- So3a,del Senate 

w.Terripio di Giavt 

GiY.Tempiv di+ffercun'/) 

62 . Chalddjusizrrt 

vo.Tempio di T'enere 

orla di (a pita 

1 «-nr- ,r ^ rr ^ 

§k. Basilica 

i'r.'i <!isa t/t Cha/npionet 

66 Tr3>una2i' 

67- (asadel dgnale. 

66 T^co dei-dodicLDei. 

GdJerme Stabiane 

70.Casa- di. Olconio 

l\.Casa.di Sirica 

7 2. Casa.di Cornelia Ra/o 

ISJcmpio d'Jside 

74t.Curia Isiaea 

Tb-Foro iruinqolare 

76. Tempio diMrcole 

ll.Thatro traaico 

78. „ „ wrnico 

IQ.Tempio di Jusculnpia 

80. puartiere de'Solaaii 


82. Gasa dei marrnt conpOTzo sotoio 


Si.Casa del balcone-pensUe 

Qb.Gzsa del Orso, o iiel/u -rordana nuova. 

8G. JTarmacia ossva, Tintoria, 
87. Cos a. con, giardino 

Casa.diJttarte e Ventre 

89. Casa, del dtarista 

90. Casa, de.' DiaJjumeni 
91.Casa di BaU>o 

Porta dol Sarno 

^W#V i "' i "'"" 

of Xaples. POMPEII. 8. Route. 115 

the jesting saying of the Neapolitans, 'Xapoli fa i peccati e la 
Torre li paga.' 

The line intersects Torre del Greco (to the r. a small har- 
bour), then skirts the sea. To the 1. the monastery of Camal- 
doli is visible, standing on an isolated volcanic peak at the base 
of Vesuvius, and secured by its situation against the intrusion of 

After passing another stream of lava, the train reaches Torre 
dell' Aununziata, a prosperous town with 15,480 inhabitants, 
situated on a small creek. Here a beautiful glimpse is disclosed 
of the bay of Castellamare with the town, commanded by Monte 
S. Angelo, the summit of which is crowned by the chapel of S. 
Michele; beyond it Vico Equense , in the distance Sorrento. 
Beyond the town the line skirts the shore, which is much frequented 
by fishermen ; the line to Castellamare then diverges to the r. 
(the trains to which may be taken as far as Torre dell' Annun- 
ziata, as the latter station is not above l ! / 4 M. from Pompeii; 
one-horse carr. 1 fr.J. The Pompeii line now proceeds inland; 
to the 1. the partially overgrown heaps of ashes thrown up by 
the excavations become visible. 

About 200 paces from the station the high road is reached, 
opposite the Hotel Diomede (p. 114). Crossing the road and 
ascending the steps to the r. of the hotel, the traveller soon 
reaches the ticket-office, and after paying for admission is pro- 
vided with a guide on entering. The direction of the road is 
now being altered, as excavations of the town on the side towards 
the sea are contemplated. 

Those who prefer to commence with the Street of Tombs pro- 
ceed to the 1. by the hotel along the road for 8 min., diverge 
to the r. by a small house, after 4 min. ascend to the r. by two 
cabarets, and in 3 min. more attain their destination. 

The guide should be informed of the points which the tra- 
veller contemplates visiting, in their consecutive order. The most 
interesting objects are indicated by the larger print. Of the re- 
mainder as many may be visited as time and inclination allow. 
Where time is limited, the Amphitheatre may best be omitted. 

From the Gate of Stabiae the route is by the theatres, the 
triangular Forum, the Temple of Isis, the Stabian mineral springs, 
through the street of Abbondanza to the Forum (pp. 135 and 


From the Gate of Herculaneum the route begins with the 
Street of Tombs, then the Thermae, Forum, Street of Mercury, 
whence the order is the same as that of the subjoined descrip- 
tion (pp. 128 and follg.). 

Pompeii is mentioned in history for the first time in B. C. 310; but 
its monuments, such as the wall of the town and the so-called Greek 
Temple, clearly prove it to be of much greater antiquity. Founded by the 
Oscans, it soon became imbued with the elements of Greek civilisation, like 


116 HouteS. POMPEII. Environs 

the other towns of this extensive tribe. Being situated near the sea on 
an ancient volcanic eminence, it carried on extensive commerce with the 
inland Campanian towns by means of the navigable river Sarnus, and 
enjoyed an uninterrupted, though not brilliant share of prosperity. (The 
sea and river were separated from the town by subsequent convulsions of 
nature.) After the Samnite wars, in which Pompeii had also participated, 
the town became subject to Rome. It united with the other Italians in 
the Social war. The rebels were defeated in the vicinity of Pompeii by 
Sulla, who attacked the town itself, but unsuccessfully. After the termi- 
nation of the war, however, B. C. 82, a colony of Roman soldiers was sent 
thither, and the inhabitants were compelled to cede to it one-third of their 
arable land. In course of time Pompeii became thoroughly Romanised, 
and was a favourite retreat of Romans of the wealthier classes, who (e. g. 
Cicero) purchased estates in the vicinity. It was also favoured by the em- 
perors. Tacitus records a serious conflict which took place in the amphi- 
theatre, A. D. 59, between the Pompeians and the neighbouring Nucerines, 
in consequence of which the former were prohibited from performing 
theatrical pieces for a period of 10 years. A few years later, A. D. 63, a 
fearful earthquake occurred, manifesting the re-awakened activity of Ve- 
suvius, which had been quiescent for centuries. The greater part of Pom- 
peii, its temples, colonnades, theatres, and private houses were ruined on 
that occasion, and the Roman senate even contemplated prohibiting its re- 
construction. Permission, however, having been granted, the town was re- 
erected in a style more conformable to the improved architecture of im- 
perial Rome. The new town had not long been completed, although the 
liberality of private persons had contributed to restore it in a remarkably 
short period, when it was overtaken by the catastrophe of Aug. 24th, 79. 
The first premonitory symptom was a dense shower of ashes, which covered 
the town with a stratum, about 3 ft. in depth, and allowed the inhabitants 
time to escape. Many of them, however, returned, some doubtless to rescue 
their valuables, others paralysed with fear and uncertain what course to 
pursue. The number of the skeletons of those who thus perished in one 
third part of the town already excavated is variously stated from 400 to 
600. The ashes were followed by a stupendous shower of red hot rapilli, 
or fragments of pumice-stone of all sizes, which covered the town to a 
depth of 7 — 8 ft., and was succeeded by fresh showers of ashes and again 
by rapilli. The present superincumbent mass is about 20 ft. in thickness. 
A portion of this was formed by subsequent eruptions, but the town had 
already been completely buried by the original catastrophe and entirely lost 
to view. A small village, which sprang up on or near the site, long served 
to maintain the name. In ancient times excavations were made, owing to 
which many valuable relics are probably lost to us, but during the middle 
ages Pompeii was entirely consigned to oblivion. In 1592 the architect 
Fontana constructed a subterranean water-conduit in order to supply Torre 
deir Annunziata from the Sarno, actually intersecting the ruins, and to 
this day in use ; yet no farther investigations were then attempted. In 
1748 the discovery of statues and bronze utensils by a peasant attracted 
the attention of Charles III., who caused excavations to be made. The 
amphitheatre, theatre, and other parts were then disinterred. The enthusiasm 
called forth by the discovery has been the frequent theme of poetical and 
other compositions by such celebrated authors as Bulwer, Schiller, etc. 
What wonder this ? — we ask the lymphid well, 
O Earth .' of thee — and from thy solemn womb 
What yield'st thou ? — Is there life in the abyss — 
Doth a new race beneath the lava dwell ? 
Returns the Past, awakening from the tomb? 

The earth, with faithful watch, has hoarded all! 
Under the Bourbons the excavations were continued in a very unsatis- 
factory manner. Statues and valuables alone were extricated, whilst the 
ruins were either suffered to fall to decay or covered up again. To the 
reign of JIurat, however, we are indebted for the excavation of the Forum, 

of Naples. POMPEII. 8. Route. 117 

the town-walls, the Street of Tombs, and many private houses. The political 
changes of 1860 have likewise exercised a beneficial effect. The government 
has assigned 60,000 fr. annually for the prosecution of the excavations. 
Vnder the able superintendence of 31. Fiorelli, instead of the former 
predatory operations, a regular plan has been adopted, according to which 
the ruins are systematically explored and carefully preserved, thus producing 
highly satisfactory results. A local museum and library have been in- 
stituted, a dwelling-house erected for students supported by government, 
and a railway constructed for the removal of the de'bris. The work is 
prosecuted chiefly in the winter months, and occasionally occupies several 
hundred labourers. 

Pompeii was once a prosperous provincial town, with a popu- 
lation computed at 30,000. The original Oscan inhabitants had 
at the close of the republic become completely Romanised, and 
after the earthquake of 63 the town was re-erected in conformity 
with the new cosmopolitan-Roman principles founded on a 
union of Greek and Italian elements. Although Pompeii, there- 
fore, represents but one definite epoch of antiquity, yet on the 
other hand it is the most important and almost the only source of 
our acquaintance with ancient domestic life. To investigate the 
various phases of this life, even in its minutest details, affords 
a pursuit of inexhaustible interest. 

The town is built in the form of an irregular oval, extending 
from E. to W. The circumference of the walls amounts to 2925 yds. 
There are 8 gates, to which the following appellations have 
been given : Porta di Ercolano, della Marina, di Stabia, di No- 
ctra, del Sarno, di Nola, di Capoa, del Vesuvio. In consequence 
of the prolonged peace, however, the walls had entirely lost their 
importance. Towards the sea they had been demolished, and 
outside the Gate of Herculaneum a considerable suburb had sprung 
up, termed Pagus Augustus Felix, after the settlement established 
by Augustus. 

The excavated portion embraces only about one-third of the 
own, but probably the most important part, comprising the Forum 
with the contiguous temples and public buildings, two theatres 
with large porticoes, the amphitheatre, and a considerable number 
of handsome private dwellings. The principal streets are: 1. The 
Consular Street, or Via Domitiana, which, prolonged by the Street 
of Tombs, leads to the Porta di Ercolano and thence in several 
ramifications to the Forum ; 2. The Street of Mercury (termed 
Street of the Forum as far as the Temple of Fortuna), from the 
Forum to the N. extremity of the town; 3. The street leading 
from the sea, past the Thermae and the Temple of Fortuna, to the 
Porta di Nola (termed successively the Street of the Thermae, 
Fortuna, and Nolo); 4. Strada dell' Abbondanza, leading appa- 
rently from the Forum to the Porta del Sarno ; 5. Street from 
the Porta di Stabia to the Porta del Vesuvio. The entrances to 
the houses have recently been numbered, and the different quar- 
ters (regio), and each block of houses bounded by four streets 
(insula), named in a somewhat arbitrary manner. 

118 RouteS. POMPEII. Environ* 

The streets, bordered by pavement, are straight and narrow, 
not above 24 ft. in breadth, the narrower lanes 14 ft. only. They 
are admirably paved with large polygonal blocks of lava. At in- 
tervals, especially at the corners, are placed high stepping-stones, 
leading from one side of the pavement to the other, intended for 
the convenience of foot-passengers in rainy weather. The waggons 
have left deep ruts in the causeways, which do not exceed 4'/2 ft. 
in width ; and the horses' hoofs have made impressions on the 
stepping-stones over which they were occasionally obliged to pass. 
At the corners of the streets are public fountains, decorated with 
the head of a god, a mask, or similar ornament. 

The houses are slightly constructed of concrete (small stones 
consolidated with cement) or bricks ; occasionally, especially the 
corner pillars, of blocks of tuffstone. The hasty and patched 
character of the construction is accounted for by the earthquake 
of 63. The numerous well-preserved staircases prove that the 
houses must uniformly have possessed a second and perhaps also 
a third story. These upper portions, consisting chiefly of wood, 
have, with a single exception (p. 134), been destroyed by the 
red-hot scoriie of the eruption. 

As the streets of Pompeii are traversed, a difference is soon 
observed between the rooms of the houses, which were shops or 
dwelling-houses according as they are turned to or from the street. 
The former appertained to the large dwelling-houses, and were let 
to merchants and shopkeepers, in the same way as the ground-floors 
of the palazzi in Naples are occupied by shops at the present day. 
These shops were generally in no way connected with the back part 
of the house, and exposed their entire frontage to the street, 
from which they could be separated by large wooden doors. Many 
of the shop-tables covered with marble and once fitted up with 
large earthen vessels for the sale of wine, oil, etc., are still pre- 
served. At the back of the shop there was occasionally a second 
room, probably occupied by the shopkeeper, who in other cases 
must have lived in the upper part of the house, or in a different 
part of the town. The great number of these shops affords 
proof of the importance of the retail traffic at Pompeii. Where 
the street was not thus enlivened, it was flanked by bare walls, 
adorned here and there with a painting. The absence of glass 
constitutes one of the principal differences between an ancient 
and a modern habitation. The ancients therefore concentrated 
their domestic life in the interior of their houses, which presented 
to the street a blank wall with as few openings as possible, and 
these covered with an iron grating. A distinct idea of this mode 
of building, so different from that of the present day, and without 
parallel except in some oriental countries, is best obtained in the 
more recently excavated and better preserved streets between the 
Forum and the Stabian Street. 

of Naples. POMPEII. 8. Route. 119 

The habitations of Pompeii are of very various sizes, and have 
obviously been very differently fitted up, in accordance with the na- 
ture of the situation, the caprice of the proprietor, or other circum- 
stances. Their chief peculiarity is the internal court, which pro- 
vided the surrounding chambers with light, ani was the medium of 
■communication between them. Most of those Pompeian houses, 
which belonged to the wealthy middle class are entered from the 
street by a narrow passage (vestibulum) leading to the court (atrium), 
surrounded by a covered passage, with the impluvium, or reser- 
voir for rain-water, in the centre. Beyond the atrium is a large 
apartment opening on to it, termed the tablinum. This front 
portion of the house was devoted to its intercourse with the external 
world ; here the patron received his clients, transacted business, etc. 
The other portion of the house was destined solely for the use of 
the family. Its centre also consisted of an open court, enclosed 
by columns, and thence termed the Peristylium, the middle of 
which was laid out as a garden. Sometimes beyond the peristyle 
lay a private garden (Xystos), surrounded by columns. At the 
back of the peristyle were sometimes several business rooms, 
termed (Eci. Round these principal apartments, in which the 
magnificence of the house is concentrated, are situated the sleep- 
ing and eating-rooms, slaves' rooms, kitchen, cellar, etc. The 
upper floor was destined principally for the slaves. Most of the 
apartments are remarkably small, a circumstance explained by 
the absence of glass. 

Marble is rarely met with in the public or domestic architec- 
ture of Pompeii, the columns being invariably constructed of tuff- 
stone or bricks, cemented by mortar. These were then covered 
with stucco, which is here made to take the place of marble, and 
afforded ample scope for decorative painting. It is in fact hardly 
possible to imagine a gayer or (externally) a more richly decorated 
town than Pompeii must have been. The lower halves of the columns 
are generally red, the capitals tastefully painted ; the walls, too, 
where undecorated, are painted with bright, glaring colours, espe- 
cially red and yellow, harmonising well with the brilliancy of a sou- 
thern sun. The extreme delicacy and variety of the mural decora- 
tions are worthy of especial notice. The centre of the walls is 
generally occupied by an independent painting. The best of these 
were removed to the museum at Naples, before they had suffered 
from exposure to the elements ; many, however, of those left 
merit inspection. The representations present a uniformly soft, 
erotic character, corresponding to the peaceful and pleasure-seeking 
taste of the age. 

In the streets are frequently seen notices painted in red let- 
ters, referring generally to the election of the municipal authori- 
ties, and recommending some particular individual as sedile or 
duumvir. Trade-signs, like those of the present day, are very 

120 RouteS. POMPEII. Temple of Venus. 

rare. On the other hand an occasional Phallus is seen, for the 
purpose of averting the evil eye ; and one or two large snakes, 
the emblems of the Lares, the gods of the hearth and of cross- 
ways, are very common. 

We now proceed to details. 

From the ticket-office near the Hotel Diomede the visitor passes 
between mounds of ashes, and reaches the Porta delta Marina, 
a vaulted passage under ancient magazines, which in modern 
times have been covered in. At the entrance to the r. is a muti- 
lated female figure in terracotta. The street now ascends rapidly, 
like all the other approaches to the town, which lies on an emi- 
nence. The passage, lT 1 /^ ft. in width and Ib^li ft. in length, 
has on the 1. a path for foot-passengers. In the chambers on 
the r. the Museum already alluded to is in process of formation. 
It contains in glass-cases the casts of four bodies found in 1863. 
When they were discovered in the course of the excavations, 
plaster of Paris was carefully poured into the cavities in which 
they had lain, and the figures and attitudes of the deceased in 
their death-struggle were thus obtained. One of them is a 
man with his clothes gathered around him for flight ; to the r. 
a girl with a ring on her finger ; to the 1. two women, one 
elderly and of commanding figure, the other younger. Another 
figure with most perfect head has just been found. Beside them 
are human and canine skeletons, and imitations of ancient doors, 
windows and furniture. 

On the r., as the street ascends, are blank walls, on the 1., 
uninteresting half-buried shops, some of which are now being 
excavated. The Basilica (PI. 64), which opens on to the Forum, 
is then entered by a side approach to the r. It is an oblong 
edifice, 220 ft. long, 89'/2 ft- broad. The facade towards the Forum 
was richly decorated. A passage round the interior consists of 
28 brick columns with capitals of tuffstone ; the space in the 
centre was perhaps not covered in by a roof. On the walls are half- 
columns, all covered with stucco. At the extremity of the build- 
ing was the elevated tribunal, or seat of the presiding magistrate, 
accessible probably by moveable steps. In front of it a pedestal 
for a statue; beneath it vaulted prisons, reached by a stair. 

Also on the W. side of the Forum, to the 1. of the Str. della 
Marina, is situated the so-called *Temple of Venus (PL 63), 
which was still uncompleted when the catastrophe occurred. The 
temple is surrounded by a spacious, irregular quadrangle, 178 ft. 
long, on the S. side 1037 2 ft. and on the N. side 109V 2 ft. broad. 
As the side towards the Forum did not correspond with the di- 
rection of the latter, the wall, in order to prevent the eye being 
offended by this irregularity, was furnished in the interior with 8 
buttresses at intervals, each projecting farther than the last. The 
portico is borne by 48 columns, which, originally of the Doric 

Forum. POMPEII. 8. Route. 121 

order, had been by means of stucco converted into Corinthian ; 
but this coating has now fallen off. The temple itself rises in 
the centre of the court, on a basement 65 ! /2 ft. in length, 39 ft. 
in width, and 8 in height, and is approached by 13 steps. 
Facing these stands an altar, bearing an inscription of the dedi- 
cators, the quatuorviri of the town. The still visible traces show 
that it was employed for bloodless offerings of incense, such as 
were usually presented to Venus. To the r. in the colonnade, a 
statue of unknown import. The temple itself was surrounded by 
a colonnade, and had a facade of 6 columns. Within the vestibule 
was the shrine, where the figure of the goddess stood on a lofty 
pedestal. A much mutilated statue of Venus was found here. Fine 
view of M. Santangelo from this point. — Behind the court of the 
temple are chambers for the priestesses, decorated with paintings. 

The *Forum, or Forum Civile (PI. 57), forms the central point 
of the town. On the N. side, detached, stands the temple of 
Jupiter (p. 122); the other sides are enclosed by an arcade. The 
Area, or open space in the centre, is 515 ft. in length and 108 ft. 
in breadth, and is paved with large slabs. Six streets converge 
here, but the forum was protected against the trespass of riders 
or waggons by pillars of stone round the margins, and could even 
be entirely shut off by gates. In the area are 22 bases for sta- 
tues, erected in honour of emperors and other illustrious men, 5 
of which (4 on the W. side, 1 at the S.E. corner) still bear 
incriptions, dedicated to officials of high rank, the duumviri (si- 
milar to the consuls of Rome) and quinquennales (censors) of the 
town. The extensive basements on the S. side were destined for 
equestrian statues, most of the pedestals never having been com- 
pleted. The colonnade which surrounds the Forum varies in 
breadth from 26 to 45 ft., a number of the buildings which ad- 
join it having been erected at a date prior to the construction of 
the Forum. Above the lower columns of the Doric order rose a 
second series of the Ionic, thus constituting an upper, covered 
passage, approached by steps, several of which are still preserved. 
The whole was in an unfinished condition at the period of the 
destruction of the town ; portions of the frieze, consisting of 
limestone, placed round the colonnade, are still in a rough state; 
on the S. and E. sides are older columns of tuffstone. 

To the r. of the Basilica, on the S. side of the Forum, are 
situated the Tribunals (PI. 66), 3 contiguous apartments, each 
with a hemicyclical extremity. As they do not harmonise with 
the rest of the Forum, they are believed to be of earlier origin. 
Their destination is not distinctly ascertained ; but they appear 
to have served as courts for suits of minor importance. 

To the 1., by the tribunals, the Street of the Schools di- 
verges, pursuing an E. direction as far as the Forum Triangulares 
the excavated houses are again partially covered with rubbish, and 
therefore devoid of interest. 

1*22 RouteS. POMPEII. Temple of Jupiter 

On the E. side of the Forum, at the corner of the handsome 
.Sir. dell' Abbondanza, is a square hall, erroneously supposed to 
be a school. 

On the opposite side of the street is situated the *Chalcidi- 
cum (PI. 62), erected by the priestess Eumachia, and perhaps 
employed as an exchange. On the frieze of the portico facing 
the Forum, and still more fully over the entrance in the Str. 
dell' Abbondanza, the following inscription may be read : "Eumachia 
Lucii filia sacerdos publica nomine suo et M. Numistri Frontoni* 
fill ckalcidicum cryptam porticus, Concordiae Augustae Pietati sua 
pecunia fecit eademque dedicavit." The interior is separated from 
the portico by a number of small chambers, which served as a 
kind of magazine, where a great number of marble slabs were 
found, destined for the completion of the edifice. In the interior 
is an open court, 123 1 /'' ft. in length, 63 ft. in width, surrounded 
by 54 columns of Parian marble, of which, however, three only 
were left in a mutilated condition. This colonnade (chalcidicum) 
is surrounded by a covered passage (crypta), which afforded pro- 
tection against the weather. At the back of this, in a niche, 
stands the statue of Eumachia (a copy, the original is at Naples), 
erected by the fullers (fullones) of Pompeii. 

On the external wall of the Chalcidicum is the copy of an 
inscription found here, dedicated to Romulus. The visitor next 
reaches the so-called *Temple of Mercury (PI. 61), 8372 ft. in 
length, 54 ft. in breadth. A number of the objects discovered 
in the course of the excavations have been placed here : vases, 
spouts of fountains, rain-gutters, capitals, stone-weights with iron 
handles, mortars, earthenware, etc. To the 1. of the entrance 
are vessels of lead, fragments of glass, bone articles, iron gra- 
tings, fetters, tires of waggon-wheels; to the r. earthenware and 
fragments of marble. In the centre an *altar in marble with 
reliefs : on the front victims, on the sides the utensils employed 
in connection with the sacrifice. 

The form of this temple is very irregular. At the extremity 
of the area is the small shrine with a pedestal for the statue of 
the god. 

Contiguous to the latter is the Curia (PI. 59), where, as is 
generally believed, the town-council held their deliberations. It 
is a square hall, 65'/2 ft- long, 59 ft. broad, with hemicyclical 
termination and several niches, but greatly damaged. 

Opposite, on the N. side of the Forum and in the most con- 
spicuous part of it, rises the *Temple of Jupiter (PI. 60), on a 
basement 10 ft. in height. At the time of the eruption it was 
in process of being entirely restored. The Pronaos is approached 
by 18 steps, and has a facade of 6 columns with 3 on each side. 
Apertures in the ground admit light to the underground chambers, 
which then served as a magazine for building materials, originally 

Temple of Augustus. POMPEII. 8. Route. 123 

probably' a treasury. The entire length of the temple is 100 ft. 
Behind the Pronaos is the shrine, with 2 series of columns, 8 in 
each, arranged close to the walls, which are painted in the 
brightest colours. At the back are three chambers. At the 
farther extremity, to the 1., a stair ascends to the upper story 
of the temple, which the visitor should not omit to see, as it 
affords a fine *panorama of Pompeii, M. Santangelo crowned by 
the chapel of S. Michele, the castle of Quisisana, and the chain 
of the Apennines. 

On the W. side, passing by the Temple of Venus, the visitor 
observes at the end of the latter a niche, in which, as an in- 
scription found here informs us, the public weights and measures 
were kept. Then follows a stair, which led to the arcade, and 
formed an approach to the Temple of Venus. Adjoining the 
latter is the so-called Lesche, a hall apparently for public pur- 
poses. Beyond this is a public latrina, and then a building, 
which from its narrow, gloomy cells appears to have been a 
prison. An adjacent wall separated it from the Forum. In the 
vicinity, adjoining the Temple of Jupiter, is a triumphal arch. 

At the E. end of the Forum, contiguous to the Curia, stands 
the so-called *Temple of Augustus (PI. 58), sometimes termed 
the Pantheon, an edifice whose object is involved in mystery. 
In front of it are pedestals for statues ; on the exterior, shops 
possibly occupied by money-changers. The interior is entered by 
2 doors; it consists of a rectangular court, 123 ft. in length, 
88'/2 ft- in width, the walls decorated with frescoes (those to the 
1. of the entrance, the best preserved, represent Argus and 
Io, Ulysses and Penelope). The court was still unfinished when 
the catastrophe took place ; it was destined to be enclosed by a 
colonnade, but the limestone slabs of the pavement have been 
laid on the N. and W. sides only, while on the other sides the 
enclosure is formed by tuffstone blocks. A dodecagon is formed 
in the centre by 12 pedestals for statues. To the r. are 12 cham- 
bers simply painted red; at the extremity an issue into a back 
street. To the 1. is one of the principal issues to the Street of 
the Augustales (named after this edifice). On the E. side, oppo- 
site as the building is entered, rises the shrine. On the prin- 
cipal pedestal stood the statue of the emperor, in the side niches 
Livia and Drusus (here replaced by copies). To the 1. of this 
shrine was another with an altar, which perhaps was employed 
in the celebration of the sacrificial banquets ; the gallery by the 
lateral wall is believed to have been an orchestra. To the r. a 
larger apartment with stands of masonry with a slight inclination, 
and furnished with gutters beneath to carry off the blood or 
water, possibly a kitchen. The whole was perhaps employed by 
the college of Augustales. The arrangements recal the Serapeum 
at Pozzuoli (p. 89). 

124 Route 8. POMPEII. Thermae. 

Adjacent to the Temple of Augustus rises the Triumphal 
Arch, constructed of brick, which forms the boundary of the 
Forum in this direction ; its former marble covering no longer 
exists. Under it terminates the Street of the Forum, or as it 
is called in its prolongation, the Street of Mercury. The first 
transverse street is that of the Augustales. At the corner, a 
relief with figures of two men carrying a wine-jar : the sign of a 
wine-merchant. We now follow the Street of the Forum. To 
the r. a small Museum, a repository of objects in bronze, iron, 
lead, terracotta, and colours, a number of loaves, etc. Beyond it 
a room containing a *model of Pompeii. 

The Street of the Forum now leads to the Temple of Fortuna 
(PI. 49), to the r. at the corner of the first transverse street, erected 
according to the inscription by M. Tullius. It is approached 
by 13 steps; the length 79^2 ft., breadth 30 ft. Two portrait- 
statues found in the Cella are believed to have pertained to the 
Gens Tullia. 

At the beginning of the Street of Mercury rises an arch of 
brickwork, on which the pipes of a water-conduit are visible. 

We now turn to the 1. into the Strada delle Terme. The 
2nd door to the 1. is the entrance to the *Ihermse (PI. 39), 
which occupy almost an entire insula, i. e. the space enclosed 
by 4 streets; breadth 162 ft., depth 170 72 ft- The exterior was 
surrounded by shops, which had no connection with the interior. 
Entrances 6 in number. A large portion of the establishment 
is now employed as magazines, and the public are admitted to 
one half of the actual baths only. A passage leads first to the 
chamber for undressing (apodyterium) , 37 J /2 ft. long, 22 ft. 
wide, surrounded by benches. Beyond this is the cold bath (frigi- 
darium), a rotunda with 4 niches. The vault above was pro- 
vided with a glass window. In the centre the basin, 14^2 ft- 
in diameter, with a marble ledge surrounding it. From the un- 
dressing room to the r. the warm bath (tepidarium) is entered, 
an apartment 33 ft. in length, 18 ft. in breadth. A frieze 
surrounding it is furnished with niches for depositing clothes and 
articles of the toilet, and is supported by figures of Atlas in terra- 
cotta. The vaulting was richly decorated, partly with stucco figures 
in relief. This chamber was heated by means of air-pipes, and 
by a large brazier of bronze. Adjacent is the hot air bath (cali- 
dar'tum or sudatorium), 53 ft. long, 1 7 ' / 2 ft. broad. A niche at 
the extremity contains a marble basin for washing the hands 
and face with cold water; it bears an inscription recording that 
it was erected at an expense of 5250 sesterces (39 I. sterl.). At 
the other end is the basin for warm baths. The apartment had 
double walls and floor, between which the steam diffused itself. 
— The baths also possessed an extensive colonnade, now con- 

House of Puma. POMPEII. 8. Route. 125 

verted into a garden, besides several other chambers and baths 
for women, all of which are inaccessible to the public. 

Nearly opposite to the Thermae is situated the * House of 
the Tragic Poet (PL 38), one of the most elegant in Pompeii, 
so called from two representations found in the tablinum, a poet 
reading, and a theatrical rehearsal (these, together with beautiful 
paintings of subjects from the Iliad, are now in the museum at 
Naples) ; but more probably the house of a goldsmith, if we 
may judge from the trinkets discovered in the adjoining shop. 
This is represented by Bulwer in his ' Last Days of Pompeii ' 
as the dwelling of Glaucus. On the threshold was a dog in 
mosaic, with the inscription 'Cave canem' (p. 64), now in the 
Museum. The peristyle of seven columns is closed in the rear 
by a wall, on which is a small shrine of the Lares. In a room 
to the 1. of the latter, Venus and Cupid fishing, and the deserted 
Ariadne. In the triclinium on the r., Leda presenting Tyndarus 
with Castor, Pollux, and Helen in a nest, Theseus abandoning 
Ariadne, and two unexplained figures. 

We now pursue our route through the Str. delle Terme. To 
the r. the House of Fansa (PL 37), one of the largest in 
Pompeii, occupying an entire insula, 321 •/o ft. in length, 124 ft. 
in breadth. It comprises 16 shops and dwellings, facing the 
different streets. On the threshold was found a mosaic with 
the greeting SALVE. This house affords a normal specimen of 
a palatial residence of the imperial period, complete in all its 
appointments: atrium, tablinum, peristyle, oecus (to the L, con- 
tiguous, kitchen with the snakes); finally the garden or Xystus. 

We now proceed hence towards the Porta di Ereolano, di- 
verging to the r. At the picturesque corner opposite is a tavern, 
to the 1. in front of which the street leads to the gate. This 
was a busy commercial street, and contained few superior resi- 

To the 1. is a house fitted up for a library and for the reception 
of students supported by government (Scuola Pompeiana). Farther 
on, on the r., is the 

House of Sallust (PL 33), with gaily painted atrium, behind 
which are the tablinum and a small irregularly shaped garden, 
with a dining-room (triclinium) in the corner. The place of 
the peristyle is in this case occupied by a small court enclosed 
by pillars, to the r. of the atrium, which has been, though 
without good reason, styled the Venereum. On the wall oppo- 
site, *Actaeon watching Diana at the bath, converted into a 
stag, and torn to pieces by his own dogs. 

The following door leads to a Bake-house, with ovens and 
different mills for grinding the corn. The latter were probably 
turned by asses, or in some cases by slaves. 

At the corner of the street, a fountain ; behind it a cistern. 

126 RouteS. POMPEII. Town-wall. 

The street of Narcissus here diverges to the r., leading to the 
town-wall, but contains no object of interest. 

The houses to the 1., on the slope of the eminence on which 
the town stood, frequently possessed several storeys and exten- 
-ive vaults, employed as magazines. 

A large, open hall to the r. was a species of Custom-House 
(PL 27), where a number of weights and measures were found, 
one of which had been stamped in the Capitol at Rome. 

A little farther, to the r., is situated the House of the Surgeon 
(PI. 26), so called from the discovery of a considerable number of 
surgical instruments. It is distinguished by its massive con- 
duction of limestone blocks from the river Sarno, and is probably 
the most ancient house in the town. To the r. the extensive 
House of the Vestals (PI. 25) is next reached. 

To the 1., opposite, stands a spacious Tavern, with a Phallus 
towards the street, intended to avert the evil eye. It pos- 
sesses 2 wine-tables and also an entrance for waggons. From 
the chambers in the rear, as well as from the preceding and 
following houses on this side, a charming glimpse is obtained 
of the bay with the island of Capri ; near the land the pictu- 
resque little rocky island of Rovigliano ; to the r. Torre dell' 

To the r. a tavern, then the Porta di Ercolano, to the r. of 
which a stair-case ascends to the *Town-wall, which should be 
visited for the sake of the view. This wall, the most ancient 
structure in Pompeii, is 2843 yds. in circumference, and consists 
of an external and internal wall, the intervening space being 
rilled with earth. The height of the external walls varies ac- 
cording to the ground from 26 to 33 ft., that of the internal 
is uniformly 8 ft. greater. Originally constructed of large 
blocks of lava and limestone, it was subsequently strengthened, 
perhaps during the Social war, by the addition of towers. It 
must then, whether from the siege of Sulla or other causes, 
have been considerably damaged, and was hastily restored about 
the time of the war between C*sar and Pompey, the gaps being 
rilled with concrete. The difference between the ancient and 
more recent mode of building is well illustrated by this portion 
of the wall near the Herculanean Gate. During the undisturbed 
peace of the imperial period, the walls on the side towards the 
sea were probably removed, and their site built over. The Gate 
of Herculaneum is one of the most recent structures. It consists 
of 3 series of arches, of which the central and largest has fallen 
in. The depth of the passage is 59 ft. 

Outside this gate lay a considerable suburb, the Pagus 
Augustus Felix, named after the military colony of Augustus. 
Of this only one street has been partially excavated, from 
which, however, -everal others diverged on either side. This 

street of Tombs. POMPK1I. «. Route. 127 

is the so-called * Street of the Tombs, the great military road 
from Capua to Naples, Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Reggio. The 
ancient Roman custom of burying the dead by the side of a 
high road is well known. It has been ascertained that rows 
of graves, similar to those discovered here, exist beyond the 
other gates also. The Street of Tombs is with respect to its 
environs the most beautiful part of the town. 

To the r. stands a large pedestal in an unfinished state. 

To the 1. the Tomb of Cerinius (PI. 22), a recess with seats. 
It has been alleged that this was a sentry-box, and that the 
skeleton contained in it was that of the sentinel who expired as 
his post; but this must be regarded only as an interesting Action. 

To the 1. a semicircular seat with the tomb of the duumvir 
.4. Veins. 

To the 1. the *Tomb of Mamia (PI. 20); in front a seat like 
the above, with the inscription : 'Mamiae Publii filiae sacerdoti 
publicae locus sepulturae datus decurionum decreto'. In the rear, 
enclosed by a low wall, is the columbarium, with niches for 
cinerary urns. A solitary cypress adorns the tomb. The view 
from this seat of the bay and the mountains of Castellamare 
is singularly beautiful. 

A street diverges to the r., by the side of which is the 
Tomb of Terentius (PL 18). Beyond it, to the r., the Tomb of 
the Oarlands (PI. 16), so called from its decorations; name un- 
known. To the r. a tomb with open recess and seat. 

On the 1. is the so-called Villa of Cicero (PI. 13), again 
covered up. The buttresses visible belong to a colonnade which 
lay parallel to the street. 

To the r. 2 shops, then the House of the Mosaic Columns (PI. 14), 
in a very dilapidated state. The entrance leads into a garden, 
at the extremity of which is a recess inlaid with mosaic, destined 
for a fountain. To the 1. a court with private chapel and altar. 
The 2 stair-cases ascended to the upper story. 

Beyond the villa of Cicero several handsome monuments will 
be observed. First that of Servilia (PI. 11). Then that of Scau- 
rus (PI. 10), with reliefs in stucco, representing the gladiatorial 
combats celebrated in honour of the deceased, but in a very im- 
perfect state. Here also a columbarium with niches. 

To the r. is a long arcade, in the rear of which shops were 
situated. From the skeleton of a mule found here it has been 
suggested that this was a resort of peasants on market-days. In 
the last shop is a stove, the upper part of which consisted of 
earthenware vessels fitted together. The street which here di- 
verges has not yet been excavated. 

To the r. several ruined tombs, the first of which is con- 
jectured to have been an ustrinum (place where the dead were 

12S RouteS. POMPEII. Villa of Diomedes 

To the 1. a circular monument, name unknown. 

To the 1. the * Tomb of the Augustalis Calventius Quintu* 
(PI. 6); beneath the inscription the bisellium (seat of dignity) 
accorded to him in recognition of his liberality is represented. 

To the r. *Tomb of the Libella family (PI. 7), of travertine, 
and well preserved, with inscriptions. Beyond, to the r., are 
several other ruined tombs, the inscriptions on which are partially 

To the 1. the *Tomb of Xaevoleia Tyche (PI. 5), with chamber 
for cinerary urns. This individual was a freedwoman, who, 
according to the inscription, destined this tomb for herself and 
C. Munatius Faustus, chief official of this quarter of the town, 
and for their freedmen ; a relief beneath refers to the con- 
secration of the tomb. To the 1. is next observed a Triclinium, 
destined for funeral repasts. Then the *Villa of Diomedes 
(PI. 1), arbitrarily so called from the opposite tomb of the 
family nf Arrius Diomedes. The arrangement of this, as well 
as other villas, differs considerably from that of the urban 
dwellings. A flight of steps with 2 columns leads at once to the 
peristyle of 14 Doric columns, whence the bath is entered to 
the 1. Opposite are terraces, which rise above the second and 
lower portion of the house. The garden, 108 ft. square, with 
a basin for a fountain in the centre, is surrounded by a colon- 
nade. From the terrace a stair descends to the 1. (another, from 
the entrance from the street, to the r.). Beneath this colonnade, 
on 3 sides, is situated a vaulted cellar which merits a visit, 
lighted by small apertures above, and approached by stairs de- 
scending at each end. Here 17 bodies of women and children, 
who had provided themselves with food, and had sought protection 
in this vault against the eruption, were found. But the fine 
ashes penetrated through the openings into the interior, and too 
late the ill-fated party endeavoured to escape. They were found 
with their heads wrapped up, half buried by the ashes. The 
impression made on the ashes by a girl's breast is now in the 
museum at Naples. The probable proprietor of the house was 
found near the garden-door (now walled up), with the key in 
his hand; beside him a slave with money and valuables. 

We now re-ascend the Street of Tombs to the Gate of Her- 
culaneum, and return thence by the Vicolo di Mercurio, the first 
transverse street to the 1. The third street, intersecting the 
latter at right angles, is the important Strada di Mercurio, lead- 
ing from the town wall to the Forum. 

In the direction of the town-wall: r., Nos. 10, 11, House 
of Castor and Pollux (PI. 26), two distinct houses, but connected. 
No. 10 is simple and homely. It is connected with the neigh- 
bouring house by a large peristyle, adorned with paintings all 
round; at the extremity a basin destined for a fountain ; beyond 

House of Meleager. POMPEII. 8. Route. 129 

it a hall. From the peristyle the atrium of the other house is 
entered to the 1., beyond which are the tablinum and a garden 
with lararium. The best preserved of the frescoes is one of 
Apollo and Daphne in a chamber to the 1. of the garden. 

R., Nos. 12, 14, House of the Centaur (PI. 45), two different 
houses, connected by a door. No. 11 has an underground dwell- 
ing, the vaulting of which has fallen in. 

R.. No. 15, * House of Meleager (PI. 44). Within the 
doorway, to the r., Mercury handing a purse to Fortuna. The 
richly decorated atrium contains a marble table, supported by 
griffins. Contrary to the usual arrangement, the peristyle does 
not lie behind, but to the 1. of the atrium. This is the finest 
peristyle which has been discovered at Pompeii, being 79 ft. in 
length, and 66 ft. in breadth. The porticus is borne by 24 columns 
(lower part red, upper white), and adorned by a graceful fountain. 
Adjoining the peristyle at the back is an oecus, enclosed on 
three sides by 12 yellow painted columns. The frescoes are 
also yellow; among them, to the r., a young satyr startling a 
Bacchante with a snake. To the 1. of the oecus a hall with 
frescoes : on the transverse wall to the 1. the Judgment of Paris. 

L., No. 20, House of Apollo (PI. 43), so named from the 
numerous representations of that god which were found here. 
Behind the tablinum a fountain of grotesque style. To the r. 
is an adjoining court, at the end of which a handsome sleeping- 
chamber (for 2 beds); on the external wall a landscape with a 
Bacchanalian, and a mosaic of Achilles in Scyros ; among the 
weapons which Ulysses offers him is a shield, on which Achilles 
and Chiron are represented. 

L.. No. 25, House of the Wounded Adonis (PI. 42). In the 

Xystos. to the r., a fresco, above life-size, of *Adonis wounded, 

tended and bewailed by Venus and Cupids ; at the sides, 1. 

and r. Achilles and Chiron. In a room to the 1. of the garden, 

Toilet of the Hermaphrodite'. 

We now retrace our steps. At the corner which the Str. di 
Mercurio forms with the Vicolo di Mercurio, to the r., is the 
fountain with the head of Mercury whence these streets derive 
their name. 

L., No. 9, &*Tavem; towards the street a table covered with 
marble and a fire-place. A door leads from the shop to the 1. 
into a small room adorned with various allusions to drinking : 
a waggon with a wine-cask, players and drinkers, eatables, etc. 
In the corner to the 1. a soldier is being served; above him is 
scribbled: 'da fridam pusillum' (a glass of cold). To the r. 
two other chambers, out of the first of which a door leads to the 
neighbouring house No. 8, the Casa del Cinque Scheletri (so called 
from the five skeletons found here), which perhaps served as a 

B^dekee. Italy III. -ith Edition. 9 

130 Route8. POMPEII. House of the Faun. 

From the corner of the Vicolo di Mercurio a digression may 
be made in the adjacent street to the 1. to the House of the 
Labyrinth (opp. side of first side-street, immediately to the 1. ; 
PI. 47), a roomy dwelling with two atria ; principal entrance 2nd 
door to the r. In the passage leading to the peristyle, imme- 
diately to the 1. and opening on the latter, is a window of 
terracotta with 6 small apertures, resembling pigeon-holes. In 
the room beyond the peristyle, to the 1. a mosaic pavement : 
Theseus killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. The house to 
the 1. was destined for the menage; it contains three rooms, 
with a finely decorated bath and large bake-house. 

We now return to the Str. di Mercurio. 

K., No. 35, *House of the Small Fountain (delta fontana pic- 
cola, PI. 41); to the r. of the entrance a stair ascends to the 
2nd floor. At the farther extremity of the house a *Fountain 
(PI. 31) of gaily coloured mosaic, adorned with a small and grace- 
ful bronze: Boy with a goose (a copy, original at Naples). The 
walls are decorated with landscapes, among which to the 1., a 

It., No. 36, House of the Large Fountain, at the end of 
which a mosaic *Fountain similar to the above. 

It., No. 38, the Fullonica (PI. 40), or fuller's establishment. 
The large atrium, supported by square pillars (on one of which 
were the frescoes alluding to the fuller's art, now in Naples), 
was perhaps covered in and served as a magazine. Round it are 
chambers for the workmen. At the end of the house are four 
basins on different levels, destined for washing the cloths, which 
were afterwards stamped with the feet in the small stands to 
the r. One issue leads to the Strada della Fullonica. Adjacent 
to these premises, and connected with them by a door, was the 
dwelling-house of the proprietor, No. 37. 

It., No. 44, a very small Barber's Shop. In the centre a 
seat for customers ; to the r. a bench and two recesses. 

L., No. 4, House of Pomponius, with an oil-mill to the r. 

L., No. 3, House of the Anchor (PL 48), named after the 
anchor in mosaic on the threshold, a spacious dwelling. By the 
tablinum a stair descends to a peristyle on the level of the Str. 
della Fortuna, surrounded by a cryptoporticus. 

Having reached the archway of the Str. di Mercurio, we 
now turn to the 1. into the Str. della Fortuna, a prolongation 
of the Str. delle Terme, and leading to the Gate of Nola. 

L., No. 55, *House of the Faun (PI. 50), discovered in 1830 
in presence of Goethe's son, was entirely disinterred during the 
two subsequent years. The name is derived from the bronze 
statue of a dancing Faun found here. The house occupies an 
entire insula, and is the handsomest in Pompeii, 288 ft. long, 
126 ft. broad. From the great number of amphor* discovered 

Vico Storto. POMPEII. 8. Route, 131 

here it has been concluded that the proprietor was a wine- 
merchant, and the retail traffic may have been carried on in 
the shops on the exterior. On the pavement in front of the 
house the greeting HAVE. It possesses 2 entrances and 2 atria. 
The peristyle contains 28 Ionic columns of tuffstone coated with 
stucco. In the exedra, which opens on the peristyle, was found 
the celebrated mosaic of the Battle of Alexander. In the rear 
a garden 105 ft. long, 115 ft. broad, enclosed by 56 columns 
of the Doric order. 

R., No. 4, Casa della Pareta Nera ("PI. 51), so called from 
the black wall in the exedra, covered with representations of 
love scenes. 

K.. No. 6, Casa dei Capitelli Figurati (PI. 52), named after 
the capitals of the entrance-pillars, adorned with heads of Bac- 
chantes and Fauns. From the peristyle a sugar-bakehouse is 
entered, its destination having been conjectured from the nature 
of the objects found there; the stove is still in existence. 

R., No. 7, House of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany (PI. 53), 
small, with mosaic fountain. 

R.. No. 11, House of Ariadne (PI. 54), extending as far as 
the Street of the Augustales and containing towards the latter 
an additional atrium. The atrium towards the Str. della For- 
tuna possesses 20 columns, the peristyle 16, the lower part 
yellow, the capitals painted with variegated colours ; in the centre 
a fountain. Various representations. 

R., No. 14, House of the Chase (PI. 55). In the peristyle 
(which has columns on 2 sides only and a basin in the centre), 
on the opp. side : wild beast fights, whence the name of the 
house ; to the r. landscapes. Excavations had already been made 
here in ancient times ; a portion of the passage made by the 
workmen, in a room to the 1., is still to be seen. 

By this house the Vico Storto diverges to the r., so called 
from its curve; to the 1. several unexcavated lanes. If the Str. 
della Fortuna be followed for a short distance, the broad Strada 
Stabiana is reached, leading to the r. to the gate of that name, 
and formerly extending in the opposite direction as far as the 
Porta di Vesuvio. The Str. della Fortuna is now prolonged as 
the Str. di Xola, towards the gate of that name. The houses 
on each side are only excavated in front. At the point of in- 
tersection of the streets a fountain, 1. an altar of the Lares, 
adjacent the pillars of a water-conduit. From this point the Gate 
of Nola, the most ancient in the town, is attained in 5 min. 

We, however, now enter the Vico Storto, leading to the 
Street of the Augustales. The portion of the latter, to the r., 
leading to the Forum, presents no object of interest. We there- 
fore turn to the 1., this part of the street traversing the most 
recently excavated quarter of the town. 


132 Route 8. POMPEII. House of M. Lucretius. 

At the corner to the r. a soap-manufaetory, as has been 
concluded from the articles found ; it contains a large stove. 
Numerous bakers lived in this street. L., the House of the Bear 
(PI. 85), named from the mosaic on the threshold, with the 
greeting 'Have', contains a fountain at the back, adorned with 

Opposite, the Str. del Lupanare diverges to the r. 

R., No. 22, House of the Dolphin (PI. 88), named from the 
mosaic on the door, sometimes termed the House of Mars and 
Venus from a painting on the r. in the atrium. Spacious peri- 
style with 14 columns. This house has a cellar. Nos. 24, 25, 
a Bake-house ; at the back a number of corn-mills, and an oven 
in which 81 loaves were found. 

We now reach the Str. di Stabia, and follow it to the left- 
No. 33, immediately to the r., is the *House of Marcus Lucre- 
tius (PI. 56), once richly fitted up, although with questionable 
taste. Behind the atrium is a small *garden, laid out in ter- 
races, with a fountain and a number of marble figures. The 
best of the paintings are preserved at Naples. This is almost 
the only house in Pompeii the proprietor of which is known 
by name. This was furnished by a letter found with the painted 
address: M. Lucretio Flam. Martis decurioni Pompei. 

Descending the Str. Stabiana towards the gate, we now reach 
(1.) No. 52, the tablinum of which contains frescoes, represent- 
ing Pietas and the forsaken Ariadne ; then (r.) No 57, Casa 
■lei Principi di Russia, with a handsome marble table in the 
atrium. From the peristyle a stair leads to the house of Siricus 
(p. 133). 

Farther on, to the r.. the Thermae at the corner of the Str. 
dell' Abbondanza (from which they are entered). This broad 
street ascends from the Str. Stabiana to the Forum. On the 
other side, towards the Porta del Sarno. the portion as far as 
the next street (Vico di Tesmoj only is excavated. At the corner 
here is the buttress of an aqueduct, leaden pipes connected with 
which are observable on the pavement farther on. To the 1. in 
the street leading to the Porta di Sarno is the Casa dei Diadu- 
rneni (PI. 90), with a small platform in front of the facade, and 
a handsome atrium with 14 columns. Within it is a lararium 
on the r., bearing the inscription, : Genio Marci nostri et Lari- 
bus duo Diadumeni liberti' . At the back is a garden, to the 1. in 
which is the vaulted kitchen. — The atrium of the next house 
on the 1. contains a well preserved Lararium, with now almost 
obliterated paintings at the back. These houses have been brought 
to light since lS(i(j. The excavations were carried as far as the 
farm-house termed Casino dell' Aquila, and are now being conti- 
nued towards the W. side. 

We now retrace our steps and ascend the Str. dell' Abbondanza 

House of Siricus. POMPEII. 8. Route. 133 

in the direction of the Forum, near which this handsome street, 
where numerous shops were situated, was closed by means of 
stone pillars, in order to exclude waggons. 

L., No. 15, *House of Cornelius Rufus (PI. 72). The atrium 
contains 2 handsome pedestals for tables, and a bust with the 
inscription: C. Cornelio Rufo, whence the name of the house. 

In the Str. dell'Abbondanza, to the r., No. 23, is the prin- 
cipal entrance to the *Stabian Thermae (PL 69), so called to 
distinguish them from the Thermae at the back of the Forum. 
A spacious court is entered, flanked by pillars on two sides, 
which was employed for palsestric exercises. On the wall on the 
1. stucco ornaments in relief. Here two rooms are situated, 
perhaps intended for undressing. Then a basin for cold baths. 
16 paces long, 9 paces broad, 5 ft. deep. Then another vaulted 
room. In the wing opposite, which has a side entrance from 
the street, to the 1. four baths for single bathers. 

In the upper part of the wing to the r. the women's bath 
By the door above a vestibule is entered, into which the dress- 
ing-room opens to the 1. ; from the street two separate en- 
trances. The vaulted hall contains niches on every side for 
clothes ; in the corner a basin enclosed by masonry. Adjacent 
is the warm bath, a vaulted saloon with double walls. Then the 
sudatory, the vaulting of which has fallen in ; at one end a 
marble basin, at the other a fountain for cold water; the walls 
double. Behind these chambers the stoves were placed. 

The men's bath, to the r. near the entrance, is similar. 
From the large dressing-room the 1st door to the 1. leads to 
the cold, the 2nd to the warm bath; beyond is the sudatory. 
The two latter greatly dilapidated. 

L., No. 4, *House of Holconius (PI. 70), with handsome 
peristyle, rich in paintings, but somewhat faded. In the oecus 
to the r., Ariadne and Bacchus ; 1., Hermaphrodite; in the room 
to the r., Rape of Europa; in the room to the 1., Achilles in 
Scyros, and Judgment of Paris. 

A few paces farther the Street of the Theatre diverges to 
the 1., and to the r. the Str. del Lupanare, which we now 

R., No. 16, *House of Siricus (PI. 71). On the threshold 
the inscription : 'Salve lucru (m)' ; to the same proprietor the 
large adjacent bake-house, No. 17, also belonged. To the 1. of 
the atrium a room with fine paintings, to the 1. Neptune and 
Apollo aiding in the construction of the walls of Troy, opposite, 
Hercules intoxicated; to the r. * Vulcan presenting Thetis 
with weapons for Achilles. The columns of the peristyle are 
painted green. 

To the 1. on the wall snakes, with the inscription : 'Otioth 
locus hie non est, discede morator. 

134 RouteS. POMPEII. Forum Triangulare. 

To the 1. at the corner of the 2nd lane, the Vicolo delBal- 
cone Pensile, is No. 25, the Lupanare (PI. 83 ; closed); at the 
sides 5 sleeping places; in front, the seat of the hostess. A 
separate entrance from the street ascended direct to the upper 

From this point to the 1., through the Vicolo del Balcone- 

R., No. 7. with fine frescoes at the back, to the 1. 
R., No. 9. *House with the Balcony, or Casa del Balcone 
Pensile (PI. 84). The atrium to the r. contains a fountain with 
marble figures. In this house the attempt has been successfully 
made, although a laborious and costly undertaking, to preserve- 
3 rooms of the upper floor, the charred woodwork having been 
carefully replaced by new beams. The projecting wooden struc- 
ture is similar to that frequently seen in old continental towns, 
and appears to have been common in Pompeii. 

The Vicolo del Balcone Pensile terminates in the Vicolo di 
Eumachia, which extends behind the buildings of the Forum. 
Entering this street we proceed to the 1., towards the Str. dell' 

L., in the Vicolo, No. 9, House of the New Chase, with well 
preserved frescoes; in the tablinum, to the r., Bacchus finding 
the sleeping Ariadne; in the peristyle, to the 1., animal pieces. 
At the corner of the Str. dell' Abbondanza a fountain with 
head and cornucopia of Abundantia, whence the name of the 
street. The wall of the Chalcidicum was employed for public 
advertisements which were here painted (album), of which, 
however, little remains. 

On the opp. side. No. 8, House of the Wild Boar Hunt (PI. 67), 
deriving its appellation from the mosaic in the passage : Boar 
attacked by 2 dogs. The peristyle contains 16 Ionic columns. 
The border of the large mosaic in the atrium represents an an- 
cient town-wall. 

On the wall of No. 10 (PI. 68), in the direction of the- 
Vicolo, are represented the 12 gods with their attributes, almost 

We now continue to descend, and enter the Street of the 
Theatre to the r., leading to the Forum Triangulare. In front 
of the latter a porticus with 6 Ionic columns. The street to- 
the 1., which leads to the Str. Stabiana, is the Street of Isis, 
which should now be visited before the theatres by those who 
purpose omitting the amphitheatre. 

This last quarter is the most ancient in the town, and has 
preserved many of its characteristics. 

The Forum Triangulare (PI. 75) is bounded on 3 sides by 
a portions of 100 columns of the Doric order, destined prin- 
cipally for the frequenters of the theatre. On the N. side a 

Great Theatre. POMPEII. 8. Route. 135 

pedestal for a statue, with inscription referring to it. The side 
towards the sea was open. Here rose, on a basement approached 
by five steps, a *Temple in the ancient Greek style (without the 
slightest foundation alleged to have been dedicated to Hercules), 
102 ft. in length, 67 ft. in breadth. It was surrounded by 
columns, had 8 columns in front, and the shrine in the centre ; 
all of the ancient Doric order. At the present day a few ca- 
pitals and the fragment of a column are the sole remnants of 
this once imposing structure. It was doubtless overthrown by 
the earthquake of 63, and probably no idea of restoring it in 
its massive and simple dignity ever occurred to the inhabitants, 
as it would have presented too marked a contrast with the stuc- 
coed buildings of the imperial period. 

In front of the temple, an enclosed space probably employed 
for the slaughter of the victims. To the 1. three altars. 

In the rear a *Bidental, a relic perfectly unique of its kind. 
It consists of the large embouchure of a fountain (puteal), serv- 
ing to enclose a spot struck by lightning, which was deemed 
sacred, and called for atonement. Round it was erected a small, 
circular temple with 8 Doric columns, 12 ft. in diameter. 

On the other side of the temple a semicircular seat with a 
sun-dial, now much decayed. 

Below the Theatre (a stair descends from the Forum Trian- 
gulare) lies the so-called Gladiators' Barrack, the real object of 
which has not been ascertained. The court is surrounded by a 
porticus of 74 columns, length 152ft., breadth 114 ft. Around 
it a number of detached cells. The edifice had a second floor, 
as the imitation on the S. side illustrates, which contained 
apartments for the custodians and a small chapel. In a chamber 
employed as a prison 3 skeletons and iron stocks for the feet 
were found ; 63 bodies in all were discovered in this building. 

Adjoining the Forum Triangulare is the *Great Theatre 
(PI. 77), the enclosing walls of which projected from the rubbish 
even before the discovery. It is situated on rising ground, and 
was restored after the earthquake of 63 by the architect M. 
Artorius, at the expense of M. Holconius Rufus and M. Hol- 
conius Celer. The restoration, however, was far from complete 
at the time of the final catastrophe. The space for the specta- 
tors consists of 3 ranks (ima, media, and summa cavea) ; the 
first contains 4 tiers for the chairs of persons of rank, the 
second 20, and the third 4. Corridors and stairs led to the 
different parts of the building. It is estimated that 5000 spec- 
tators could he accommodated. Behind the orchestra the long 
and narrow stage, in front of which is an opening in the ground 
for the rising and falling of the curtain. The posterior wall of 
the stage, once adorned with statues, is provided with 3 doors, 
according to the rules of the ancient drama ; behind them the 

136 Eoute6. POMPEII. Temple of Isis . 

actors' room. On the summit of the enclosing wall are seen the 
stone rings for the poles which supported the awning employed 
as a protection against the sun. Behind the theatre a square 
reservoir, the water of which was employed in hot weather for 
refreshing the spectators by means of a slight sprinkling. 

The contiguous *Small Theatre (PI. 78) is better preserved 
than the above. An inscription records that it was roofed in 
(theatrum tectum, probably a wooden roof). Number of specta- 
tors 1500. The marble pavement of the orchestra was, accord- 
ing to an inscription, presented by M. Olconius, a duumvir. 

From the Small Theatre the visitor emerges on the Str. Sta- 
biana, re-ascending which he next reaches, to the 1., at the 
corner of the Street of Isis, the *Temple of JEsculapius (PL 79), 
the smallest in Pompeii, 69 ft. long, 23 ft. broad The an- 
terior court contains a peculiar altar of tuffstone, recalling the 
sarcophagus of Scipio in the Vatican. The cella is approached 
by 9 steps. It is not known with certainty whether the temple 
was really dedicated to jEsculapius or not. 

Nearly opposite the temple is No. 110, the Casa del Citarista 
(PI. 89), named after the Apollo of Pasiteles found here (p. 69). 
This is one of the largest houses at Pompeii, comprising 2 atria 
and 3 peristyles. 

We now enter the Street of Isis to the 1. 

Here, to the 1., stands the Temple of Isis (PI. 73), which, 
as the copy of the inscription over the entrance informs us. 
was restored after the earthquake of 63 by N. Popidius Celsinus, 
a boy 6 years of age, at his own expense, who was in recogni- 
tion of this service received into the rank of the decuriones. 
Length 98 ft., width 60 ft. The court is surrounded by a 
porticus ; between the columns are several altars, also an ancient 
aperture, destined for the reception of the remnants of sacrifices, 
now employed as an air-shaft of the Sarno tunnel. To the 1. a 
small shrine, the so-called Purgatorium, in which ablutions were 
performed ; a staircase here descended to a well ; the walls are 
tastefully adorned with reliefs in stucco. Within the temple 
itself an image of Isis, now in the museum, was found. The 
chambers adjoining the wall on the 1. served as a dwelling for 
the priests ; several bodies were found here ; on the fire-place 
were remnants of food. 

By the next door in the Street of Isis, to the 1., a court is 
entered, surrounded by columns, with a curious balustrade in the 
centre, the object of which is involved in mystery. According 
to some it was a court of justice. 

We now return to the Stabian Street, cross it, and proceed 
to the last important relic of ancient Pompeii, the *Amphitheatre 
(PI. 81), situated at the S. E. extremity of the town, and de- 
tached from the other ruins. From the Stabian Street it is at- 

Amphitheatre. POMPEII. 8. Route. 137 

tained in about 8 min., the route traversing the still unexeavated 
quarters of the town, the surface above which is still employed 
as arable land. The guides are generally averse to undertaking 
this additional walk, but those whose time and strength permit 
should not allow themselves to be dissuaded. The external aspect 
of the amphitheatre is somewhat insignificant, as, in order to 
facilitate the construction, a considerable portion of it, as high 
as the 2nd storey, was formed by excavating the earth. An 
uncovered gallery runs round the exterior, to which staircases 
ascend for the use of the spectators in the upper places. The 
principal entrance descends considerably. Entire length 142. 
width 111 yds. Number of spectators 20,000. Three different 
series of seats are distinguished, the first with 5, the second 
with 12. and the third with 18 tiers ; above these was also a 
gallery. The seats are cut out in such a manner that the feet 
of the spectators in an upper tier did not inconvenience those 
below. It was constructed shortly before the birth of Christ, 
and in 79 had not completely recovered from the effects of the 
earthquake of 63. 

Excavations of the preceding century led to the discovery of 
other important buildings near the amphitheatre, but these, 
according to the irregular manner of prosecuting the work at 
that period, were afterwards again covered. 

From the Amphitheatre the traveller may return to modern 
Pompeii either by the high road, or by traversing the mounds of 
ashes and skirting a portion of the town-wall. The station is 
reached in l / t hr. Those who make the excursion by carriage 
should order their conveyance to wait for them at the Amphi- 

9. Castellamare, Sorrento, and Capri. 

Comp. Map, p. 8$. 

Railway from Naples to Castellamare by Portici, Torre del Greco, and 
Torre Annunziata (comp. p. lUl in 52 min.; fares '2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 80, or 
90 c. ; in summer 9 trains daily, in winter fewer. — Small coasting 
Steamboat s also usually start at 11. 30 a.m. and 4 p. m. for Castellamare, 
the latter then proceeding to Sorrento, and returning to Naples the follow- 
ing morning; to Castellamare 2 or 1 fr., to Sorrento 3 or l'j 2 fr. Office: 
Molo Piccolo 36. These vessels, however, ply much less frequently in dull 
seasons. Thus in the summer of 1871 a steamer left Naples for Sorrento on 
Saturdays only, returning on Monday mornings. Market-boat from Naples 
to Sorrento three times weekly, in about 3 hrs., fare 1 fr. — Carriage 
from Castellamare to Sorrento, according to tariff, 5 fr., with one horse 3 fr. 
and gratuity. Persons travelling alone may often succeed in obtaining a single 
seat ('un posto') for 1 — l 1 ^ fr. — Those whose time is limited may 
spend a short time only at Castellamare, which may be employed in visit- 
ing the quay, in order to arrive at Sorrento early enough to leave time 
for an excursion to the Deserto or other interesting point in the environs. 
The night should be spent at Sorrento, and Capri visited the following 
day ; Naples may then be regained on the third, or, if necessary, on the 
evening of the second day. This route may also be combined with the 

138 Route 9. CASTELLAMARE. Environs 

following by proceeding either at once by boat from Capri to Amalfi 
(5 — 6 hrs.), or by the road over the mountains to (2>|2 hrs.) Scaricatojo 
(p. 157), or still further to Positano (p. 157). A carriage-road from Sorrento 
to Positano is in process of construction. From Scaricatojo or Positano 
to Amalfi by boat (not always to be procured) in 2 hrs. (7 — 8 fr.). The 
footpath from Positano to Amalfi (5 — 6 hrs.) cannot be recommended in 
the present state of the country. The traveller is recommended to begin 
with the following route, taking La Cava or Salerno as a starting-point 
Komp. p. 147). 

Railway-journey to Torre dell Annunziata, see p. 114. Here 
the Castellamare line diverges from that to Salerno. Skirting 
the coast, it crosses the Sarno (to the r., in the vicinity, the 
rocky islet of Rovigliano, with an ancient fort), and in 12 min. 
reaches the station at the E. end of the town. 

Castellamare ("Hotel Rotal , near the station ; on the quay An- 
tica Stabia of the 2nd cl. , adjacent to the Cafe deli/ Europa (good 
ices); Teattoeia Toscana , also on the quay; '|2 M. above the town, 
on the road to Quisisana , in a magnificent situation , "Hotel et Pension 
Anglaise , formerly Gran Bretagna , commanding a charming prospect 
r:f the bay, pension 12 fr., somewhat less for a prolonged stay. Boat to 
Capri in about 5 hrs., 30 fr.) with a population of 21,794, stands 
on a spur of Monte Sant' Angelo (the Mons Gaums of the 
ancients), on the Bay of Naples, on the ruins of the ancient 
Stabiae, which was destroyed at the same time as Pompeii. It 
was here that the elder Pliny perished, A. D. 79, whilst observ- 
ing the eruption (Plin. Epist. VI. 16). Excavations of the ruins 
of Stabiae, which lay to the 1. by the entrance to the town, 
towards the heights, have not been undertaken since 1745. 

The Castello, whence the town derives its name, was erected 
by the Emp. Frederick II. in the 13th cent., and was streng- 
thened by Charles I. of Anjou by additional towers and walls. 

The town, a favourite summer resort of the Neapolitans, 
consists of a long main street skirting the sea, from which the 
narrower streets extend upwards towards the hill. With the ex- 
ception of the beauty of its situation and the busy scene pre- 
sented by the traffic of the quay, the town contains nothing to 
detain the traveller. At the harbour there is also a government 

Beautiful walks intersect the chestnut plantations on the hill 
rising behind the town (well-kept donkeys, 4- — 5 fr. per diem). 
Here stands the Casino Eeale, on the site of a house (Casa Sana) 
erected by Charles II. of Anjou, occupied by King Ladislaus and 
his sister Johanna II. during the prevalence of the plague at 
Naples. Ferdinand I. of Bourbon restored the edifice, and styled 
it Quisisana ('here one becomes healthy'). Behind the chateau 
paths ascend through the park (bosco), affording fine views of 
the bay. Permission to visit the gardens and the interior (unin- 
teresting) must be obtained from the Intendant at the Pal. Reale 
at Naples (p. 40) (fee 1 fr. ; gardener 25 c. ; access to the park 
gratis: donkey lfr.~); this excursion requires 1 — 2 hrs. Ascend- 

of Naples. VICO EQTJENSE. 9. Boute. 139 

ing farther to the 1., the traveller may -visit Monte Coppola (2 hrs. 
at least necessary; donkey 2fr.). To descend from the Quisi- 
sana the route by the monastery of Puzzano, founded by Gon- 
salvo de Cordova, may be taken (y 2 hr. more), commanding fine 

Other short excursions to Oragnano (^ hr.) and Lettere ( 8 /4 hr. 
farther), beautifully situated on the slope of the mountains which 
once bore the name of Monies Lactarii, with ruined castle and 
magnificent prospect. Finally to the summit of the 

* Monte Sunt' Angelo, the ancient Gaurus (ascent 4 hrs. ; guide 
and donkey 5 fr.), 5000 ft. above the sea-level, the highest point 
near the bay, commanding a noble prospect extending from Monte 
Circello far into Calabria and to the Abruzzi. 

Monte Sant' Angelo is clothed to tlie summit with wood, chiefly 
chestnut-trees. Fragments of pximice-stone (rapilli) from eruptions of 
Vesuvius are occasionally observed. 

The ascent (not without guide) requires 4 hrs. (donkey 3 hrs.). It 
should be expressly stipulated that the guide conduct the traveller to the 
highest peak surmounted by the chapel. If not, the guide will ascend 
another peak, where extensive snow-depots are situated, the view from 
which is partially intercepted by the higher summit. From the chapel an 
uninterrupted panorama is enjoyed. The path leads past the chateau of 
Quisisana, through the park and by Monte Coppola to the mountain village of 
Piemonte (l'| 2 hr.), whence the ascent of the M. S. Angelo commences. The 
traveller should not fail to start early, so as to return to Castellamare 
before dusk. The excursion occupies 7 — 8 hrs., but is not always safe 
(comp. p. 157), as the upper regions of the peninsula are occasionally the 
resort of deserters from the conscription. Previous enquiry on this point 
should therefore be made. 

From Castellamare to Amalfi by the lesser Monte Sant' Angelo 
see p. 157. 

From Castellamare to Sorrento (7'/ 2 M. ; by carriage 
in l l / 2 hr.). The route by land, as well as by water, is one 
of the most beautiful excursions in this delightful district (two- 
horse carr. 5, one-horse 3 fr. ; see p. 137). The traveller pro- 
ceeds below the monastery of Puzzano to the Capo d'Orlando. 
The three rocks on the coast are termed I Tre Fratelli. The 
small villages of Vico and Equa, together called Vico Equense 
(the Vicus jEquensis of the Ancients), are next passed. Vico 
was erected by Charles II. on the ruins of the ancient village, 
and was frequently visited by him. The Cathedral contains the 
tomb of the celebrated jurist Gaetano Filangieri (d. 1788). 
Beyond Vico a deep cutting, traversed by a vast bridge ; then to 
the r. by La Marina di Seiano, a village with handsome campanile, 
between vineyards and olive plantations, to the summit of the 
Punta di Scutolo, whence the road descends to Meta. Here be- 
gins the celebrated Piano di Sorrento, a plain sheltered by the 
surrounding mountains, and intersected by numerous ravines, 
remarkable for its salubrity and luxuriant vegetation. Orange 
groves, olive plantations, mulberry-trees, pomegranates, figs, and 
aloes are beautifully intermingled. This was a favourite retreat 

140 Route 9. SORRENTO. Environs 

of the noble and wealthy even in ancient times. Augustus, M. 
Agrippa, Antoninus Pius, and others frequently resided here, 
and at the present day visitors of all nationalities are encoun- 
tered. The space is limited, the villages neither extensive nor 
imposing, but an air of peace and enjoyment everywhere 

Meta (*Trattoria della Villa di Sorrento, see below) is a town 
possessing two small harbours. The church of the Madonna del 
Lauro, in the street, occupies the site of a temple of Minerva. 
The Ponte Maggiore leads across the profound ravine of Meta. 
The next village is Carotto ; then Pozzo Piano surrounded by 
beautiful orange gardens ; finally Sant' Aniello (*Albergo della 
Cocumella, on the quay, with beautiful view, pension 6 fr.). 
The road leads to the 1. passing the Villa Guarracino, now Hotel 
Belvedere, and soon reaches 

Sorrento. "La Sirena, "Albeugo del Tasso , and "Belvedere (see 
below), all belonging to the Fratelli Gargiulo, situated on rocky eminences, 
charges as at the 1st class hotels at Naples ; "Gran Bretagna (Sta. Se- 
rerina) and Vittoria (in the market - place , recently enlarged) , with 
several 'dependances', both the property of the brothers Fiorentino, pro- 
prietors of the Hotel de la Ville at Naples , E. from 2!|2, L. and A. l'|2, 
D. 4, bath 1 \i, pension from 8 fr. ; Hotel Villa Nardi, entered by a 
lemon garden, also situated on a rocky height by the sea. These hotels 
have private stairs descending to the sea, and small bathing-establishments 
(also warm baths), and command magnificent views of the bay. Previous 
enquiry as to charges had better be made. Corona di Ferro, outside the 
town ; Eosa Magra ; opposite the latter a good trattoria. Villas and fur- 
nished apartments may also be procured for a lengthened stay. "Pension 
Anglaise (Villa Rubinacci) , 10 fr. a day. At Meta (see above): "Trattoria 
delta Villa di Sorrento, 4 n the main street. 

Sea-Batlis on the Piccola Marina, 3 \i M. distant, x |3 fr. 

Steamboat from Naples by Sorrento to Capri , see p. 137. Boats, 
carriages, and donkeys may be hired at the hotels at nominally 
fixed charges, which may generally be reduced by arrangement. Those 
acquainted with the language and customs of the country will prefer to 
apply to boatmen, coachmen, etc. in person ; fees extra. The charges de- 
manded at the hotels for a boat to Capri are : with 2 rowers 8, 3 — 4 rowers 
12, 5 — 8 rowers 16 fr. ; to Castellamare about the same. Donkey to 
Scaricatojo (p. 157) 2 fr. and gratuity. Carriage to Castellamare, p. 139. 

Sorrento, the ancient Surrentum, a small episcopal town 
with 6686 inhab., stands on a rock rising precipitously from 
the sea, and is enclosed on the other sides by deep ravines. 
The walls and towers have long since fallen to decay ; of the 
Roman Surrentum nothing remains except a few fragments and 
substructions, to which fictitious, high-sounding epithets, such as 
'Temple of Neptune', 'Amphitheatre', 'Villa of Pollius Felix', etc., 
are applied. In the principal street (about 5 min. walk from 
the market-place, by a chapel on the 1.) are several ancient 
bas-reliefs and inscriptions. The house is still pointed out 
where Tasso was born in 1544, and whither, after a glorious 
but chequered career, he returned in 1592, disguised as a 
shepherd, and was received by his attached sister Cornelia. It 

of Naples. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 141 

is now converted into the Albergo del Tasso, and contains but 
few memorials of the poet. A beautiful walk skirts the ravine 
of Sorrento. Its sombre wildness has given rise to the belief 
that it is haunted by evil spirits (monacelli). 

Sorrento is admirably adapted for a summer residence, both 
on account of its cool N. aspect and its delightful environs. 
The most beautiful walk is by the road to Massa (see below), 
which is also a very pleasant object for a drive (there and back 
in l!/ 4 hr. ; two-horse carr. 3 — 4 fr.). A number of other ex- 
cursions may also be taken on foot or donkey-back. Thus to 
f'apo di Sorrento, l l /% M., at the W. end of the bay, opposite 
the Punta di Scutolo to the N. E. ; remains of Roman masonry, 
baths, and a supposed temple of Hercules may be observed 
among the cliffs. 

An interesting excursion of about 3 hrs. in all (donkey 
I 1 /! — '2 fr.), may be made to the *Deserto, a secularised mona- 
stery on one of the peaks above Sorrento. The visitor should 
not omit to ascend to the roof of the building (fee 25 c), which 
commands a charming prospect of both bays, and the island of 
Capri, in front of which rises the hill of S. Costanza with a 
small chapel; to the 1. of the latter the small and solitary mo- 
nastery of S. Maria delta Nece. 

From the Deserto the traveller returns by the neighbouring 
village of S. Agata (the church contains a high-altar of beauti- 
fully inlaid marble), whence the descent to Sorrento is preci- 
pitous, and part of it not practicable for riders. 

Each of the two following excursions also takes about 3 hrs. 
(donkey about 2 fr.). 

Farther E. rise the Conti delle Fontanelle, a chain of hills 
commanding a beautiful view of the bays of Naples and Salerno. 
The Arco Naturale, a natural opening in the rock, partially 
destroyed in 1851, may be reached on foot in '/4 nr - more. 

Another walk may be taken to the secularised monastery of 
Camaldoli, above Meta. 

In l'/ 2 hr. the village of S. Maria a Ccistello may be attained, 
where from a projecting rock a view is obtained of Positano, 
'2000 ft. below, to which a winding path, consisting partly of 
^teps, descends. On Aug. 15th, the occasion of a great festival 
at Positano (comp. p. 157), numbers of persons from Sorrento 
ascend to S. Maria for the sake of seeing the magic effect of the 
illumination of the village below. 

Other excursions may be made to the S. portion of the pen- 
insula. Thus in 2 hrs. to the Marina di Nerano. whence the 
ruins of Crapolla may be visited by boat, 2 M. to the E. of 
Nerano. On this route a beautiful view is obtained of the three 
Island* of the Sirens, also termed I Galli. fortified in the middle 
ages, now abandoned. At the landing-place remnants of a wall 

142 Route 9. MASSA LUBRENSE. Environs 

are observed, with a fountain in the centre, and traces of an 
aqueduct : higher up, on the hill, the ruins of the monastery 
and early R< manesque basilica of S. Pittro, the 8 marble and 
granite columns of which are probably derived from some ancient 
temple. The interior of the church exhibits traces of frescoes. 
The active pedestrian may return hence to Sorrento by ascending 
to S. Agata. 

The old footpath from Sorrento to (l'/4 hr.) Massa Lubrense, 
a small town situated on a rock above the bay, leads through 
olive groves, commanding fine views, and passing the Villa 
Ser.<ali, where the celebrated '"Valle dtlle Piyne, which affords 
the finest view of Capri, is situated (fee 25 c. ; donkey to this 
point I'/ofr.). About half-way to Massa the conspicuous rocky 
islet of La Yen-tee becomes visible. Massa contains the remains 
of a Roman aqueduct, and other antiquities. The church of 
S. Francesco is said to occupy the site of a temple of Juno. 
The festival celebrated here on Aug. 15th attracts visitors from 
the neighbourhood. 

From Massa the extremity of the peninsula, the Puntu delta 
Campanella (1600 ft.), the Cape of Minerva of the ancients, 
named after a temple said to have been erected by Ulysses on 
this spot in honour of the goddess, may be reached in 1 hr. 
The modern appellation is derived from the bell of one of the 
watch-towers erected along the coast by Charles V. as a pro- 
tection against pirates. From this point, which is crowned with 
a lighthouse and overgrown with olives and myrtles, a magni- 
ficent and extensive view of the sea, the coast, and the island 
of Capri (3 M. distant) is enjoyed. 

Travellers desirous of proceeding from Sorrento or Meta by Carotto in 
the Piano di Sorrento (wine and tolerable beds at Franc, de Majo's inn at 
3. Liberio, near Carotto) and S. Ligvoro to (3 lirs. \ donkey 2 fr. and fee) 
Scaricatojo, and thence by boat to (2'|a hrs. ; 2 rowers 7 — 8, 4 r. 10 fr.) 
Amain (comp. p. 157), should order a boat from the latter place, as none 
are to be had at Scaricatojo (this excursion therefore more convenient in 
the reverse direction). Beautiful view the whole way, especially in going 
from Scaricatojo. The last i/a hr. is occupied in descending by steps, for 
which those ascending from Scaricatojo should allow 3 |4 hr. 


During the season a steamboat leaves the Chiaia at Naples daily (except 
Sund. and holidays) at 9 a.m., proceeds to Sorrento, and thence direct to 
the Blue Grotto. After visiting the latter, the passengers are then conveyed 
to the landing-place of Capri, where a short halt is made, after which the 
vessel returns to Naples, arriving about 6 p. m. (fare, including embarcation 
and landing at Naples, and the visit to the grotto, 12 fr.). Unless the tra- 
veller be much pressed for time, this is a most unsatisfactory mode of 
visiting beautiful Capri, as, in addition to the Blue Grotto, he will barely 
have time to visit the Villa of Tiberius. The view from the latter, more- 
over, is far less attractive in the middle of the day than by evening- 
light. A elear day at least should be devoted to the island, as there 
are many other beautiful points in addition to the two just mentioned. 

As the trips of the steamer are neither very regular nor punctual, 
previous enquiry on this head is necessary. It should also be observed 

of Naples. 

CAPIil. 0. Route. 143 

that when the wind is in the E. or N. the Blue Grotto is not accessible (a 
fact however, which the captain of the steamer is careful not to mention). 
Failing the steamboat, a small boat for the trip may be hired at Sor- 
rento The passage occupies 2 hrs. , and the entire excursion may be ac- 
complished in one day ; but it is far preferable to spend the night on the 
island especially if the traveller be desirous of prolonging his voyage to 
Amalfi A four-oared boat for the excursion ('tutto compreso') 10 fr. and 
a fee of 1 fr. to the boatmen ; two-oared boat 6—8 fr. ; for two whole 
davs, the night being spent on the island, the usual charges are 15—18 
and 12 fr. respectively; four-oared boat to Capri and Amalh, 30— 4U Ir. 
It need hardly be observed that fine weather is indispensable, but a per- 
fect calm is neither necessary nor desirable. 

Besides these modes of reaching Capri, the traveller may avail hunselt 
of the market-boat which leaves Naples three times a week at 1 p. m. (fare 
'' fr) performing the voyage in 3—4 hrs.; or from Sorrento of the post- 
boat ( 'barca della posta'j of Michele Desiderio , which leaves (if weather 
permit) Sorrento (Piccola Marina) at noon, and Capri at 7 a. m., but will 
wait at either place a little later for passengers (2 fr.). 

If the passage be made from Sorrento, the Capo di Sorrento ('| 2 hr.) 
is first passed ; 5 mill, later the Villa Majo, where the foundations of a 
temple of Ceres are said to have been discovered; then (10 min.) the 
promontory of Massa. on which stands a tower erected by the Saracens ; 
next (20 min.) Massa, and in 2 hrs. more Capri is reached. The Punta 
della Campanella remains in sight during the whole passage. 

As soon as the boat reaches the Marina di Capri, women bring planks 
to facilitate the passenger's landing. If more than a soldo is bestowed, 
the traveller's liberality is sure to attract a host of the keen-eyed beggars 
who infest the place. Mendicancy prevails here to a greater extent than 
elsewhere in Italy, and is often accompanied by singing and dancing, 
while the cry resounds, "un bajocc', Signoria ! Eccellenza ! un bajocc ! 

The excursion to the "Blue Grotto (p. 146), for which boats will be 
found at the landing-place, occupies l'| 2 — 2 hrs. (for 1 or 2 pers. 2 fr., 
for 3 or more pers. 3 fr. ; but the boats are hardly suitable for more than 
three passengers, who must take care to stoop low in order to avoid 
collision with the rock at the entrance). If the wind be from the E. or 
N. access is impossible. The trip by water to the grotto is strikingly 
beautiful, especially if the boat keeps near the precipitous rocky shore. 
Those who have started late from Sorrento had better row direct to . t lie 
grotto (best light 10—1 o'clock), the skiff for entering winch is ordered by 
a signal in passing. , , 

Those who desire to return to Sorrento on the same day should first 
visit the Blue Grotto, then ascend to Capri and order dinner, either before 
or after which an excursion to the Punta Tragara may be made; next visit 
the Villa di Tiberio if time and energy permit, and finally return direct 
to their boat on the beach (donkey lij-,-2 fr.). The traveller who spends 
the ni«ht on the island can of course accomplish all this with greater 
leisure. On the following morning he should then descend (in 20 mm.) 
to the Piccola Marina on the S. side of the island, and take a boat to the 
Green Grotto (li| 2 fr. ; li| 2 hr. there and back). If a longer stay be made, 
Anacapri may also be visited, and Monte Solaro ascended (advisable only 
in the afternoon, when the long flight of steps is in the shade). 

Hotels at Capri. Beau Rivage (formerly Gran Dretnyna) well spoken 
of, situated on an eminence by the sea a short distance to the W . of the 
landing-place. In the village of Capri, ij, hr. walk from the landing-place 
(path first in a straight direction for a few paces, then to the 1., ascend- 
ing partly by steps between walls, fatiguing in hot weather) : Grand Hotel 
Royal to the r. before entering the village, new, pension 6 fr. ; Albergo 
Qlis.sana, English landlady, pension 7 fr. ; Albergo del Tiberio; -Hotel 
de France, in the piazza, without a garden, pension o fr., frequented bv 
French artists (connected with which is the 'Restaurant a. la Grotte 
Bleue', adjoining the Gran Bretagna); a few paces farther, Albergo di 
Micufle I'vcaso, pension 6 fr., a resort of artists, who occasionally spend 
months on the island ; the garden contains a handsome palm-tree. 

144 Route 9. CAPRI. Environs 

Donkeys from the landing (Marina) to the village of Capri X fr. 25, 
horse 1 fr. 50 c, vice-versa 1 fr. or 1 fr. 25 c. ; from the Marina to the 
Villa di Tiberio and back 2 fr. 50 c. or 3 fr. ; whole day 5 fr. or 6 fr. 
(and fee). Guide (cicerone) unnecessary, except where time is very li- 
mited. B o a t s l'| 2 fr. per hour ; bargaining necessary. 

Capri, the Capreae ('island of goats') of the ancients, is a 
small, mountainous island of oblong form. The highest point to 
the W. is the Monte Solaro, 2039 ft. above the sea-level; to- 
wards the E. huge cliff's, 900 ft. in height, rise abruptly from 
the sea. Boats can safely land at two places only. The village 
of Cupri (with 2360 inhab.), '/ 4 hr. from the landing-place, lies 
on the slope of the E. mountains; Anacapri (1551 inhab.) is in 
a much more elevated situation on the table-land to the W. 
The inhabitants, who support themselves principally by agri- 
culture and fishing, still retain some of their ancient peculiarities 
of habits and costume. One of their most important pursuits is 
coral-fishing, in which a considerable number of the male 
population are engaged on the African coast. 

The island first came into notice under Augustus, who manifested a 
great partiality for it, and founded palaces, baths, and aqueducts here. 
Tiberius erected 12 villas, in honour of the 12 gods, in the principal parts 
of the island, the largest of which was the Villa Jovis (Tacit. Ann IV. 
67), after he had (A. D. 27) surrendered the reins of his government to 
Sejanus and retired hither. He remained here al ■ ost uninterruptedly till 
his death in 37, even after the fall of Sejanus in 31. Exaggerated accounts 
are given of the cruelty and profligacy of the emperor, even towards the 
close of his career. The tranquillity and inaccessibility of the island, as 
well as the geniality of the climate, were the attractions which induced 
him td spend so many years in it. Considerable remains of the structures 
of Tiberius are still extant. 

During the wars of Napoleon I., Capri was captured by the English 
under Sir Sidney Smith in 1803, fortified, and converted into a miniature 
Gibraltar. Sir Hudson Lowe was subsequently ,the commandant. In Oc- 
tober, 1808, however, the island was recaptured by Murat by a brilliant 

The P-unta Tragara, the S. E. promontory of the island, is 
20 min. walk from the village of Capri. The path is good, and 
cannot be mistaken. It commands a picturesque "View of Capri 
and the S. coast, with two precipitous cliffs termed the Fara- 
t/'ioni. An opening in the one nearest the land (through which 
the visitor must creep) leads to the summit, on which there 
are remains of a Roman tomb. 

On the E. promontory, termed Lo Capo or S. Maria del 
Soccono, once stood, it is believed, the Villa Joris, in which 
Tiberius lay concealed for 9 months after the fall of Sejanus. 
Here are the ruins of the *Villa di Tiberio, pronounced Tim- 
herio by the natives, and the remains of a lighthouse. The 
path (T hr. from the landing-place; 3 / 4 hr. from Capri; donkey 
l'/o fr.) cannot be mistaken. About 100 paces from the sum- 
mit is a tolerable cabaret to the r., termed ' Salto di Tiberio', 
from the rock, whence, according to the story invented by 
;he fertile imagination of the natives, the tyrant precipitated 
his victims. From a projecting platform, protected by a rail- 

of Naples. CAPRI. u. Route. 145 

ing, a view of the sea is obtained. The rock higher up is a 
still liner point, but a visit to it requires a steady head. To 
the r. of it is the Faro, which commands a beautiful view. 
After a slight ascent the visitor reaches the Villa di Tiberio, 
part of the extensive ruins of which are now employed as » 
stable for cows. They consist of a number of vaulted chambers 
and corridors, the uses of which cannot now be ascertained. On 
the highest point is the small chapel of S. Maria del Soccorso. 
with the cell of a hermit, who in return for a trifling donation 
allows the visitor to inscribe his 'testimonium prjfsentia:'. This 
point commands a noble prospect of the island and the blue 
sea, of the barren promontory of Sorrento opposite, and the two 
bays; Paestum is said to be also sometimes visible. 

In returning the traveller should select the path which di- 
verges to the 1. after 10 min., and in la min. leads through 
the small so-called Val di Mitromania to the Punta di Mitro- 
mania, sometimes termed Matrimonio by the islanders. Here a 
magnificent natural opening in the rock, the Arco Naturale, 
rises from the sea; a fine view of the imposing and rugged 
cliffs is also obtained. A visit to the Orotta di Mitromania be- 
neath may conveniently be made hence. — The ruins on the 
Tuoro Grande are supposed to belong to the second villa of 
Tiberius. On the coast are numerous ruins underwater; among 
others, to the S. of Capri, by the Camerelle, a long series of 
arches, perhaps belonging to an ancient road. — To the S. of 
the village is the Certosa, founded in 1371, now a barrack. 

Anacapri {MassiminVs Petit Hdtel , at the entrance to the 
.village ; Villa del Paradiso, dearer and inferior) is reached by 
a steep flight of 535 steps ( shaded in the afternoon) . hardly 
practicable for donkeys. A zigzag carriage road, however, is in 
course of construction. The foot of the steps is reached from 
the landing-place by another flight of 249 steps, which however 
may be avoided when approached from Capri, if the traveller 
make a circuit on the slope of the hill (guide advisable). The 
whole ascent occupies about 1 hr. The village lies scattered 
over the lofty plateau sloping towards the W. Above the steps 
rises the ruin of a mediaeval castle , II Citstello di Barbarossa, 
so-called from its having been destroyep by the pirate of that 
name in the 16th cent. The church contains a celebrated ma- 
jolica pavement of the 17th century. There are also Roman 
ruins in the vicinity, especially at the village of Damecuta, on 
the N.W. side, where a villa of Tiberius once stood. 

The Ascent of Monte tfolaro is recommended to tolerable pe- 
destrians, as the mountain commands two beautiful and entirely different 
views, viz. that from the hermitage, and the panorama from the summit. 
From the top of the long flight of steps the visitor proceeds in a straight 
direction, following the principal path (that to the r. diverges to Anacapri). 
On the r. is a restaurant, where good white Capri wine may be obtained. 
After l \i hr. the cemetery is passed, beyond which the path leads throueh 
Baedeker. Italy III. 3rd Edition. 10 

146 Haute 9. CAPRI. Environs 

a hollow to the 1. Farther up the rough path inclines towards the S. 
On the S. slope of the hill , i| 4 hr. fnim the summit is the "Hermitage 
(good wine, for which the hermit expects a trifling fee), which commands 
a most picturesque view of Capri and the whole island. After a rough 
and stony walk of 10 min. or i| 4 hr- more the traveller reaches the sum- 
mit of -Monte Solaro ('2027 ft.), which rises abruptly from the sea, on 
the S. side of the island, and is crowned by a ruined castle. The "view 
is superb, embracing Naples with its entire bay, as well as that of Sa- 
lerno as far as the ruins of Ptestum. Towards the N. the Bay of Gaeta 
is visible, and towards the W. the group of the Ponza Islands. The 
spectator also obtains a survey of the chain of the Apennines, bounding 
the Oampanian plain in a wide curve, and culminating in the Monte Yergine 
near Avellino. Capri itself and the peninsula of Sorrento lie in prominent 
relief at the spectator's feet. 

The **Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra) is situated about mid- 
way between the landing-place of Capri and the Punta Oradelle 
on the N'.W. side of the island (boat thither, see p. 143). The 
boat skirts the base of the precipitous rocky shore, where nume- 
rous sea-stars ( Stella marina) are observed. In '/ 4 hr. the ruins 
of the Baths of Tiberius are reached, where a fragment of an 
ancient wall and part of a column in the water are seen. In 
'/>> hr. more the entrance of the grotto, scarcely 3 ft. in height 
is attained. Visitors must stoop or lie down in the boat on 
entering (impracticable when a breeze blows from the N. or E.J. 
In the interior the height of the roof increases to 40 ft. above 
the water, which is 8 fathoms deep. Length of the grotto 175 ft., 
extreme width 100 ft. The effect of the blue refraction of the 
light on every object is indescribable, and at first completely 
dazzles the eye. Objects in the water assume a beautiful silvery 
appearance. The boatman, who during the voyage does not fail 
to describe the astonishing effect which his body in the water 
and his sunburnt face above it will produce in the grotto, now 
offers to bathe in order to verify his statement. For this ex- 
hibition he is sufficiently rewarded with '/ 2 — 1 f r -i although he 
generally makes the exorbitant demand of 2 — 3 fr. The most 
favourable time is between 10 and 1 o'clock. Near the middle 
of the grotto is a kind of landing-place, leading to a passage 
with broken steps, but closed at the upper extremity, probably 
a former approach from the land to the grotto, which was once 
connected with the villa of Tiberius at Damecuta. The grotto 
was known to the ancients, but fell into oblivion in the middle 
ages. Since IS'2'2, when it was discovered by fishermen, it has 
justly been a favourite resort of travellers. A tolerable path 
ascends from the grotto to Anacapri, by means of which the 
long flight of steps may be avoided. 

The Green Grotto (Grotta Verde), on the S. side of the is- 
land, although very inferior to the blue, also deserves a visit 
I boat thither, see p. I43j. Its appellation is a misnomer, as it 
is really an archway of rock, one end of which stands in the 

of Naples. NOCERA. 10. Route. 147 

water. The reflections in the water here are beautiful. — 
Boating excursions along the precipitous rocky shore are strongly 
recommended to those who have leisure. 

10. From Naples to Salerno, Paestum, and Amalfi. 

Comp. Ma]>, p. 86. 

The Bay of Salerno cannot indeed compete with the Bay of Xaplcs :, 
towards the 8. its shores are hat and monotonous; but the N. side, where 
the mountains of the Sorrentine peninsula rise abruptly some thousands 
of feet from the sea, is replete with beauty and grandeur. Here are si- 
tuated the towns of Salerno (p. 149} and Amalfi (p. 154), conspicuous in 
the pages of mediteval history, and still containing a few monuments of 
their former greatness. Farther S., in a barren, desolate situation, the 
temples of Psestum (p. 150), usually the extreme point of the Italian pen- 
insula visited by northern travellers. All these recal the golden period of 
Ureek history and art in a more marked degree than any other localities 
in Italy. 

This route may best be combined with the preceding (p. 137): 1st day, 
La Cava and Salerno. 2nd day. Ptestum. 3rd day, Amalfi. 4th day, to 
Sorrento. Or in the reverse order. The passage across the mountains 
(p. 157) to Sorrento, as well as the excursion to Ptestum, should not be 
undertaken without previous inquiry as to the safety of the routes. 

Railway from Naples to Salerno (33 )I.. in 2 lirs.), 5 trains dailv ; 
fares 4 fr. 70, 3 fr. 50, 1 fr. 75 c. 

From Naples to Pompeii, see R. 8. The line, after quitting 
the Bay of Naples, traverses the fertile plain of the Sarno. Stat. 
Scafati. To the 1. a cotton-spinning factory; cotton and tobacco 
are extensively cultivated in the whole of this district. Stat. 
Angri. near which Teias, the last king of the Goths, was defeated 
by N'arses in 5'23, after he had descended from Lettere on Monte 
Sant' Angelo to the plain. The district gradually becomes more 
mountainous ; a succession of fine views. 

Stat. Pagani (11,175 inhab.). In the church of .S. Michele, 
to the 1. of the high altar, is the tomb of Alphonso de'Liguori, 
born at Naples in 1696, bishop of S. Agata in 1762, and founder 
of the order of the Redemptionists, died at Pagani in 1781, 
canonised by Pope Gregory XVI. in 1839. Sign. Luigi Petrinek 
possesses a collection of coins. The place, however, contains 
little to detain the traveller, l 1 ^ M- distant is 

Stat. Xocera, a town of some importance but no great interest, 
near the ancient Nuceria Alfaterna, where Hugo de' Pagani, 
founder of the order of the Templars, and the artist Francesco 
Solimena were born, and where Paulus Jovius, the historian, was 
bishop. To the 1. of the line, above the extensive Capuchin 
monastery, rise the ruins of the ancient Castello in Parco, the 
scene of several remarkable historical events since the time when 
Sibylla, widow of King Manfred, and her youthful son perished 
here (1266) after the battle of Benevento. At the close of the 
14th cent, it was one of the principal strongholds of the house 
of Anjou. 


148 Route 10. LA. CAVA. Environs 

To the r.. shortly before the small village of S. Clemente is 
reached, is seen the ancient baptismal church of *S. Maria Mag- 
giore, similar to S. Stefano in Rome. The basin in the centre 
is surrounded by 8 granite columns, enclosed by a circular pas- 
sage with 16 pairs of handsome pillars of pavonazetto with four 
capitals, all antique. The walls are decorated with frescoes of 
the 14th cent. 

Beyond S. Clemente the line ascends considerably. On emerg- 
ing from a cutting the train enters a charming valley and reaches 

La Cava (Londra), a favourite summer resort of Neapolitans 
and strangers, a town consisting of a long street with arcades, 
as at Bologna. On a wooded eminence in the neighbourhood 
rises the celebrated Benedictine monastery La Trinita della Cava, 
founded in 1025 by Waimar III., a Lombard prince of Salerno, 
but condemned to dissolution. (At the adjoining village of Corpo 
di Cava is the comfortable, though rustic, *inn of Michele Sca- 
polatiello; pension 5 fr.) This delightful and salubrious valley 
is admirably adapted for a summer retreat. The church (at the 
entrance two ancient sarcophagi) contains the tombs of the first 
abbot S. Alferius, of Queen Sibylla, wife of Roger, who died at 
Salerno, and of several anti-popes, among whom Gregory VIII. 
The organ is one of the best in Italy. The archives of the 
monastery (generally accessible in the forenoon only) are of great 
value, and contain a number of important documents on parch- 
ment in uninterrupted succession ; the catalogue comprises 8 vols. 
Among the valuable MSS. are the Codex Legum Longobardorum 
of 1004, a prayer-book with miniatures, of the school of Fra 
Angelico da Fiesole, the Latin Biblia Vulgata of the 7th cent., etc. 

'Corpo di Cava (see above) may be visited in the course of an after- 
noon, but one or more days may be spent most agreeably in this neighbour- 
hood. From the station the ascent occupies 1 hr. ; donkey 1 fr., there and 
back li| 2 fr. ; there is also a carriage-road. From the station the traveller 
proceeds to the 1. into the town, and follows the main-street as far as the 
Piazza with the church and large fountain in front of it (at the corner to 
the r. the "Cafe' of Italia). By the church the road ascends to the 1. and 
is followed, without regard to the diverging paths, for 5 min. Then, when 
it turns to the r., the shorter path ascends to the 1. by a church, and 
farther on between walls, past the red painted tobacco manufactory, to 
S. Giuseppe, a church with a few houses. Here the road, which goes to 
the r., is again quitted and the path to the 1. followed. It descends, crosses 
a ravine (beyond the bridge a small church to the 1.), and again gradually 
ascends, commanding a view of the village to the r. For a time the path 
is enclosed by walls, but a view is soon obtained of the valley of La Cava 
to the 1., and, higher up, of the Bay of Salerno. In '(2 hr. (from S. Giuseppe) 
the church of Pietra Santa is attained (so called from a rock in front of 
the high altar, on which the pope sat in 1816) whence a fine view is 
obtained of the mountain slopes of Cava, studded with numerous white 
houses, and the Bay of Salerno to the r. In the narrow valley about 
20 mills are propelled by the brook. The tall, round, slender towers 
011 the hills about Cava are destined for the capture of wild pigeons in 

From Pietra Santa the wood is skirted for 8 min. and the high road 
reached, which soon afterwards crosses the viaduct to Corpo di Cava. 

of Naples. SALERNO. 10. Route. 149 

Here the road divides, leading to the village 1 to the r., to the monastery 
in 5 min. towards the 1. The latter is situated above a small valley, and 
is built against the rock on which the village stands. It contains about 
20 Benedictines and a seminary. 

The train now traverses a beautiful district, and soon affords 
a glimpse of the Bay of Salerno; in 10 min. it reaches 

Vietri, a charmingly situated little town, with several villas 
in the vicinity. The railway, supported by galleries, and passing 
through four tunnels, descends rapidly hence to Salerno. 

Carriages to Salerno (l'l 8 M.) are also in waiting here. The 
importunity of the drivers is often annoying. Single place '|2 fr. ; carriagr 
2 fr. The road descends, commanding a view of the sea, and affords a 
pleasant walk. High above, on the rocks of Monte Liberatore to the 1. 
is the railway. Carriage to Amain less expensive here than at Salerno. 

Hotels at Salerno: Hotel Vjttoria , at the entrance to the town 
from Vietri, on the 1., spacious and clean, R. 3 — 5, B. l'ja, I>. 4'J2, A. 1, 
L. 1 fr. ; pension according tn arrangement, but expensive; : Hotel 
i/Angleterre , farther on in the town with less view, charges often too 
high, and must be reduced by bargain; Sole, unpretending. Trattorie 
(similar to those in Naples): 'Europa; Roma. Several Cafes on the quay, 
now Corso Garibaldi. 

Sea-Baths near the landing-place, similar to those at Naples in arrange- 
ments and charges. 

Carriages and Boats , charges always according to arrangement ; 
at the hotels, as at Sorrento (p. 140), the charges are professedly fixed. 
Two-horse carr. to Paestum 20 — 25 fr., with three horses for 4 — 5 pers. 
25 — 30 fr. and 1 — 2 fr. gratuity. One horse carr. to Amalfi (p. 154) 5 — 6 fr. , 
two-horse carr. 7 — 9 fr. Single travellers may avail themselves of one of 
the swift but somewhat uncomfortable corricoli (two-wheeled, rustic 
vehicles ; driver stands behind the passenger), but a stipulation should 
be made that no second passenger be taken up by the way; to Amalfi 
(tutto compreso), according to circumstances 2>|2 — 4 fr. — Rowing or sailing 
boat 1 — i'|2 fr. per hour. Boat to Peestum 20—25. to Amalfi 8 — 10 fr., ac- 
cording to the number of rowers. 

Salerno, the ancient Salernum, delightfully situated at the 
N\ extremity of the bay, bounded on the E. by fertile plains, 
possesses a population of 20,977 (or with the contiguous villages 
29,031), an archbishop, theatre, numerous residences of the 
aristocracy, etc. The old town, rising on the slope of the so-called 
Apennine. with narrow and irregular streets, recals the period 
when in the 9th and 10th centuries the Lombards, in the 
11th cent, the Normans, and finally the houses of Hohenstaufen 
and Anjou were masters of the place. On an eminence stand 
the ruins of the ancient fortress of the Lombard princes, reduced 
by Robert Guiscard, after a siege of 8 months. 

The *Metrina, or quay, li/ 4 M. in length, now termed (Jorso 
(inribaldi, affords a beautiful walk, especially on summer evenings. 
The harbour, once of some importance, is now almost entirely 
choked up with sand. On the Marina stands the monument of 
Carlo Pisacana, Duke of S. Giovanni, 'precursore di Garibaldi', 
who in 1857 participated in the attempts to revolutionise Italy, 
landed in Calabria, and perished whilst attempting to escape. 
The large building between the two sentry-boxes, about 100 paces 
farther, is the Prefetlura, past which to the 1. a narrow street 
leads to the 

150 Route 10. P/ESTUM. Environs 

*Cattedrale S. Matteo, erected in 1084 by Kobert Guiscard, 
and adorned with works of art from Peestum. The restoration of 
1768 has deprived the edifice of much of its simple grandeur; 
it still, however, merits a visit. The steps ascend to an atrium, 
surrounded by '28 antique columns. In the centre the granite 
basin which is now in the Villa Reale at Naples formerly stood. 
By the lateral walls are placed 14 ancient Sarcophagi, employed 
by the Normans and their successors as Christian burying places. 
The bronze doors were erected in 1099 by Landolfo Butromile. 

The nave contains two ambones or reading desks, and the archiepis- 
copal chair, richly decorated with mosaic by Giovanni of Procida. To the r. 
two antique sarcophagi with Bacchanalian representations, serving as 
resting-places for archbishops. The 'Crypt beneath, richly decorated with 
marble and mosaics, contains, it is said, the remains of the Evangelist 
St. Matthew, brought here from the East in 930; also the tomb of Margaret 
of Anjou, wife of Charles of Durazzo and mother of Ladislaus and Jo- 
hanna II., then the tombs of Sigelgaita, second wife of Robert Guiscard, 
of their son Roger Bursa, and of William, .son of the latter, with whom 
the direct line of the Norman dukes became extinct. — The chapel to the 
r. by the high altar contains the tomb of Hildebrand, afterwards Pope 
Gregory VII., who died here May 25th, KKo, after he had been banished 
from Rome by Henry IV. The monument was restored in 1578 by Arch- 
bishop Colonna, and furnished with an inscription. On the monument of 
the Archbishop Oarafa a relief from Peestum : Rape of Proserpine. In front 
of a side-altar the stump of a column, on which three saints are said to 
have been beheaded. The choir contains a pavement and balustrade of 
ancient mosaic and two columns of verde antico. On the altar in the 
Sacristy (in the 1. transept): "History of the Old and New Testament, on 
numerous carved ivory tablets, dating from 1200. 

P se s t u m. 

An excursion to I'astuui is usually undertaken from Salerno, where 
the previous night has been spent. Distance about 24 M., accomplished 
in 4 hrs. If the traveller start at 4 or 5 a. m. and spend 4 or 5 hrs. at 
Peestum, he may return in time for the last train to Naples. The traveller 
who desires to return to Naples in the evening effects a saving of l 1 ^ — 2 hrs. 
by taking the train at Battipaglia, instead of at Salerno. A three-horse 
carr., accommodating 4 — 5 pers., costs 25 — 30 fr. This charge ought to 
include the ferry of the Sele and the inevitable buona mano, but a 
trifling addition will nevertheless be expected at the termination of the 
.journey. The vetturino Stefaiw Avalone may be recommended. Refresh- 
ments should be taken from Salerno, as the osteria at Peestum is extremely 
poor, and the drinking water bad (the wine, however, is tolerable, but not 
more than '| 2 fr. per bottle should be paid for it). As far as Battipaglia 
the traveller may avail himself of the railway (p. 187), having previously 
ordered a carriage from Salerno to meet him at the station. As a rule, 
the traveller should avoid undertaking the excursion alone, and the days 
should be long , as about 9 hrs. (6 hrs. if the train be taken to and 
from Battipaglia) are required for the journey alone. The hot summer 
months are unfavourable for the excursion, owing to the prevalence of 
malaria in this district ; but should this season be selected , the tra- 
veller is strongly cautioned against indulging in sleep. 

From Eboli (p. 187). This beautiful route to Paestum has the ad- 
vantage of being considerably shorter than that from Salerno, and is 
considered equally safe. Enquiries, however, should always be made as 
lo this latter point. Two-horse carriage from Eboli to Pfestum , includ- 
ing ferry and gratuity 20 fr. (a drive of 2 hrs.). The road leads along the 
1. side of the oak-forest of Persano, and after 1 hr. unites with the Salerno 
road, a few hundred paces from the ferry (see below). 

of iXaples. PrESTUM 10. Rout,-. 151 

In favourable weather the excursion may also lie made from Salem" 
by boat (p. 149 1 Travellers land at the inllux of the Salso, about li| 2 Jl. 
from the ruins. — In winter parties are frequently formed at Naples for 
the purpose, of visiting Ppestitm. .See advertisements at. the hotels. 

From Salerno the great Calabria n route is followed as far as 
Bitttiptiyliu on the Tuscinno (about it M.J. The road then, di- 
verges to the r. , traversing marshy and desolate plains and 
crossing the river Sele (the ancient Silarus) by a ferry. A stone 
bridge is now being built across the often swollen and im- 
petuous stream, to replace another which was frequently destroyed. 
This point is 'dh'n M- from Battipaglia. Above the road to the 
I.. Crtpaccio Vecchio and lXuoro , where in the plain half- wild 
horses and buffaloes are watched by ferocious dogs. 

Psestum was (according to Strabo) founded by Greeks from 
Sybaris about the year B. C. (>()0. The ancient name of Posei- 
donia (city of Neptune) sufficiently indicates its Greek origin. 
After the conquest of Pyrrhus. Poseidonia fell into the hands of 
the Romans, Y>. C. 27o, who sent a colony thither, and changed 
the name to Pa'stum. The prosperity of the Greek city was now 
gone, although, as we are informed, an annual festival subse- 
quently took place in commemoration of the Greek origin, customs, 
and language of the inhabitants. The town gradually fell to 
decay, and as early as the reign of Augustus was notorious for 
its unhealthy air. Christianity took root here at an early period. 
When the Saracens devastated Pa-stum in the 9th cent., the in- 
habitants fled with their bishop to the neighbouring heights, and 
there founded ('apaceio Vecchio. The deserted town was in the 
11th cent, deprived by Robert Guiseard of its monuments and 
sculptures, and remained in this desolate condition for many 
centuries, till in modern times attention was again directed to 
the antiquities still remaining. Those who appreciate the simple 
majesty of Greek architecture should endeavour, if possible, be- 
fore quitting Naples, to pay a visit to the temples of Psestum. 
These, however, are the sole attraction, Pa j stum contains a mi- 
serable tavern, a desolate growth of thorns and weeds, occasion- 
ally infested by snakes and scorpions, and a poor, ill-conditioned 
population who suffer much from fever. The malaria, occasioned 
by the collection of stagnant water and the decline of cultivation 
in the entire tract along the coast between this point and P>atti- 
pagiia, has been somewhat diminished by the improvements of 
the last few years. 

The ancient Town-walls, forming an irregular pentagon, on 
the river Salso. not far from the coast, about 3 M. in circum- 
ference, constructed of blocks of travertine, are almost entirely 
preserved; also a gate on the K. side towards the mountains, 
with two bas-reliefs on the key-stones representing dolphins and 
sirens. Outside the latter, fragments of an aqueduct, pavement 
of the road, and several towers. Without the N. gate, by which 

lf>2 Route 10. P.ESTUM. Environs 

the town is entered from Salerno, was a Street, of Tombs. Several 
of these, which have been opened, contained Greek weapons : 
in one of them, examined in J8oi, were found fine mural paint- 
ings, representing warriors taking leave of their friends. Most 
of the objects discovered in the course of the excavations, which 
are still continued, are preserved in the Museum at Naples, but 
a few are also shown at the A' ilia Bellelli. 

The Temples at Pactum ( custodian 1 fr. ), of ancient Greek 
construction, are, with the single exception of those at Athens, 
the finest extant monuments of this description. They are three 
in number. The largest and most beautiful is that in the centre, 
the so-called **Temple of Neptune, 66'/ 2 yds. in length, 26 2 / 3 yds. 
in width. At each extremity are 6 massive, fluted Doric co- 
lumns, 30 ft. in height; on each side 12, in all 36 columns of 
?'/'2 ft- ln diameter, all well-preserved. In the interior of the 
Cella are two series of 8 columns each (about 6 ft. in diameter), 
with a second row of smaller columns above, which supported 
the roof. The latter are preserved on one side only. The stone 
is a species of travertine, to which age has imparted a mellow 
tone. It contains fossil reeds and aquatic plants. The whole 
was once covered with stucco, in order to conceal the imper- 
fections of the stone. The temple was a hypaethron, i. e., the 
cella, where the image stood, was uncovered. The proportions 
of the symmetrically tapering columns, whether viewed from the 
\ icinity or from a distance, are perfect. This temple, as its 
entire character betokens, is one of the most ancient specimens 
of Greek art. Photographs, models, etc. may easily be procured. 
A stone basis in front of the E. facade probably belonged to a 
large sacrificial altar. 

To the S. of the latter, towards the river Silarus, rises the 
second temple, the so-called *Basilica (a misnomer), of more 
recent origin, but also of great antiquity. It is 60 1 /., yds. in 
length, 27 yds. in width, and its 50 columns are each 6 ft. in 
diameter, but the proportions of the whole are less majestic than 
those of the temple of Neptune. At each extremity 9 columns, 
on each side 1(5, also of travertine stone. The shafts of the 
columns taper upwards in a curve; the capitals are of a unique 
form, not occurring elsewhere. A series of columns in the 
central long wall, by a singular arrangement, divided the temple 
into two halves, so that it contained two 'cellae '. 

In front of these temples probably extended the Forum of 
the ancient town ; basements for altars or statues are still re- 
cognised here. 

Farther N., near the entrance from Salerno, stands the small 
* Temple of Ceres, or according to others, of Vesta, with a 
peristyle of 34 columns, (5 at each end, and J 1 on either side. 
Length 3(1'/., yds., width l(i yds.; columns "> ft. in diameter, 

of Naples. P^STUM. 10. Route. 158 

tapering upwards in straight lines. The columns of the vestibule 
are distinguished from those of the principal part of the struc- 
ture by the difference of the fluting. This temple, too, bears 
the impress of the simple and majestic Grecian architecture. 

Between the latter and the Temple of Neptune a few frag- 
ments of Roman building have been discovered, a Theatre and 
Amphitheatre, it is believed. The latter is intersected by the 
road. A Roman Temple was also discovered here in 1830. 
Concealed among the underwood near it are two metopre, adorned 
with high reliefs. These remains, however, are insignificant 
compared with the ruins above mentioned. Of the 'rose-gardens 
of Paestum, so lauded by Roman poets, no traces now exist. The 
temples are now adorned with a luxuriant growth of ferns and 
acanthus, enlivened by the chirping of grasshoppers and the 
rustling of lizards. 

A walk on the town-wall, e. g. from the S. gate to that to- 
wards Salerno, will serve better than a close inspection to convey 
an idea of the imposing grandeur of these venerable ruins. The 
finest general *view of the temples is obtained from the terrace 
of the first tower to the E. of the road, on the S. side of the 
town-wall. The marshy ponds which the Salso forms near the 
walls are a favourite resort of buffaloes. 

A m a 1 f i. 

From Sorrento to Ainalfi by Scaricatojo , see p. 157. From 
f'a stellama r e to Amalfi by the Little St. Angelo, see p. 157. — From 
the railway-station of Pagani (p. 147) a bridle-path ascends Monte Chivnzo, 
the height to the YV of Monte Albino. Near Torre di Chiunzo, an ancient 
fortress erected by Raimondi Orsini, the path divides : that to the 1. leads 
through the Val Tramonti by Fiylino and Paterno to Maiori (see below): 
that to the r. by Capiti, Cesarano, and Srala to Atrani (p. 154). Each of 
these routes is a walk of 5 — 6 hrs. and should not be undertaken without 
previous inquiries as to the state of the country; if necessary, with an 
escort. — The "High Road is the most frequented route from Salerno 
to Amalfi:, by carriage (p. 149) in l',2— 2 hrs. (by water, see p. 149|. 
The road, completed in 1852, is a most remarkable and magnificent rocky 
route, hewn in the cliffs of the coast, frequently supported by galleries 
and vast viaducts 100 — 500 ft. above tin.' sea-level, passing through thriving 
villages, and affording a succession of charming landscapes. The slopes 
are generally somewhat bare, but are in many places laid out in terraces, 
and planted with vines, olives, lemons, and fruit-trees. The promontories 
of the coast are occupied by massive square watch-towers, erected under 
Charles V. as a protection against pirates, now converted into dwellings. 
This route is of superior attraction to that from Castellamare to Sorrento. 

Krom Salerno the road ascends, and near \ ietri (p. 148) tra- 
verses the valley by means of a >tone viaduct. It then descends 
to the Marina di Yietri, where to the 1. in the sea rise the 
two conical rocks / Due Fratelli. On the height to the r. Ratio. 
Then the fishing-village of Cetara, extending along the bottom 
of a narrow ravine and picturesquely situated, frequently mentioned 
in connection with the invasions of the Saracens as the first 

154 Route 10. ATRANI. Environs 

place where they settled. The road now ascends to the Guardia 
house on the summit of Capo Tumulo, whence (the carriage 
should be quitted*) a beautiful prospect, the coast on both sides 
is enjoyed. It then descends by Capo d'Orso, where the fleet 
of Charles V. was defeated by Filippino Doria, to the small 
town of 

Maiori, at the mouth of the Val Tramonti (see above), with 
terraced lemon-plantations, at the base of the ruined monastery 
of Camnldoli della Avocata (founded in 1485). Still higher are 
situated the ruins of the ancient castle of S. Nicola, of which 
the Piccolomini were the last proprietors. The road now slightly 
ascends to the next village of Minori ; then Atrani and Amalfi, 
all nearly contiguous. 

Minori, most beautifully situated, once the arsenal of Amain, 
surrounded by lemon-plantations, a clean little village, lies at the 
mouth of the sometimes impetuous Reginolo. 

Atrani is situated at the entrance to a ravine, on each side of 
which the houses rise picturesquely. The church of S. Salvatore 
di Biretto contains interesting monuments of the Doges of Amalfl, 
and others of the Saracen period. Above Atrani stands the 
village of Pontone; farther on, Ravello on the 1. Near Pontone 
is the house where in 1620 Masaniello (i. e. Tommaso Aniello, 
son of Cecco d'Amalri and Antonia Gargano) is said to have 
been horn, who on July 7th, 1647, headed a formidable insur- 
rection at Naples against the Spaniards, but, after a short period 
of success, fell into a species of insanity, and on July 17th was 
shot in the pulpit of a church by one of his former adherents. 
The composer Auher has dramatised these events. 

A lofty rocky eminence, on which the extensive ruins of the 
castle of Pontone are situated, separates Atrani from Amalfi. 

Hotels at Amalfl: Albekgo dei ('.utuccini , on the Marina; E. 
2'|'2 — 3, B. 1, S. 3'|2, A. '(2 fr. ; Alberoo della Luna, formerly a mo- 
nastery, charmingly situated hetween Atrani and Amalfl, similar charges. 

Boats l'lz— 1 3 |4 fr. per hour; to Scaricatojo (p. 157) with 2 rowers 
7—8 fr. ; to Capri (p. 142) with 4—6 rowers 20—25 fr. ; to Sorrento (p. 140) 
with 4—6 rowers 30—45 fr. ; to Salerno (p. 149) with 2 rowers 7—8 fr. — 
Donkeys 1 — li| 4 fr. per hour; to Castellamare by the Little St. Angelo 
5 — 6 fr. — Guides unnecessary except where time is very limited; the 
best are the two brothers Melloni; for a visit to the cathedral, mill-valley, 
and Capuchin monastery l'| 2 — 2, whole day 5 fr. 

Amalfl, a small town situated at the entrance of a deep 
ravine, and surrounded by imposing mountains and rocks of the 
most picturesque forms, was an important sea-port in the early 
part of the middle ages, rivalling Pisa and Genoa. 

It is mentioned for the first time in the 6th cent., when it enjoyed the 
protection of the Eastern emperors; it subsequently became an independent 
state, under the presidency of a 'doge'. The town was continually at 
variance with the neighbouring princes of Salerno and even detied the 
Norman sovereigns of Naples, till King Roger reduced the place in 1131. 
Cnited with the royal forces, Amain carried on a war with the Pisans ; 
in the course of the struggle the celebrated MS. of the Pandects of .Tusti- 

of Xaples. AMALFI. 10. Route. 155 

nian, now one of the principal treasure* of the Laureutian library at 
Florence, fell into the hands of the Pisans. Amain then became subject 
to the Neapolitan kings of the houses of Xormandy, Anjou, and Arragon 
During the 13th cent, the sea gradually undermined the lower part of the 
town, and still more disastrous consequences were occasioned by an 
inundation in 1343. Amalfi, which had once contained 50,000 inhab., now 
steadily declined, and at the present day has a population of 6506 only, 
who are principally engaged in the manufacture of paper, soap, and 
maccaroni. The town claims to be the birthplace of a certain Ftavio Gioja, 
who is alleged to have invented the compass here in 1302, but the story 
is very doubtful. 

From the Marina a short street leads past the Albergo dei 
Cappuccini to the small Piazza, on the r. side of which the 
cathedral stands. It may also be reached by the steps to the 
r. of the fountain on the Marina, which lead to the entrance 
adjoining the crypt (see below). 

The * Cattedrale S. Andrea, approached from the Piazza by a 
broad flight of stone steps (to the 1. the police-office), is still, 
in spite of modern alterations , a remarkably interesting 
structure of the 11th cent., in the Norman style. A spacious 
vestibule in front, resting on 7 antique columns from Peestum, 
having become insecure, was removed in lSfif). 

The bronze doors, said to have been executed by Byzantine masters, 
bear two inscriptions in silver letters. One of these is to this efl'ect : "Hoc 
opus fieri jussit pro redemptione animfe sufe Pantaleo filius Mauri de 
Pantaleone de Jlauro de Maurone Comite". The interior, which consists 
of a nave and three aisles, is adorned with marble columns and mosaics. 
By the entrance, to the 1., an ancient vase of porphyry, formerly employed 
as a font. Xear this (1.), in the front passage from the 2nd to the 3rd 
aisle, two ancient sarcophagi with unfortunately damaged sculpture, sup- 
posed to represent the Rape of Proserpine, and the "Nuptials of Peleus and 
Thetis (according to others, those of Theseus and Ariadne). A third bears 
the inscription : "Hie intus homo verus eerlus optumus recumbo t^uintus 
Fabritius Rufus nobilis decurio" The choir contains ancient columns 
decorated with mosaic from Ptestum. From the v. aisle a stair descends 
to the Crypt (verger 20 c), where, it is said, the body of the apostle 
St. Andrew has reposed since the 13th cent, when it was brought hither 
from Constantinople. The relics, from which an oily matter (manna di 
S. Andrea) of miraculous power is said to exude, attract numerous pious 
visits. The colossal statue of the saint by MirJiael Angelo Maccarino was 
presented by Philip III. of Spain. The altar was executed from a design 
by Bomenico Fontana. The cloisters contain an ancient Christian relief of 
the 12 Apostles and a Madonna of more recent date. The campanile, with 
its 4 storeys, was erected in 1276. 

From the Piazza, opposite the cathedral, a dark lane, to the 
r., and then partially covered steps should next be ascended. A 
maccaroni-manufactory is passed, and the now level path leads 
to another flight of steps, which ascend to the * Capuchin Mo- 
nastery, founded in 1212 by Cardinal Pietro Capuano for monks 
of the Cistercian order, and built into a hollow of the rock, 
400 ft. above the sea. It is situated about 1 /2 -^ to the W 
of the town. From 1583 to 1815 it belonged to the Capuchins, 
who again took possession of it in 1850; but it has lately been 
converted into a naval school. It contains fine cloisters, a 
charming veranda, and magnificent points of view. A spacious 

156 Route 10. RAVELLO. Environs 

grotto to the 1., in front of the building, was formerly used as 
a Calvary, or series of devotional stations. 

A cool and pleasant *walk may be taken in the narrow mill- 
valley ( Yalle de' Molini), H/2 M- ln length, containing 16 paper- 
mills deriving their motive power from the brook, situated in 
the rear of Amain (from the Piazza in a straight direction W. 
to a gate-way. beyond which the valley is entered. The steps, 
which ascend to the r. by the gate, lead to Scala, 2 hrs. walk. 
see p. 157 ; guide necessary). On the r. rise lofty cliffs, the 
summit of which is crowned by the ruins of the Castello Pontone. 
The single tower dates from the time of Queen Johanna. — - Five 
villages appertain to Amain : Pogerola, Pastina, Lene, Vettica 
Winore, and Torere, all situated to the W. of the town in a 
district which produces an abundant supply of wine, oil, and 
fruit. The coast is overgrown with the aloe and cactus opuntia. 

Ravello, an ancient and celebrated town in a lofty situation, 
is the most attractive point in the neighbourhood of Amain. 
Ascent l'/ 4 hi\, with guide ('2—3 fr., p. lf)4; donkey 2 fr.). 
The views are charming, and the traveller has an opportunity of 
inspecting the Moorish style of architecture. The route is by 
Atrani ; thence a somewhat steep ascent by steps. The town, 
which in the zenith of its prosperity possessed 13 churches, 
X monasteries, numerous palaces, and a population of 30,000. 
now numbers 1560 inhabitants only. 

The traveller first reaches the * Cathedral, founded in the 
11th cent., with modernised interior. The bronze doors, with 
numerous representations of saints, date from 1197. The magni- 
ficent *Ambo, in marble, decorated with mosaics, was founded 
in 1272. It rests on 6 columns supported by lions. Inscription: 
Xicnlaus de Fogia marmorarius hoc opus fecit'. Opposite to 
it is the pulpit, in a simpler style, with a representation of 
Jonah being swallowed by the whale. In the choir the episcopal 
throne, adorned with mosaics. On the 1. the Cappella di 
S. Pantaleone, containing the blood of the saint. In the Sacristy 
a Madonna by Andrea Sabattini of Salerno. 

The *Palazzo Rufalo, now the property of an English gentleman, 
a structure in the Saracenic style of the 12th cent., was once 
occupied by Pope Adrian IV., King Charles II., and Robert the 
Wise. In the centre is a small court with a colonnade, of 
apparently frail construction. The gateway has a Saracenic dome. 
A veranda in the garden commands a delightful * prospect (fee 
5 — (i soldi). 

S. Maria Immacolatu is a picturesque little church. 

S. Giovanni, a modernised basilica supported by columns, 
contains a fine old pulpit. The adjacent garden (fee, a few 
soldi ), formerly the property of the d'Afflitto family, affords a 
tine "view of the valley and small town of Minori. and of 

of Naples. POSITANO. 10. Route. 157 

the more distant Majori as far as the Capo Tumulo. — 
Other points of subordinate interest may be visited if time 

The traveller will be amply rewarded by extending the ex- 
cursion by 2 — 3 hrs. as follows: by Scala, a village with an 
episcopal church, and by the ruined castle of Sealetta, to Pon- 
tone ; thence a descent to the mill-valley. 

From Amalfi to Sorrento the best route is by water as 
far as Scaricatojo (boat see p. 154; passage 2 — 272 1118.; thence 
on foot or donkey in 2'/2 hrs.), skirting the picturesque coast 
(costiera occidentale), and passing the promontory of Conca, the 
precipitous cliffs of Furore, the village of Prajano with its luxu- 
riant vines and olives, and Vettica May g tore in the vicinity ; then 
Positano, picturesquely situated at the base of the mountains, 
and under the Anjou dynasty an important harbour. The church 
of S. Maria dell' Assunta contains a quaint sculpture of a sea- 
monster, probably obtained from some temple of Neptune. Many 
of the natives of Positano , as well as Secondigliano (p. 48) and 
Montemurro (p. 198), leave their homes and travel through the 
ex-kingdom of Naples as hawkers and colporteurs. They as- 
semble at their native places annually to celebrate their great 
church-festival, and again return in later life to spend their 
declining years. The population therefore chiefly consists of old 
men, women, and children. 

The boatmen sometimes propose to land their passengers at Positano, 
if the sea is at all rough, on the pretext that there is no good landing- 
place at Scaricatojo. The traveller should, however, insist on being con- 
veyed to his proper destination, and if it be really impossible to land there, 
he can then return to Positano. 

From Scari catojo to Sorrento [2 l li hrs. ; guide to Conti (see be- 
low) 1 fr., but unnecessary, as the path thither cannot be missed; thence 
to Sorrento 1>|2 — 2 fr. ; donkeys (p. 154) not to be had at Conti], the 
path at first ascends by steps in the rocks; after an ascent of 1 hr. Li 
Conti di Geremenna, a group of houses on the height, is reached. Here in 
a straight direction, avoiding the path to the 1. Immediately after the 
ridge is traversed, a view is disclosed of the Bay of Xaples, Capri, Ischia. 
and Procida. After 5 min. a straight direction, avoiding the stony path 
to the 1. ; after 25 min., nearly at the base of the hill, the path leads tn 
the r. between walls; after 5 min., to the 1.; after 5 min. more, to the 1. 
by the narrow path to Sorrento (to the r. to Carotto, p. 140) ; again, after 
5 min., to the 1. between walls, and then by the high road to the 1. ; 
25 min.. Hotel Belvedere (p. 140); 20 min., .Sorrento (p. 140). 

From Positano to Sorrento (3'|2 hr. ; guide 2 fr., unnecessary) 
the path ascends in 1 hr. to the top of the hill, where the first path to 
the 1. is taken, leading into the forest; after 7 min. an old stone gate is 
passed, whence the road descends through the wood, and cannot be mis- 
taken. After 3 \i hr., at the iirst house, the path turns to the 1. ; l \z hr. a 
church; at the next crossway, to the r. The path continues descending 
to the r. ; 1 \2 hr., to the 1. in the valley ; 5 min., the high-road is reached, 
and in >| 2 hr. more Sorrento (p. 140). 

From Amain round the Punta delta Campanella to Capri, 
p. 142; to Sorrento, p. 142; for both excursions 6 hrs. are re- 
quired; with 4 — 6 rowers 30 — 35 fr. 

158 Route W. LITTLE S. ANGELO. 

From A m alfi to V a ft el la m are by the Little S. Angelo (7 hrs. ; 
donkev not recommended on account of the roughness of the path), a 
fatiguing walk which hardly repays the trouble, as the view from the 
summit is partially impeded; inquiry, moreover, should be made before 
starting as to the 'safety of the route. The finest portion of the route is 
;is far as (li|« hr.) Fort S. Lazaro (see below), a point which may itself 
form the object of an excursion from Amalfi (as, however, the path is 
hounded by high walls, with the exception of the last 1/2 hr., a donkey 
should be taken thus far, enabling the traveller to see beyond the walls ; 
a supply of provisions also desirable). — The path leads by Pastina and 
Vettira Minore in the Val Vcltira, a picturesque ravine. Farther off, to 
the 1., at the base of the mountain slope, is situated Conca, consisting of 
a few scattered houses, where the long Pnnta di Conca extends into the 
sea. Then by a steep and unshaded path in '|a hr. to S. Lazaro, a fort 
with a small garrison ; the terrace beneath commands a strikingly beauti- 
ful prospect of the luxuriant coast as far as Positano (p. 157), to the N. 
Monte S. Angelo (p. 139). From the fort the path is shaded by walnut 
and cherry-trees as far as Agerola (in one of the last houses to the r. wine 
of an inferior quality may be obtained). Thence >|2 hr. to the culminating 
point, <S\ Angelo a Gtiida, partly through wood. On the summit a wild 
district, to the 1. the ridge of La Parata, to the r. the slight eminence 
Piano ill Perillo, overgrown with brushwood. The only fine view is 
towards the N. of the Bay of Naples; to the S. the sea alone is visible. 
From the summit to (3 hrs.) Gragnano a fatiguing descent by stony and 
precipitous paths. From Gragnano to ( 3 |4 hr.) Castellamare and the ('| 4 hr.) 
Hotel et Pension Anglaise (p. 138) a dusty high-road. 

11. From Ancona to Brindisi and the Apulian 

The E. districts of Italy, to the S. of Ancona, have, until very recently, 
been entirely beyond the reach of the ordinary traveller. Moreover the \V. 
coast is by far the richer and more picturesque, as well as more replete 
with historical interest. The E. districts can boast of no such names as 
those of Rome, Xaples, Florence, etc., but they are not devoid of attrac- 
tion, and have been endowed by nature with a considerable share of the 
gifts she has so bounteously lavished on other parts of Italy. The Apen- 
nines, rising at a short distance from the coast, send forth a series of 
parallel ramifications, forming a corresponding number of parallel valleys, 
whose communication with the external world is maintained by means of 
the coast to which they descend. The shores are flat and monotonous and 
destitute of good harbours. The estuaries of the small rivers afford but 
scanty protection to the vessels of the coasting trade. Even at Ancona 
the prominent M. Cottcro alone renders the anchorage tolerable. The 
village and towns, in which local peculiarities often prevail in a marked 
degree, are generally situated on the heights, and conspicuous at a great 
distance. Towards the W. the view is bounded by the central chain of 
the Apennines, which extend towards the S. of Ancona, from 43° to 42° N. 
lat., in several continuous ranges, from the Montagna delta Sibilla to the 
Gran Basso d 'Italia and Majella. They here attain their greatest elevation, 
and are covered with snow as late as July. Towards the E. glitters the 
vast Adriatic, studded on bright days by numerous sails. Such is the 
scenery presented by the formerly papal province of Ancona and the 
Neapolitan provinces of the Abruzzi with their capitals Teramo and Chieti. 
Farther 8. the aspect of the country is different. The Apennines gradually 
recede from the coast , M. (largnano, the last spur projecting into the sea, 
iM-ing separated from the main chain by a considerable plain. Beyond 
this stretches the Apulian plain, an extensive tract of pasture and arable 
land, bounded by an undulating district on the S. About the 41st degree 
of "N. latitude the Apennines divide; the main chain, extending towards 
t lie S., forms the peninsula of Calabria; the lower chain, to the E.. that 

FERMO. 11. Route. 159 

of Apulia. The coast here becomes less monotonous ; Brindisi , Otranto, 
and Gallipoli possess harbours of considerable importance. 

In consequence of the political changes of the last few years, the E. 
half of Italy has been drawn into the vortex of traflic, and is no longer 
excluded from the rest of the world owing to insufficient means of com- 
munication. Since the completion of the railway from Ancona to Brindisi 
and the improvements which the harbour of the latter has undergone, this 
route forms the most direct line of communication between Western and 
Central Europe and the East. Should the blessings of peace be preserved 
to Italy, it may with certainty be predicted that the traffic here will rapidly 
increase, and thus render the entire district more attractive. At present 
the larger towns alone contain tolerable inns. Travelling in the province 
of Anemia is in every respect safe and agreeable, which unfortunately 
cannot be said of every part of the \V. coast. 

The distance by Railway from Ancona to Brindisi is '£i~i l \2 M : 
express to Brindisi daily, in correspondence with the express trains from 
.Milan and Bologna, in io hrs. ; fares 61 fr. 50 c, 43 fr. 5 c, 30 fr. 75 c. : 
also once weekly (Mondays) in ll'|3 hrs., in connection with the English 
mail to India, stopping at Pescara, Foggia, and Bari only. The local 
trains stop for the night at Pescara or Foggia. The line skirts the coast, 
to the 1. a view of the Adriatic, to the r. the Apennines with their lateral 
valleys. The towns generally lie inland on the heights, at some distance 
from the stations, with which they communicate regularly by diligences 
(cheap, but often uncomfortable). 

From Ancona to Civitanuova, see Baedeker's Central Italy. 
The line crosses the Chienti. Then stat. Porto S. Elpidio ; the 
village is several miles inland. 

The river Tenna is then crossed. Stat. Porto S. Giorgio. 

On the heights, 3 31. inland, is situated Fermo {Locanda delV Aquila : 
fare by dilig. or carr. 'I^ fr.), the ancient Firim/m Picenum, with 20,000 
inhab., seat of an archbishop, and capital of the province of the same name. 
It became a Roman colony after the beginning of the first Punic war, and 
has continued since that period to be a town of some importance. At the 
Porta S. Francesco, by which the town is entered, are seen remnants of 
the ancient wall, constructed at a very remote period. The streets ascend 
somewhat precipitously to the height on which the handsome Piazza is 
ituated , the Town-hall here contains some inscriptions and antiquities. 
Antiquarians should visit the collection of the avvocato M. dc Minicis. 
Mutside the town, fine views of the fertile district, the Apennines, and 
ttie sea are obtained. 

The line next crosses the brooks Lete Vivo and Aso. Stations 
Peitrtso, f'upra Marittima (Marano). (jrottammnre. On the height, 
-i-'/o -M. from the latter, is situated the town of Pipatramone 
I oOOO inhab. ). Near Cupra Marittima once lay the town of that 
name, with a celebrated temple dedicated to the Sabine goddess 
Copra, restored by Hadrian, A. 1). l'2(i. The inhabitants of 
these districts greatly resemble their Neapolitan neighbours in 
manners and appearance. 

Stat. S. Benedetto (tolerable inn), a small sea-coast town. 

Ascoli ("Loca/ida delf Aquila), the ancient Axcitlum l J icenunt, with 
17.-US inhab., the seat nl'a bishop and capital of a province, is situated in 
the fertile vallev of the Tronto, 21 M. from the station (dilig. twice daily in 
3'|j hrs., fare lij-.. fr.). The road ascends on the X. side of the valley and 
crosses to the S. side, where the town lies. The valley is here contracted 
and enclosed by lofty mountains. To the X. rises the jagged M. delta 
Ascensione, to tiie \V. the Hibilla, more towards the S. the Pi:-o ili .SVivi. 
Mountain roads lead hence by Xurria to Spolrln, others through the valleys 

160 Route 11. PESCARA. From Ancona 

of the Velino and Aterno to Aquila (p. 180) and the interior of the Abruzzi. 
Ascoli, an ancient town in an important situation, the capital of the tribe 
of Picentines, took a prominent part in the Social war against Rome, and 
was captured and destroyed by Pompcy. Interesting remnants of the ancient 
wall, a bridge, and a "gate at the W. end of the town. The town-hall 
contains a few inscriptions, and other relics are encountered in other parts 
of the town, e. g. insignificant vestiges of a theatre and amphitheatre. 
The architecture of the churches and palaces dates principally from a 
period prior to the Renaissance, and contributes materially to the pleasing 
aspect of the town, which is indeed the most attractive on the entire E. 
coast. The Cathedral is said to have been founded by Constantine on 
the site of a temple of Hercules. The original substructions are still 
recognisable. A chapel to the r. in the interior contains good pictures 
by Crivelli. 

Beyond 8. Benedetto the line crosses the Tronto, the ancient 
Truentus, formerly the boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 

Stat. Tortoreto ; then Giulianova, a dirty village on the 
height, about 1 M. from the coast, erected in the 15th cent, 
by the inhabitants of the ancient Castrum Novum on the Tordino, 
and named S. Flaviano at that period. 

Teramo, the ancient Interamna, the capital of the province Abruzzn 
Ultra I., seat of a bishop, with 19,045 inhab., is 16'|2 M. distant (post- 
omnibus 2 fr., one-horse carr. 5 fr., in 2'|s — 3 hrs.), situated on the 1. bank of 
the Tordino. The Gothic cathedral is now modernised. The valley commands 
a, succession of fine views of the imposing Gran Sasso. The town contains 
several inns, the best in the Piazza, where the Cafi d' Italia is also situated. 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso, or Monte Corno (9813 ft.), may best be 
undertaken from this point. (As this district is very rarely visited by 
travellers, letters of recommendation to a resident are highly desirable.) 
The previous night is spent at the village of Isola (14 M. from Teramo), 
at the foot of the mountain, and the ascent is made thence either on the 
back of a mule or on foot. The character of the scenery resembles that 
of the Alps. 

A new road ascends the valley of the Vomano to Aquila (comp. p. 180). 

The line now crosses the Tordino, the ancient Batinus, then 
the Vomano (Vomanus). Stat. Mutignano. 

About 6 M. inland (dilig. in the afternoon 1 fr. 25 c, other conveyances 
rarely obtainable) is situated Atri ('■' Albergo di Vine. Marcone), the ancient 
Hadvia, an episcopal residence, with 9397 inhab., a town of great anti- 
quity, and celebrated for its copper coins. Numerous ruins bear testimony 
fo its ancient importance. The Gothic cathedral with its frescoes merits a 
visit. It rests on extensive foundations of ancient origin, perhaps those of a 
temple. Several large grottoes near the town are also of very remote date. 

The Piomba, the ancient Matrinics, is now crossed, 4 M. 
inland from which is situated Civita Santangelo, with 7000 inhab.; 
then stat. Silvi and Montesilvano. About lG 1 ^ M. inland lies 
('ivith di Penne, the capital of the district, with 9800 inhab., 
the Pinna of the ancients, and chief town of the Vestini, of 
which period various traces are still extant. 

Fescara (Leone d'Oro), one of the principal stations, a small 
and dirty town, situated on the N. bank of the Pescara (dili- 
gences start from the station ; carr. to the town '/ 2 fr."). The 
mountain-group of the Majella, culminating in M. Amara (9000 ft., 
according to others 9f)81 ft.), and 55 M. in circumference, now 

toBrinditi. TERMOLI. 11. Route. 161 

becomes visible on the r. The line crosses the river by an iron 
bridge, below which a wooden bridge and small harbour are 
situated, and then describes a curv round the town. Pescara is a 
fortress, and lies in a low and unhealthy situation. A high road 
leads hence to Chieti, Popoli, Solmona, and through the Abruzzi 
to Naples, see R. 14. 

Stat. Francavilla; the village lies to the r. on the hills. 
Beyond this, a mountain-spur projects into the sea, and the 
train passes through 3 short tunnels. Beyond the third the 
fort of Ortona becomes visible on the 1. Another tunnel, then 
stat. Ortona. The town (Caprera; Cafe' in the Piazza), 3 / 4 M. 
distant from the station, the ancient Orton, capital of the 
Frentani, is now a tolerably clean and well-built place (12,819 
inhab.). It lies on a promontory in an elevated position; on the 
shore below a small marina. Beautiful views towards the S. as 
far as the Punta di Penna (see below), especially of the ancient 
and dilapidated fort.' The architecture of the cathedral should 
be inspected. Ortona is the only suitable resting-place on the 
long journey between Ancona and Foggia. 

Beyond Ortona another tunnel , two brooks are crossed, then 
stat. S. Vito Chietino ; three more tunnels, beyond which a fine 
view of the peninsula terminating in the Punta di Penna. Stat. 
Fossacesia; l^M. inland lies Lanciano, the ancient Anxanum, 
with 18,108 inhab., the capital of the most populous district of 
the province Abruzzo Citeriore. 

The Sangro, Lat. Sangrus, is crossed. Stat. Casalbordino . 
Three tunnels; then, on an olive-clad eminence on the r., Vasto 
becomes visible, 1 M. distant from the station. 

Vasto (*Locanda di Castello, outside the gate ; those in the 
town dirty; Cafe Nazionale), the ancient Histonium. with a 
population of 12,367, lies high, and commands fine views as far 
as the Tremiti islands (p. 162) and Monte Gargano. The small 
cathedral with Gothic facade bears a memorial tablet to General 
'Carlo Antonio Manhes distruttore de' briganti prinio cittadino 
del Vasto', date 1810. A small museum in the town-hall 
contains inscriptions and other relics found here. The environs, 
rich in olive plantations, are still infested by banditti. 

The line crosses the Trigno, Lat. Trinius. Stat. Termoli 
( Venezia, in the suburbs), a fortress close to the sea, with me- 
diaeval walls, excessively dirty. Charming prospect of the Majella 
and Abruzzi. The cathedral, with Gothic facade, contains a 
number of quaintly decorated saints. 

From Termoli diligences and omnibus daily in about '0 hrs. to (9'2 M.) 
Solopaca, on the Foggia and Naples railway, fare 15 fr. ; thence by railway 
to Maddaloni, on the Rome and Naples line. The first half of the route 
is monotonous. The first important place is (21 31.) Larino (Loc. di Agostino 
3Iilano), situated in a valley, near the ruins of the ancient Larinum. The 
road continues to ascend through a bleak district. Campobasso (two toler- 
B^edf.kek. Italy III. 4th Edition. \\ 

11)2 Route 11. FOGGIA. From Ancona 

able inns), 35 31. farther, capital of the province of Moliae, is a place of 
some importance, where a short halt is made. The steel wares manufac- 
tured here enjoy a high reputation. 

From (Jampobasso to Solopaca about 36 SI. (to Maddaioni 27 M. farther), 
by diligence in 6 hrs., fare 6 fr. The road, after traversing the mountain, 
descends into the valley of the Tamaro. The country becomes more 
attractive. Post-stat. Sepino; the town lies 1 3 | 4 31. higher. About 2^4 M. 
from this point are situated the extensive ruins of the ancient Saepinum, 
uow AUilia. 14 31. farther, at a short distance to the 1. of the road, is 
the village of Pontelandolfo, the inhabitants of which in 1861 cruelly and 
treacherously assassinated 36 Italian soldiers and 4 carabineers, whom they 
had received with apparent hospitality and induced to lay down their 
arms. General Cialdini caused the troops to take a summary and san- 
guinary revenge. Then the village of Ouardia S. Framondi. The road 
now descends to the beautiful valley of the Colore, which it crosses by an 
iron bridge, and at stat. Solopaca (p. 172i reaches the Foggia and Naples 

The Tremiti Islands, the mythological Insulae Diomedeae, the 
largest of which is S. Domenico, lie 6 M. to the N.B. of Termoli. 
They are now used, as in ancient times, for the confinement of 

Beyond Termoli the country becomes less attractive. The 
Biferno, Lat. Tifernus, is crossed ; then stations Campomarino 
and Chieuti. Beyond the Fortore, the ancient Frento, stat. 
Ripalta is reached. In this neighbourhood, June loth, 1053, 
the Normans conquered and captured Pope Leo IX., and then, 
tailing on their knees, implored his blessing. Leo, relenting, 
imparted it, and subsequently conferred Apulia, Calabria, and 
Sicily on the brothers Humfred and Robert Guiscard, a grant 
which was ultimately fraught with consequences so important 
for Rome and the papal throne, as well as for the Normans. 
To the N.E. is the Lago di Lesina, which communicates with 
the sea. The line now proceeds inland, in order to avoid the 
promontory of M. Gargano, a buttress of the Apennines with 
several peaks upwards of 4000 ft. in height, projecting into the 
sea. Stations Poggio Imperiale, Apricena. Then San Severo £Lo- 
canda dTtalia), a dirty town with 17,595 inhab. In 1 799, after 
a gallant resistance, it was taken and almost entirely destroyed 
by the French. The cholera committed fearful ravages here 
in 1865. Stat. Motta, then 

Foggia (Rail. Restaurant; Locanda di Roma, in the main 
street leading to the station, well fitted up ; AquiLa d'Oro, in 
the Corso del Teatro, tolerable, R. 2fr.; Villa di Torino; Corona 
di Ferro. — Caff'e Nazionale, in the Corso del Teatro. Stat. 
3 / 4 M. from the town, fiacre '/. 2 fr.), the central point of the 
great Apulian plain, and the capital of a province, formerly 
termed Capitanata, is a clean and prosperous looking town, well 
situated in a commercial point of view, with 34,052 inhab., but 
without attraction for the traveller. The Cathedral, originally 
erected by the Normans, and partially destroyed by an earthquake 
in 1731, was subsequently re-erected in a more modern style. 

toBrindisi. LTJCERA. 11. Route. 163 

Here King Manfred was crowned in 1258, and in 1797 Francis I., 
then Duke of Calabria, was here married to his first queen, 
Maria Clementina of Austria. The gateway of a palace of Fre- 
derick II. who was very partial to Foggia, still exists. A 
fountain (Pozzo Rotondo) here is sometimes called the Pozzo dell' 
Imperatore after that emperor. To the S. of the town, on the 
way to the railway, is situated the (iiardino Pubblico, adorned 
with a number of busts, laid out on the model of the Villa 
Nazionale at Naples. 

A great part of the spacious plain around Foggia is employed 
as a sheep-pasture (Tavoliere della Puglia). During the summer 
the flocks graze among the mountains, and in October return 
to the plain by three great routes (Tratture delle Pecore). These 
migrations, during which hundreds of flocks may be encountered 
in one day, date from the Roman period. Alphonso I., who 
introduced the merino sheep, converted the pastures into a royal 
domain in 1445. The number of sheep supported by these 
pastures amounted to 4 l / 2 million at the close of the 16th cent. 
At the present day, owing to the advancement of agriculture, 
the number has decreased to less than half a million. 

About 3 M. distant from Foggia, to the N., are situated the 
scanty remnants of the ancient town of Arpi, or Argyripe, 
founded according to tradition by Diomedes, subsequently super- 
seded by Foggia. 

Several excursions may be made from Foggia, the most 
interesting of which is to 

Lucera (Albergo d'ltalia), 10'|2 M. distant, with which a busy trade 
is carried on. Diligence twice daily in l'| 2 hr., fare 3 fr., carr. 5—6 fr. ; 
railway projected. Luceria, as it was anciently called, was regarded us 
the key of Apulia, owing to its situation. It is first heard of during the 
Samnite wars, and in B. C. 314 it became a Roman colony. It continued 
to be an important and prosperous town down to the 7th cent, after Christ, 
but was destroyed in 663. It was at length restored by Frederick II., 
who in 1239 transplanted a colony of Saracens hither from Sicily, bestow- 
ing on them entire religious freedom. They were in consequence staunch 
adherents of the Hohenstaufen family, and accorded an asylum to the wife 
;ind children of Manfred after the battle of Benevento, but were either 
destroyed or banished from their town by Charles of Anjou in 1269. 

The town lies upon a lofty plain, which slopes imperceptibly towards 
the S. and E., and abruptly towards the N. and \V. On the \V. side the 
plateau projects somewhat in the form of a peninsula. The admirably 
preserved Castle (keys at the Municipio), erected by Frederick, is situated 
here. It is a remarkable example of a mediaeval stronghold, and occupies 
the site of the ancient ar.r. The present structure is of various epochs, 
but most of it dates from the Hohenstaufen period. The 'view embraces 
the plain bounded by the Apennines and Monte Gargano ; to the N. lies 
the town of S. Severo, and to the E. stretches the sea. Even the Tremiti 
Islands are said to be visible. The isolated mountain to the S. is the 
Monte Vulture near Melfi, the summit of which commands a survey of the 
whole of Apulia. 

The handsome Cathedral in the Romanesque style, with flat ceiling 
and columns of verde antico, once served as a mosque. A few inscriptions 
dating from the ancient municipium. which far exceeded the modern towu 


Kit Route 11. BARLETTA. From Ancona 

in extent, arc preserved in the library of the rnunicipio, or town-hall. 
There are slight traces of an amphitheatre on the E. side of the town. 

About 7 M. from Lucera, to the r. of the road to S. Severo, are situated 
the ruins of Castel Fiorentino, where Frc derick II., after having reigned 
for 38 years as a German king, died in 1250, in his 56th year. 

Manfredonia (Locanda di Donna Peppina) is 23>|2 M. distant from 
Foggia. Diligence daily at 7 a. m. in 4 hrs., fare k l \i ft. ; carriage there 
and back 16 fr. and fee ; railway projected. The country traversed is 
bleak and monotonous, but presents several points of interest to architects. 
About I7'| 2 M. from Foggia the traveller passes S. Leonardo, a church and 
monastery founded by Hermann von Salza in 1223, with a fine portal. It 
now serves as a. 'Masseria\ or farm-house, and is in a very dilapidated con- 
dition. About li| 2 M. from Manfredonia the road next passes the "Cathedral 
of Siponto, a fine example of the Romanesque style, with a crypt. The 
interior, unfortunately restored, contains a 'miracle-working' Madonna and 
numerous votive tablets. This district suffers from malaria. This was 
the site of the ancient Sipontum, a Roman colony in B. C. 194, on the 
ruins of which the town of Manfredonia was founded by King Manfred in 
1256. It is now a somewhat dull place with 7812 inhabitants. The an- 
chorage in the vicinity is commended, but the harbour is filled with sand. 
The steamers from Genoa to Ancona touch here once a fortnight. The 
sheltered situation of the town, to the S. of Monte Gargano, imparts a 
character of southern luxuriance to the vegetation, resembling that of 

A path, at first traversing olive-plantations, then ascending rapidly, 
leads hence to (2 1 |-j hrs.) the lofty Monte Saiitangelo (2824 ft.), with a pic- 
luresque castle, and a sanctuary of S. Michele, to which pilgrims resort on 
I he 8th of May. The latter is a grotto to which 55 steps descend , where 
;ts the legend runs, St. Michael appeared to St. Laurentius , Archbishop 
ol Sipontum, in 491. In the 11th cent, the warlike Normans undertook 
pilgrimages to this sacred spot before they became masters of the country. 
The bron/.c doors, with scenes from Scripture, bear the inscription: 'Hoc 
opus completum est in regia urbe f'onstantinopoli adjuvante Dno Panta- 
leone qui fieri jussit anno ab incarnatione Dni Millesimo Septuagesimo 
Sexto (comp. p. 155). From this point M. Galvo, the culminating point 
• A' Monte liaryano (5114 ft.), may best be ascended. Between Monte S. 
Angelo and Vieo lies the extensive and beautiful beech-forest, termed 
Bosco dr/r Umbra, which stretches towards the sea. Farther to the N. is 
/tchileUa. Towards the E., on the coast, is Viesti, where steamers touch 
"lice weekly. The roads are bad, and practicable for mules and pe- 
destrians only. 

From Foggia to Naples, see R. 12. 

Continuation of Journey to Brindi .s i. To the r. 
towards the 8. the Monte Vulture near Melti (p. 189) is visible. 

Stat. Orta Nora; then Ceriynola, with 17,242 inhab., an 
uninteresting town with a poor inn. The plain around is richly 
cultivated, but entirely destitute of trees, which usually occupy 
so important a place in the agriculture of Italy and render the 
landscape less monotonous. Cotton-plantations begin here. Stat. 
Trinitapoli. The line then crosses the Ofanto, the ancient Auftdus, 
the last river of any importance on the E. coast, and reaches 
the picturesquely situated seaport-town of 

Barletta (Locanda di Ettore Fieramosca), with 28,638 inhab., 
and a number of well-built houses and churches. Here in 1259 
King Manfred held the first tournament ever witnessed in this 
district, in honour of Balduin II., last Latin Emperor of Con- 
stantinople, then on a visit at the Italian court. The market- 

toBrindm. CANOSA. 11. Route. 165 

place is adorned with a bronze statue 15 ft. in height, said to 
represent the Emp. Heraclius (according to others Theodosius), 
and to have been found in the sea. 

The Cathedral of S. Maria May g lore contains the tomb of a 
Count of Barbi and Miihlingen, with German inscription. /S. 
Andrea and S. Trinlth possess several ancient pictures. The ex- 
tensive Castello dates from the time of Charles V. 

In the wars between Louis XII. and Ferdinand the Catholic, Barletta 
was defended in 1503 by Gonsalvo de Cordova and besieged by the Duke 
of Nemours. During the siege, among other encounters, a combat took 
place in the vicinity (between Andria and Corato) between 13 on either 
side of the most valiant knights of Italy and France, conducted by Colonna. 
and Bayard 'sans peur et sans reproche'. At the lirst charge seven of the 
French knights fell, but the survivors defended themselves with such 
bravery that after a conflict of 6 hrs. the combatants were obliged to 
relinquish the held, leaving the question still undecided. 

For excursions in the neighbourhood, light two-wheeled curs, 
resembling the Neapolitan corricoli, but here termed soiarriaba 
(a corruption of the French char-a-bancs) may be hired for 6 — 
7 fr. per day (average day's journey about 3o M.). 

Canosa (Albergo Gen ghi, tolerable), with 14,992 inhab., on the slope of 
an eminence, commanded by a ruined castle, lies 14 31. inland. Of the 
ancient Canusii/m, once a prosperous town, a gate (Porta Yarrense, on the 
road to Cerignola), ruins of an extensive amphitheatre, and other relics 
still exist. In the tombs of the vicinity numerous painted vases, golden 
trinkets, etc. have been discovered. The principal church of S. Sabino, 
with several small domes, contains a pulpit and episcopal throne in marble 
and several antique columns. In an adjacent court stands the tomb of 
Bohemund, son of Rob. Guiscard, one of Tasso's heroes. Extensive olive- 
plantations in the neighbourhood, which, like the entire district of Apulia, 
also yields excellent wine. About l'|2 M. to the N. of Canosa, towards the 
coast, some ruins are seen on the r. bank of the Ofanto, which mark the 
site of Cannae in Apulia, where the Romans sustained their signal defeat 
of B. C. 216. Here in 1019 an Apulian and Lombard army under the Nor- 
man Drangot were conquered by the troops of the Greek prefect Bolanus. 
In 1083 Cannse was taken and destroyed by Robert Guiscard. 

From Canosa a road leads to the well-built town of Andria (34,063 
inhab.), 14 M. distant, founded in 1046, once a favourite residence of the 
Emp. Frederick II., whose second wife Jolantha died here in 1228, after 
having given birth to a son (Conrad), and was interred in the interesting 
old cathedral. His third wife, Isabella of England, who died at Foggia in 
1241, was also interred in the cathedral of Andria, but the monuments of 
these empresses have long since disappeared, having been destroyed by the 
partizans of Anjou. On the Porta S. Andrea, or deW Imperatore, is a metri- 
cal inscription in letters of metal , attributed to Frederick: Andria fldelis 
nostril affixa medullis, etc. The old church of S. Agostino is worthy of 
inspection. Andria is 7'|2 M. from Barletta (diligence twice daily in l>|a hr., 
fare '/a fr.) , and the same distance from Trani. On the route between 
Canosa and Andria the ruins of the imposing "Castello del Monte on the 
summit of the Murgie di Minervino, erected by Robert Guiscard, em- 
bellished by Frederick II. who frequently resided here, are everywhere 
conspicuous. The summit commands a beautiful view of the sea, the 
valley of the Ofanto, Monte Vulture, etc. A bridle-path (12 M.) ascends 
to it from Andria. From Castello del Monte to the town of Corato 
(26,376 inhab.) is a distance of 9'/2 31.; about two -thirds of the way to 
the latter, a modern monument termed Tepitaphio, in a field by the road- 
side, marks the spot where the tournament of Barletta took place (see above). 
Beyond Corato the little town ofRuvois reached, the ancient Rubi. Many 
of the finest and largest of the vases which now adorn the Museum at 

166 Route 11. BARI. From Ancona 

Naples were discovered in the Apulian tombs of this locality. The tombs, 
and several private collections here are worthy of note. From Euvo the 
railway-station Bisceglie is lO'la M. distant. 

The line now skirts the coast. The journey from Barletta to 
Bari, through vineyards, olive-gardens, and plantations of almond- 
trees, is one of the most beautiful in this part of Italy. The 
train next halts at the well-built seaport of Trani {Locanda 
del Risorgimento, tolerable; Due Mori), with 25,125 inhab.; 
pleasant walk in the public gardens (Villa) on the coast, and 
a fine view from the loftily situated cathedral. Excellent wine 
I Moscado di Trani) is produced in the neighbourhood. Stat. 
Bisceglie (21,518 inhab.), fortified, and surrounded by hand- 
some villas. Stat. Molfetto (27,252 inhab. ), beautifully situated, 
an episcopal see, once in commercial alliance with Amain. After 
the death of Johanna I. her husband Otho, Duke of Brunswick, 
was confined in the castle here until Charles of Durazzo re- 
leased him in 1384. The next stations are Qiovinazzo and 
Santo Spirito. About 4i/ 2 M. to the W. lies Bitonto (25,215 
inhab.), with an extensive oil manufactory. The interesting 
cathedral contains several tombs of the 17th cent. 

Bari (Albergo del Proyresso, with trattoria, R. 11/2 fr. ; 
Albergo del Risorgimento, in better repute, R., L., and A. 2 1 /2i' r -i 
Cafe's Stoppani and Roma, in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele ; 
Caflisch's Brewery, Str. Piccinini ; one-horse carr. into the town 
"■> l'r., after dusk 70 c), the ancient Barium, still, as in the 
time of Horace, abounding with fish (Bari piscosi moenia), a 
>eaport, and the capital of the province of the same name, with 
50,026 inhab., is the most important commercial town in Apulia. 
It possesses a handsome Corso, and broad and handsome streets 
in the new town (Borgo). Bari is one of the most ancient 
bishoprics in Italy, and in media'val history is frequently men- 
tioned as the scene of contests between Saracens, Greeks, Tv'or- 
inans, etc. In 1002 it was rescued from the Saracens by the 
Venetians. The town formed an independent duchy from the 
14th cent, down to 155S. when it was united with the king- 
dom of Naples. 

*S. i\ifol<i was erected by Robert Guiscard in 1087, for the 
reception of the relics of the saint, which were brought from 
Myra in Lycia, and still retains many of its ancient character- 
istics. The facade is worthy of notice. The interior consists of 
nave and aisles with flat ceiling, and double rows of columns. 
On the 1. is the tombstone of Robert, Count of Bari, 'protono- 
tarius' of Charles of Anjou, who conducted the proceedings 
against the ill-fated Prince Conradin, and was afterwards assass- 
inated by a nephew of Charles of Anjou on the very spot on 
which he had proclaimed the sentence (p. 145). He was a 
member of the Chiurlia family, resident at Bari. To the r. of 

toBrindisi. BRINDISI. 11. Route. 167 

the high altar is a Madonna with saints, by Bartolommeo Vi- 
varini of Murano, 1466. At the hack of the choir is the tomb 
(erected in 1593) of Bona Sforza , queen of Sigismund I. of 
Poland, the last Duke of Bari (d. 1558), with statues of St. Casi- 
mir and Stanislaus. The Crypt contains a silver altar with reliefs, 
believed to date from 1319. It contains the remains bones of the 
saint, which are said to exude a miraculous fluid ('Manna di 
Barf), especially prized by Russian believers. The festival of 
the saint, on May 8th, is attended by thousands of pilgrims, 
chiefly from the Albanese villages. 

The cathedral of 8. Sabino, originally a tine Gothic structure, 
was sadly modernised in 1745. Above the altar of S. Rocco is 
a picture by Tintoretto, and opposite to it one by Paolo Vero- 
nese. The lofty campanile resembles the Moorish tower of 

The Lion in the Piazza, with the inscription 'custos justitiaV 
on its collar, is the heraldic emblem of Bari. 

The theatre is termed Piccinni, after the composer of that 
name, who was a native of Bari and a rival and contemporary 
of Gluck. A new Ateneo has been erected near the railway 

Railway from Bari to Taranto, see R. 18. The steamers of 
the Genoa and Ancona line touch at Bari once weekly. 

Next stat. Noja; then Mola (12,181 inhab.), on the coast, 
and Polignano, situated on a lofty rock. Monopoli, with 20,011 
inhab., is the residence of an archbishop. The cathedral contains 
a St. Sebastian by Palma Vecchio. The tower of 8. Francesco 
commands a fine view. The next station is the thriving town of 
Fasano (14,514 inhab.), where the province of Otranto, or 
Terra d' Otranto, begins. On the coast between Monopoli and 
Fasano lies the ruined town ('la citta distrutta') of Egnazia, 
where a number of vases, etc. have been found. Then Ostuni, 
with 16,367 inhab., Carovigno, 8. Vito, and 

Brindisi (*Gran Albergo delle Indie Orientali, on the quay, 
near the landing-place of the P. and 0. steamers, comfortable, 
R. 3, L. and A. l 3 /4, dejeuner 3^2 fr- i Hotel d'Angleterre and 
Vittoria, in the town, very inferior; fiacre from the station Y^fr-i 
in the evening 1 fr.), with 9105 inhab., the ancient Brentesion, 
or Brundisium (i. e. 'stag's head', in allusion to the form of the 
harbour which encloses the town in two arms), once a populous 
seaport, and the usual point of embarcation for Greece (Dyr- 
rachium) and the East. 

Brundisium was a celebrated place in ancient history. At a very early 
period it was colonised by Tarentum, and subsequently by Rome, B. C. 245. 
Here was the termination of the Via Appia, the construction of which 
from Capua was nearly coeval with the foundation of the colony. Horace's 
description (Sat. I, 5) of his journey from Rome to Brundisium, B. C. 37, 
in the company of Maecenas, who was desirous of being present at the 
conclusion of a new alliance between Octavianus and Antony at Tarentum, 

168 Route 11. BRINDISI. From Ancona 

is well known. At Brundisium the tragic poet Pacuvius was born, and 
here, B. C. 19, Virgil died on his return from Greece (some ruins near the 
harbour are pointed out to the credulous as the remains of the house 
where he died). The town, when occupied by Pompey, B. C. 49, sustained 
:i memorable siege at the hands of Caesar, who describes the event in the 
lirst book of his Civil War. The fleets of the Crusaders frequently as- 
sembled in the harbour of Brundisium during the middle ages, but the 
place soon declined after the cessation of the crusades. It was subse- 
quently destroyed by Lewis, King of Hungary, in 1348, and again by a 
fearful earthquake in 1458, which buried most of the inhabitants be- 
neath its ruins. 

Brindisi bids fair to become a place of great importance, 
being the most convenient point of departure for the East from 
Northern and Central Europe. The extensive harbour, admirably 
sheltered from the wind in every direction, is undergoing im- 
provement. The large steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Co. are enabled to enter and lay to at the quay itself. They 
reaoh Alexandria hence in about 82 hrs. (through-tickets from 
London to Brindisi, 1st class, via Calais 13 1. 3 s., via Ostende 
13i.). The N. arm of the harbour, which once bounded the 
town and extended far into the land, was productive of malaria, 
owing to its muddy condition, and is now dried up. The en- 
trance to the harbour is divided into two channels by an island. 
In order to prevent the harbour from becoming filled with sand, 
the N. arm has recently been closed by means of a substantial 
bulwark of solid stone. The quarantine establishment and a 
small fort are situated on the island. The fort may be visited 
by boat (in '/2 nr ); ar >d a nne view enjoyed from the top, and 
the trip may be extended to the breakwater (in all l'/-> — 2 hrs., 
fare 1 i/ 2 fr.j- 

On a slight eminence by the quay rises a lofty unfluted 
column of Greek marble, with a highly ornate capital, repre- 
senting figures of gods. Near it are the remains of a second. 
The former bears an unfinished inscription, containing mention 
of a Byzantine governor named Spathalupus, by whom the town 
was rebuilt in the 10th cent., after its destruction by the Sara- 
cens. These columns are supposed once to have marked the 
termination of the Via Appia. It is more probable that they 
belonged to an honorary monument of the Byzantine period, 
like the column of Phocas at Rome. The other relics of anti- 
quity are insignificant. — The Custello with its massive round 
towers, founded by the Emp. Frederick 11., and strengthened 
by Charles V., is now a prison of >S. Giovanni. The remark- 
ably picturesque remains of the circular church, destroyed by 
an earthquake in the 1 1th cent., with colonnades, and decorated 
with frescoes, are still preserved, and will probably be con- 
verted into a museum. In the Cathedral the nuptials of Frede- 
rick II. with Jolantha took place in 1225. Brindisi possesses 
a public library, presented by a Bishop de Leo, a native of the 
place. The vessels of the Austrian Lloyd Co. touch at Brindisi 

to Brindisi. LECCE. U. Route. 169 

on their route to Corfu and Syra ; so also the government 
steamers once weekly from Ancona to Messina, which proceed 
hence by Corfu and Gallipoli. The environs are fertile, but 
rendered unhealthy by malaria. 

From Brindisi the line proceeds (in 1 hr. 20 min. ; fares 
3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 25 c.) by the stations of S. Pietro, 
Squinzano, and Trepuzzi, to 

Lecce (Albergo delta Ferrovia, R. 3 fr., charges reduced by 
bargaining), the capital of the province, with 21,345 inhab., 
situated a short distance from the sea (on which lies the Castello 
di S. Cataldo, 4'/2M. distant, a favourite object of excursions), 
the seat of a bishop, and possessing several handsome buildings 
in the Renaissance style, such as the cathedral, dedicated to St. 
Orontius, an ancient castle, etc. The town, which is a dull 
place in an unattractive district, occupies the site of the ancient 
Lupia. In the vicinity lay Rudiae, where Ennius, the father 
of Roman poetry, was born, B. C. 239, now Rugge, a place of 
no importance. The poet, who died in 168, was patronised by the 
.Scipios, in whose burial-place at Rome his remains were deposited. 

From Lecce a road leads by the industrial town of Nardb, the ancient 
Neretum of the Sallentini, now an episcopal residence, or by Galatina, to 
t23>| 2 M. ; diligence daily in 4>| 2 hrs., fare 3 fr. 40 c.) 

Gallipoli, a seaport, beautifully situated on a rocky island in the Gulf 
of Taranto, the Urbs Qraia Callipolis of the Geographer Mela, the Anxa 
of Pliny (III. 11. 100), founded by the Lacedemonian Leucippus and the 
Tarentines. The town is celebrated for its oil. It possesses very numerous 
subterranean cisterns, in which the oil is stored for long periods, and 
whence it is drawn off for exportation in a thoroughly clarified condition. 
The oil is however of inferior quality. The district in which the finest 
salad oil is produced extends only from Barletta and Canosa as far as 
Mola, to the S. of Bari. The oil culture is very productive, but uncertain. 
A first rate harvest, which is, however, of rare occurrence, has been known 
to yield a sum equal to the value of the entire estate. Date-palms are 
frequently seen in the gardens of the handsome villas in the vicinity. 
The steamers between Ancona and Messina touch here 3 times weekly. 

The line from Lecce to Otranto is now open as far as Maglie 
(in 1 hr. 13 min.; fares 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 95c, 1 fr.). Stations: 
S. Cesnrio di Lecce, S. Donato, Sternatia, Zollino, Corigliano, 
Maglie, whence the traveller is conveyed by omnibus or diligence 
to (9i/ 2 M.) 

Otranto (2032 inhab.), the Greek Hydrus, the Roman Hydrun- 
tum, a colony and municipium, often mentioned by the an- 
cients as a point of embarcation for Apollonia in Epirus, now 
an insignificant fishing town. It possesses a fortress with two 
towers, erected by Alphonso of Arragon, and strengthened by 
Charles V., and is also the seat of an archbishop. 

For a long period it continued subject to the Greek emperors, but in 
the 11th cent, was captured by the Normans, who under Robert Guiscard 
and Bohemund conducted from this point the siege of Durazzo (DyrrachiumJ 
in Albania. On July 28th, 1480, the then prosperous town was attacked 
by the Turkish fleet under Achmet Pacha, grand-vizier of Mohammed II., 
and entirely destroyed ; 12,000 of the inhabitants were put to death, the 

170 Route 11. OTRANTO. 

remainder carried off as slaves, the churches razed to the ground, and the 
priests barbarously maltreated. The following year the Turks were 
expelled by the Duke of Calabria, afterwards Alphonso II., but the town 
never recovered from the effects of this cruel blow. 

The cathedral still contains some columns from a temple 
of Mercury, which once stood near the village of S. Nicola, not 
far from the town. The ancient mosaics in the church were 
much injured by the hoofs of the Turkish horses which were 
stabled in the sacred edifice. In a chapel are preserved the 
hones of many of the ill-fated victims of the Turkish onslaught. 

From the ramparts of the castle the coast and mountains of 
Epirus are visible in clear weather. Communication with Corfu 
is maintained by means of small boats and sailing vessels. 

A road in the vicinity of the sea leads from Otranto to (9 ! j2 M.) the 
Promontory of Leuca by Mnro (to the r."), and Castro, situated on a rocky 
eminence by the sea, and therefore supposed to be the Castrum Minervae, 
that point of Italy which, according to Virgil, was first beheld by JEne&s ; 
then through a succession of gardens and vineyards to Tricase, 1>|j W. 
from the sea, Alessano, Montesardo, Path, and finally S. Maria di Leuca, 
a village on the site of the ancient Leuca, not far from the promontory 
of Leuca or Fini&terra. This is the Promontorium Japygium, or Salentinum, 
of the ancients, the extreme point of Apulia, commanding a noble prospect. 
In fine weather the lofty Acroceraunian mountains of Albania may be 

In returning the traveller may vary the route by proceeding by Path, 
Presicce, Uggento, the ancient Uxentum, an episcopal residence, and Taviano, 
to Gallipoli, a distance of 32 l \'i JI. 

12. From Ancona by Foggia to Naples. 

Shortest route from Germany and N. and E. Italy to Naples. From 
Bologna to Naples 19 I J 2 hrs. — From Ancona to Foggia in 11 hrs., or by 
express in 8>| 4 hrs.; fares 28 fr. 30, 21 fr. 25, 10 fr. 65 c, or 35 fr. 45c, 
24 fr. 80 c, 17 fr. 75 c. From Foggia to Naples (124 31.) by ordinary train 
in 8, by express in 52| 3 hrs. ; fares 17 fr. 45, 13 fr. 10, 6 fr. 55 c, or 21 fr. 80, 
15 fr. 25 c. — The slow trains are always behind time. 

From Ancona to Foggia, see R. 11. 

The Naples line (best views to the l.J traverses the Tavoliere 
di Puglia (p. 165). First stat. Cervaro, where a branch-line 
diverges to Ordona, Ascoli, and Candela, all uninteresting places. 
Then stat. (Hardineito, the station for Troja, situated 7 M. to 
the N. At Pnnte di Bonino the Cervaro is crossed. Stat. Bo- 
vino, the ancient Vibinum; the town, whose inhabitants are 
notorious for brigandism, lies on the hill to the I. 

The railway proceeds on the 1. bank of the Cervaro. Three 
tunnels; then stat. Panni (the village lies high up among the 
hills), Montaguto, and Savignano-Greci. The two villages from 
which the last station derives its name, are situated on mountains 
on opposite sides of the Valle di Bovino, or ravine of the Cer- 
varo. Then a long tunnel. Stat. Ariano, the town not visible 
from the line. Two tunnels, beyond which the watershed be- 
tween the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic is passed. Stat. Starza, 

BENEVENTO. 12. Route. 171 

Then a tunnel more than l'/ 2 M. long, and a shorter one. Stat. 
Buonalbergo. Near stat. Apice the narrow valley of the Colore 
is entered, the uninteresting N. bank of which is followed to 
stat. Ponte Valentino. The Tamaro, a tributary of the Calore, 
is then crossed. 

BeneventO (Locanda iji Gaeta, in the Piazza, dirty; Locanha di 
Benevento in the Largo S. Antonio, small, but cleaner. Trattoria di Roma, 
also an inn, in the new street leading to the station. Caffe Nazionale, opposite 
the palace of the cardinal legate. Station '|4 II. to the N. , one-horse can-. 
'|-2 fr., two-horse 1 fr. ; after dusk 60 c. or 1 fr. 30 c.)> situated on an 
eminence, bounded by the two rivers Sabato and Calore, capital 
of the former papal province (pop. 18,991), with narrow and 
dirty streets, which, however, are gradually undergoing im- 

Beneventum, according to tradition founded by Diomedes, or by the son 
of Ulysses and Circe, was originally termed Maleventum, an inauspicious 
name which was changed when it became a Roman colony B. C. 208, after 
which it became one of the most important places in S. Italy. It was situated 
on the Via Appia. In the 6th cent, after Christ Beneventum became the 
seat of a powerful Lombard duchy. In the 11th cent, the Emp. Henry III. 
ceded it to Pope Leo IX., from which period down to its incorporation 
with the kingdom of Italy it belonged to Rome, with the exception of the 
short-lived sovereignty of Napoleon I., who granted it to Talleyrand. 

*Trajan's Triumphal Arch, or the Porta Aurea, on the E. 
side of the town, dating from A. D. 114, is one of the most 
beautiful and best preserved Roman structures in S. Italy. It 
was dedicated to the emperor by the Roman senate and people, 
in recognition of his having completed a new road to Brundi- 
sium, and somewhat resembles the arch of Titus at Rome. It 
is constructed of Greek marble, and is 53 ft. in height, with a 
passage 29 ft. in height. A quadriga with a statue of the em- 
peror once crowned the summit. The reliefs relate to the 
history of that monarch. 

External Sidr. Over the arch two rivers, the Danube and Euphrates 
(or Rhine). The frieze represents the triumph of Trajan over the Ger- 
manic tribes. Above, to the 1., assembly of the gods, resolving on the 
adoption of Trajan by Nerva ; to the r. conquest of Dacia , King Dece- 
balus at the emperor's feet. On the 1. Trajan triumphing over Dacia ; on 
the r. the marriage of Hadrian and Sabina; 1. Armenia constituted a 
Roman province ; r. an Oriental ambassador in Trajan's presence. — 
Passage: 1. Trajan sacrificing to Jupiter; r. Trajan bestowing a 'congiarium , 
or largess on the people after his triumph. On the ceiling Trajan crowned 
by Victory. — Inner Side. On the frieze a Dacian triumph. Reliefs : 
Trajan sacrificing, Procession to the Capitol, Adoption of Trajan, Entry 
into Rome, Trajan administering justice, Trajan in the Basilica TJlpia. 

Interesting walk along the Town Walls, which, as well as 
the town itself, contain numerous relics of antiquity. The 
Castle, E. of the town, erected in the 12th cent., is occupied 
by the government offices and a prison. 

The *Cathedral, dating from the 12th cent., is a beautiful 
edifice in the Lombard-Saracen style. In front of it stands a 
small Egyptian obelisk of red granite, covered with hieroglyphics, 
which once appertained to a temple of Isis, whose worship, to- 

172 Route V2. TELESE. 

gether with that of other oriental deities, was introduced here 
during the latter period of paganism. Built into the walls of the 
clock-tower is a relief in Greek marble, representing a wild boar, 
the emblem of Benevento. The principal door of the cathedral 
is of bronze, adorned with basreliefs of New Testament subjects. 
It is said to have been executed at Constantinople in 1150. 
The interior is in the form of a basilica, supported by 60 co- 

Descending to the r. of the church, the visitor reaches the 
Palace of the Cardinal Legate, now a barrack. The court con- 
tains a few antiquities. A street descends from this piazza to 
the r., and leads through an ancient gateway to the site of the 
ancient theatre, now concealed by other buildings. The visitor 
may now continue his route along the bank of the Sabato, 
planted with poplars, to the old Ponte Lebroso, by which the Via 
Appia once led to the town. It is now the site of a mill. Near 
it, to the W., lie the ruins of Santi Quaranta, an extensive 
structure of brick with a 'cryptoporticus' and colonnades, once 
probably appertaining to a bath-establishment. Outside the town, 
at the W. entrance, is an Apis, a remnant of the ancient worship 
of Isis, interpreted by the local savants as the emblem of the 
Samnite League. 

The road to the station crosses the Calore by a handsome bridge, near 
which according to tradition, was the temporary burial place of the young 
and heroic King Manfred, who on Feb. 26th, 1266, in a battle against 
Charles I. of Anjou on the neighbouring plains, had lost his throne and 
his life through the treachery of the Barons of Apulia and the Counts of 
Caserta and Acerra. Shortly afterwards, however, the body of the ill-fated 
prince was exhumed by order of Bartolommeo Pignatelli, Archbishop of 
Cosenza, conveyed beyond the limits of the kingdom, and exposed unburied 
on the bank of the Rio Verde. Dante records this in his Purgatorio 
(III. 134). 

From Benevento to Naples four trains daily in 2 2 / 3 — 4 hrs. 

The railway proceeds on the r. bank of the Calore. A tunnel, 
then stat. Vitulano, and another tunnel. The valley expands; 
to the 1. on the hills lies Torrecuso. Near stat. Ponte di Bene- 
vento, the high road to Benevento crosses the Calore by an iron 
bridge. Another tunnel; then stat. S. Lorenzo Mag g lore (which 
lies on the hill to the r.), whence a high-road leads to Campo- 
basso and Termoli (comp. p. 162). Stat. Solopaca; the small 
town of the name (4522 inhab.) is pleasantly situated at the 
foot of Monte Taburno, about 1 M. to the 1. Before stat. Telese 
is reached, the Lago di Telese, a marsh whose unhealthy ex- 
halations infect the neighbourhood, lies on the 1. Telese, a poor 
village on the hills to the r., is visited in summer for its mineral 
springs by the inhabitants of the district. Near it are a few 
remnants of the ancient Telesia, a town of the Samnites, once 
occupied by Hannibal, but taken and destroyed by the Romans. 
It was afterwards colonised by Augustus. In the 9th cent, the 

AVERSA. 12. Route. 173 

town suffered severely from the effects of an earthquake, and 
was finally entirely destroyed by the Saracens. 

The line enters the broad and fertile valley of the Volturno, 
which is first crossed above, then below the junction of the 
Calore. Stat. Dugenta; on the Isclero, 2 M. farther up S. Agata 
At Goti is situated, on the site of the ancient Saticola. The 
pass between S. Agata and Mojano is supposed by some to be 
the Caudine Forks, as the locality corresponds better with Livy's 
description than the pass near Arpaja (p. 10). 

Stat. Valle. The railway now ascends, and passes under the 
*Ponti della Valle, an imposing aqueduct in three storeys, about 
220 ft. in height. It was constructed by Vanvitelli by order of 
Charles III. and his son, for the purpose of supplying the gar- 
dens of Caserta with water. The entire length of the aqueduct 
is 25 M. from Monte Taburno to Caserta. The towers connected 
with it are seen on the hill to the r. 

The line now descends to stat. Maddaloni, which lies below 
the line; to the 1. a view of the Campanian plain. Then a 
farther descent (two tunnels) to Caserta (p. 10). The line now 
traverses the plain. This is the most fertile part of the Terra 
di Lavoro (p. 9), with its extensive vineyards, innumerable 
poplars, and various crops. Stat. Marcianise; then Aversa, a 
town with 18,248 inhab., an orphan-house, and a lunatic asy- 
lum. It probably occupies the site of the ancient Atella, where 
the Fabula Atellana, or early Roman comedy, first originated. 
In 1029 it became the first settlement of the Normans, after- 
wards so powerful. In the palace of Aversa King Andreas of 
Hungary, husband of Queen Johanna I. of Naples, was assass- 
inated by Niccolo Acciajuoli. The light and somewhat acid 
wine of Aversa, termed Asprino, is frequently drunk at Naples. 
Next stat. towards Naples S. Antimo, Fratta-Orumo, Casoria. 
Glimpses of Vesuvius to the 1. Near Naples the train passes 
through a tunnel, describes a curve round the city towards the 
S. W., and Anally stops at the Central Station. Arrival, see 
p. 21. 

13. From Naples to Nola and Avellino. 

From Cancello, a station on the Naples and Rome railway, a branch- 
line runs to Nola, and skirts the Apennines to Avellino, but is at present 
only open as far as Laura (45 M. from Naples). From Naples to Nola 
4 trains daily in l'|2 — 13| 4 hr. ; fares 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 35 c, 1 fr. ; from Naples 
to Laura 3 trains in 2 3 |j hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 95 c, 4 fr., 2 fr. — Ascent hence 
to Avellino by diligence or carriage in 1 hr. 

Stat. Nola (a poor Trattoria in the Piazza), an ancient 
Campaninn city, was almost the only one which successfully resisted 
the attacks of Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, B. C. 216, 
and under the command of the brave M. Marcellus repulsed the 
invader in 215. Here the Emperor Augustus died, Aug. 19th, 

174 Route 13. NOLA. 

A. D. 14, in his 76th year, in the same house and apartment 
where his father Octavius had breathed his last. In ancient 
times Nola was not less important than Pompeii. It is now an 
insignificant place and devoid of interest. In the 5th cent., 
St. Paulinus, an erudite poet and Bishop of Nola (b. at Bordeaux 
in Hf>4, d. 431), is said to have invented church-bells here, 
from which the word campana is derived. On the 26th of July 
a festival, accompanied by processions and games, is celebrated to 
his honour. In the middle of the 16th cent, the free-thinker 
Giordano Bruno was born at Nola, and on Feb. 17th, 1600, 
terminated his chequered career at the stake in Rome. Giovanni 
Merliano, the celebrated sculptor of Naples, known as Giovanni 
da Nola, was also born here in 1478. 

Nola is celebrated as an ancient cradle of the plastic art. 
The magnificent vases with shining black glazing and skilfully 
drawn red figures, which form the principal ornaments of the 
museums of Naples and of other places, were executed here. 
Numerous coins of Nola with Greek inscriptions have also been 
found. Scanty remains of an amphitheatre are still extant. 

About •/.) M. to the N. E. of the town is situated the Semi- 
nary, where several Latin insriptions and the so-called Cippu* 
Abellanus, a remarkable inscription in the Oscan language found 
near Abella, are preserved. Above the seminary ('/4 M.) lies 
the Franciscan monastery of S. Angelo, commanding a view of 
the fertile and luxuriant plain ; to the 1. Monte Somma, behind 
which Vesuvius is concealed ; to the r. the mountains of Mad- 
daloni. To the E. of this monastery another, of the Capuchin 
order, is situated, above which the ruined castle of Cicala 
picturesquely crowns an eminence. 

Stat. Palma, a small town on the slopes of the Apennines, 
is picturesquely situated opposite Ottajano. It possesses an 
ancient chateau, and is commanded by the ruins of an exten- 
sive castle on a neighbouring height. 

Stat. Sarno, a place of some importance, is situated on the 
Sarno, which flows from this point in the direction of Scafati 
and Pompeii. Above it towers a ruined stronghold, where Count 
Francesco Coppola long maintained himself during the conspiracy 
of the barons against Ferdinand of Arragon (1460). 

The view now becomes more limited. Stations Codola and 
San Giorgio ; then San Severino (poor inn), on the road from 
Avellino to Salerno. The principal church contains the tombs 
of Tommaso da San Severino, high constable of the Kingdom 
of Naples in 13">3, and of several princes of Salerno. A road 
leads from S. Severino to (10 M.) Salerno (railway projected), 
via Baronisi, scene of the death of Fra Diavolo. 

The line now turns N. W. towards stat. Laurti, the present 
terminus. Avellino is about 5 M. farther. 

MONTE VERGINE. 13. Route. 175 

Avellino (Albergo Italia, dirty ; Albergo delle PuglieJ, with 
19,761 inhab., is the capital of the province of Principato Vlteriore. 
The name is derived from the ancient Abellinum, the ruins of 
which are 2 l / t M. distant, near the village of Atripalda. In the 
vicinity are extensive plantations of hazel-nut trees, mentioned 
by the ancients as 'nuces Avellanse'. 

From Avellino a visit may he paid to Monte Vergine, a ce- 
lebrated resort of pilgrims. The route is by (4'/2 M.) Mercogliano, 
whence a mountain-path leads in l^hr. to the shrine of Monte 
Vergine, founded in 1119 on the ruins of a temple of Cybele. 
The church contains a miraculous image of the Virgin, and the 
tombs of Catherine of Valois, who caused the image to be brought 
hither, and of her son Louis of Taranto, second husband of 
Johanna I. Their effigies repose on a Roman sarcophagus. On 
the 1. side of the high altar is the chapel erected by King Man- 
fred for himself, which, when that monarch fell at Benevento, 
was given by Charles of Anjou to one of his French attendants. 
The traveller may proceed hence to the summit of the mountain 
(4292 ft.), commanding a magnificent prospect of the Bay of 
Naples and the extensive mountainous district. The abbot and 
the older monks occupy the Loreto, or I'Ospizio, a large octagonal 
structure near Mercogliano, erected from a design by Vanvitelli. 
The archives comprise important records of mediaeval history. 
Great festivals are celebrated here at Whitsuntide, attended by 
numerous devotees in their gay and picturesque costumes. 

Avellino lies on the old high road from Naples to Foggia. 
Another leads to Montesarchio (14 M.), and thence to Benevento 
(p. 171). 

14. From Ancona to Naples by Pescara, Popoli, 
Solmona, and through the Abruzzi. 

Of the principal routes which connect the E. with the W. districts of 
Italy, traversing the mountains of the interior, this is one of the more 
frequented. Railway from Ancona to Pescara in 5 hrs. (express in 4 hrs.) ; 
fares 16 fr. 10 c, 11 fr. 25 c, 8 fr. 5 c, or 12 fr. 80, 10 fr. 30, 4 fr. 80 c. 
— From Pescara to Caianello on the Rome and Naples line, a distance 
of 117 M. Diligen ce daily in 24 hrs. ; fare nominally 24 fr. 60 c, hut 16 fr. 
are frequently takeu. (Office at Naples in the Str. S. Brigida 15.) From 
Caianello to Naples Railwaii in 3 hrs.; fares 8 fr. 25, 5 fr. 65, 3 fr. 90 c. 

This route traverses scenery of the most imposing character, and affords 
an admirable opportunity to the traveller of forming some acquaintance 
with these remarkably interesting districts of Italy. It is now regarded 
as perfectly freed from the banditti by which it was formerly infested. 
The latter half, beyond the pass of Rocca Valloscura, was considered the 
most dangerous, and the diligence is still sometimes accompanied by an 

A railway, to some extent coinciding with this route, is projected 
from Pescara to Ceprano on the Liris, passing by Chieti, Popoli, Solmona, 
and the Lago di Fucino, and descending thence by the valley of the Liris 
to the Rome and Naples line. Its construction has been begun between 

176 Route li. POPOLI. From Ancona 

Pescara and Popoli, a distance of 31' |j M. (diligence 5 hrs., T fr. •, omnibus 
not recommended). 

From Ancona to Pescara, see R. 11. 

The road ascends, remaining on the r. bank of the Pescara, 
the valley of which gradually contracts. Chieti lies several miles 
distant, on the heights to the S. 

From Pescara to Chieti, 10'|2 31. ; diligence twice daily, in 2 hrs. 
ascending, V\i hr. descending; fare 2'|2 fr. Those who contemplate a 
detour by Chieti should proceed thence by the high road to an Osteria 
(4 3 |4 31.) where the diligence halts, by which the main route is continued. 
From Chieti to Popoli 26 M., two-horse carr. about 25 fr. 

Chieti C Sole ; Corona diFerro; Caff d' Italia, in the Corso), the ancient 
Teate Marrucinorum, capital of the province of Abruzzo Citra, is a clean 
and busy town with a population of 19,778. From the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele a promenade leads round the town, affording magnificent views 
of the Majella, the course of the Pescara, and the mountainous district as 
far as the sea. The order of the Theatines, established in 1555 by 
Paul IV., who had been Archbishop of Chieti, derives its appellation from 
this town. 

Connoisseurs of ancient Christian architecture are strongly recommended 
to visit the abbey of S. Clemenle di Casauria. Ascent of 20 min. from 
Pescara by Ponte Orte (or a carriage may be taken by a by-road 3 /< M. 
farther to the village of Torre de' Passeri), then across the river to Torre 
de 1 Passeri, whence the abbey is reached in 25 min. It consists of a ba- 
silica, with ancient sculptures, and an adjacent monastery, unfortunately 
much dilapidated. In ancient times Interpromium stood here, relics from 
which are still preserved in the church. The traveller may return by a 
bridge for foot-passengers to the high road in 20 min., having previously 
ordered the carriage to meet him. This digression does not occupy much 
above 1 hr. 

About 3'/2 M. before Popoli is reached the valley of the Pes- 
cara contracts to a narrow ravine, enclosed by abrupt cliffs. 

Popoli (*Locanda dell' America, new, not expensive; Poata, 
noisy ; Cafe in the Piazza) is a small town with considerable 
traffic arising form its situation at the junction of the roads from 
Pescara, Aquila (R. 15), Avezzano (R. 16), and Solmona (see 
p. 177). A short distance above the town the Oizio and Aterno 
unite and form the Pescara; the former, coming from the S., 
flows through the beautiful valley of Solmona. The town is 
commanded by the ruined castle of the Cantelmi, who were once 
masters of the place. 

To Avezzano (p. 182) diligence daily at 5 p. m. in 9 — 10 hrs. ; fare 11 fr. 
To Aquila (p. 180) a diligence at 3 p. m. daily ; omnibus (not to be recom- 
mended) at midnight, 5 fr. 

With Solmona the communication is frequent. Two-horse 
carr. 5 fr. ; distance 10'/2 M. The road leads on the r. bank of 
the Gizio through the beautiful and fertile valley, enclosed by 
the Majella on the E. and the mountains of the Lago di Fucino 
on the W. The wine enjoys a high reputation (strong and well 

2'|a M. from Popoli a road diverges to the r. to PetUima (1 31.) and 
beyond it to Avezzano. An excursion to Pentima and Corfinium (p. 182) 
may easily be combined with the further journey to Solmona. 

Farther on, to the r., lies the important village of Pratola. 

to Naples. SOLMONA. 14. Route. ill 

Passing the ancient cathedral of 5. Panfilo, the traveller shortly 

Solmona (1600 ft., two poor inns), the ancient Sulmo of the 
Paeligni, birthplace of Ovid, who was much attached to this his 
'cool home, abounding in water', as he terms it. The town is 
picturesquely situated, being commanded on two sides by moun- 
tains, and contains several buildings remarkable for their mediaeval 
architecture. The facade of the handsome *Town Hall, of the 
15th cent., is adorned with statues of popes. Among other edi- 
fices, the palace of Baron Tabassi, in a side-street, and the 
facades of the churches of S. Francesco d'Assisi and 8. Maria 
della Tomba, though injured by the earthquake of 1803, deserve 

From Solmona to Castel di Sangro (see below) 25y 2 M. ; 
two-horse carr. 12 fr. The road traverses the plain as far as 
(4 2 / 3 M.) Pettorano, and then ascends by long windings to Rocca 
Valloscura, a village situated in a rocky ravine. Beautiful re- 
trospects of the valley of Solmona. After a farther ascent the 
culminating point (4200 ft.) of the road is attained, the Piano 
di Cinquemiglia, a table-land enclosed by mountains, and of the 
extent indicated by the name. In winter it is frequently 
rendered impassable by snow for several consecutive months, and 
in summer the temperature is generally low. Beyond this plain 
the road inclines to the 1., and Rivisondoli becomes visible. Then 
to the r. past Roccarasa, about 2V4 M. beyond which the road 
descends by long windings to the valley of the Sangro, the ancient 
Sangrus. The village to the 1. is Rocca Cinquemiglia. The river 
is then crossed to 

Castel di Sangro (Hotel du Commerce, in the Piazza), on the 
r. bank of the broad and impetuous Sangro, picturesquely situated 
at the foot of lofty mountains. With the exception of the old 
church of S. Nicola by the bridge and the ruins of a castle, the 
place contains no objects of interest. — Diligence hence every 
evening to (35 M.) Lanciano (p. 161). 

From Castel di Sangro to Isernia (see below) about 23 J / 2 M. ; 
dilig. in 5 hrs., fare 6 fr. The heights which separate the valley 
of the Sangro from that of the Vandra, a tributary of the Vol- 
turno, are ascended. On the summit a picturesque view ; to the 
1. below, the town of Forli is visible. The road then descends 
by the villages of Rionero and Vandria, crosses the valley, and 
ascends a second chain of hills. The summit commends a sur- 
vey of the extensive valley of the Volturno and Isernia. 

Isernia (*Loc. di Pettorossi), the ancient JEsernia of the 
Samnites, formerly of importance on account of its secure position 
on an isolated eminence, is now a confined and dirty town, con- 
sisting of one long main street. A few Roman antiquities are 
seen here and there, as near S. Pietro ; also fragments of the 
Bjedekee. Italy III. 3rd Edition. 12 

17S Route 25. RIETI. 

ancient wall in the polygonal style. In the autumn of i860 a 
successful reaction of the Bourbonists against the Garibaldians 
took place here, and was characterised by many excesses, but was 
soon put down by the troops under Cialdini. 

Archaeologists may from this point visit the ruins of the ancient Bo- 
vianvm (a theatre and temple), near Piety abbondante. Carriage-road to 
Pescolanciano 9 M. ; corricolo 6 fr. ; thence bridle-path in 2 hrs. 

From Isernia diligence daily to Campobasso (p. 161) by Boiano, the 
ancient Boviatium Undecimanorvm. One-horse carr. from Isernia to Ve- 
nafro 6 fr. 

From Isernia to the railway-station of Caianello (p. 7) 29 M. 
The road at first traverses a hilly district, passing Macchia to 
the r., then enters the valley of the Volturno, which it crosses. 
The broad valley is now traversed on the r. bank, and (14</ 2 M.) 
Venafro is reached, the ancient Venafrum, rising on a hill and 
surmounted by a ruined castle. The road continues to skirt the 
mountains; the Volturno finally turns to the S., and the small 
village and railway-station of Caianello (poor inn, not suitable 
for spending the night) is reached. 

From Caianello to Naples, see R. 1. 

15. From Terni to Naples by Aquila, and through 
the Abruzzi. 

This route, replete with picturesque scenery, traverses the mountainous 
district in the interior of Italy. From Popoli it coincides with E. 14, and 
like the latter terminates at Caianello on the Rome and Naples line. 
Distance about 168 M., traversed daily by Corriere, more rapid and com- 
fortable, and in every respect preferable to the private diligences. On the 
completion of the network of railways now in course of construction, 
this remarkably interesting route will probably be visited by numerous 
travellers. From Terni, a station on the Rome and Ancona line, the 
railway route will proceed by Rieti and Aquila to Popoli, corresponding 
with the present route, where it will unite with the line destined to con- 
nect Pescara, Popoli, the Lago di Fucino, and Ceprano. 

The road ascends from Terni to the heights whence the water- 
falls of the Velino (visited from Papigno, in the ravine to the 1.) 
descend, and, remaining on the 1. bank of the river, traverses a 
mountainous and wooded district. Where it reaches the plain 
of Rieti, it describes a long curve at the foot of the heights 
(a shorter footpath, available in dry weather only, intersects the 
plain in a straight direction), as far as the point where the 
mountains approach the river. Here the Velino is crossed by 
the Ponte di Terria, where it is joined by the Turano to the 
1., and the road proceeds on the r. bank to Rieti, 3 M. distant. 

Another road, somewhat longer, but far more picturesque, diverges from 
the height, where the waterfalls are situated, to the 1. and crosses to the r. 
bank of the river. It soon reaches the beautiful mountain-lake of Piedilugo 
and skirts its spacious bays as far as the village of the same name, this 
being the shorter half of the route. The remaining portion traverses a 
tract of mountain and forest till the plain of Rieti is attained, where the 
Fivmarone, a tributary of the Velino, fed by several small lakes, is crossed. 
To the r. the lake of' Rij,a Sottile, to the 1. that of Capo d'Aiqva. 

CIVITA DUCALE. 15. Route. 179 

Rieti ( Campana), on the r. bank of the Velino (14,224 inhab.], 
the ancient Reate, was once a settlement of the TJmbri, and 
-subsequently the capital of the Samnites, but no traces of the 
•ancient city remain save a few inscriptions preserved in the 
town-hall. The cathedral, dating from 1456, contains a S. 
Barbara by Bernini and the monument of Isabella Alfani by 
Thorwaldsen ; fine view in front of the edifice. A walk to the 
neighbouring heights is recommended for the sake of the view 
thus obtained of the extensive plain and the surrounding moun- 
tains. This plain, 1390 ft. above the sea-level, was probably a 
lake at a very remote period, which gradually became converted 
into a marsh. It was drained by M. Curius Dentatus, who caused 
the fall of the Velinus to be increased, and is now extremely 
productive, although unfortunately exposed to inundations. In 
costume and appearance, the peasants here resemble those of 
the Neapolitan provinces. 

From Rieti a diligence to Rome daily, see Part II. of this 
Handbook (Central Italy). 

Excursions may be made from Rieti tothe picturesque mountain scenery 
of the Central Apennines, not, however, unattended by difficulties on account 
of the indifferent character of the inns and roads. Thus to Leonessa, 19 M. 
distant, erected in a lofty mountain ravine about the year 1252 ; thence to 
(9^2 M.) Cascia, said to be the ancient seat of the Casci, or aborigines of 
the district; 7 31. farther to Norcia, the ancient Nvrsia, nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1857, with walls of great antiquity, birthplace of 
Vespasia Pollia, mother of the emperor Vespasian, whose family monu- 
ments were situated at Vespasia, 7 M. distant. St. Benedict and his sister 
Scholastica were also natives of Kursia. 

From Norcia mountain-roads lead to Spoleto and Ascoli (p. 159). The 
return route may also be accomplished by Accumoli and Civita Reale through 
the valley of the Velino to Antrodoco, or by Accumoli, Amatrice, and Monte- 
reale to Aquila (p. 180). 

From Rieti the road winds upwards through a picturesque 
district in the valley of the Velino to Antrodoco, 20 M. distant. 
Near Casotta di Napoli is an eminence, termed Lesta, with traces 
of very ancient fortifications, said to have once been the capital 
of the fabled Aborigines. Civith Ducale, 5 3 /4 M. from Rieti, 
founded in 1308 by Robert, Duke of Calabria, was formerly the 
frontier-town of the Neapolitan dominions. The former frontier 
lay between this and Rieti. The tract between this point and 
Antrodoco is remarkably picturesque ; the mountains are clothed 
with forest, their lower slopes with vineyards and olives. In the 
valley, 4'/ 2 M. from Civita Ducale, are situated the sulphureous 
springs of Bagni di Paterno, the ancient Aqua; Cutilice, regularly 
frequented by Vespasian, and the place of his death, A. D. 79. 
The Pozzo di Latiynano, the ancient Lacus Cutiliae, was regarded 
by Varro as the central point ('umbilicus') of Italy. The ancient 
Via Salara here ascended the valley of the Velino by Ascoli to 
Atri, the Roman Hadria. 

Antrodoco, Lat. Interocrea, most picturesquely situated on the 

|0 * 

180 Route 15. AQUILA. From Terni 

Velino, is commanded on the N. E. by the lofty Monte Calvo ; 
on the height the ruined castle of the Vitelli. The road to Aquila, 
20 M. distant, leads through a narrow pass, enclosed by moun- 
tain and forest, frequently defended with success in warlike 
periods. The scenery is remarkably beautiful the whole way. 

Aquila (2398 ft.) (*Locanda del Sole, in the Piazza del Pa- 
lazzo ; several cafe's in the Corso), founded by the Emp. Fre- 
derick II. as a check on papal encroachments, now the oapital of 
the province of Abruzzo Ultra II., with 15,732 inhab., spacious 
streets, and handsome palaces, is the most attractive and interest- 
ing town in these provinces. It enjoys a pure and healthy 
atmosphere owing to its lofty situation, and is commanded by 
the Grin Sasso d'ltalia (p. 160), which rises abruptly to a height 
of 6000 ft. 

From the Piazza del Palazzo, on the 1. side of which is the 
post-office, the Strada del Princ. Umberto to the r. leads to the 
Corso, by which in a straight direction the church of S. Bernar- 
dino di Siena is reached. The *facade was executed with great 
artistic taste in 1525 — 42 by Cola dell' Amatrice. In the interior, 
to the r. , the *monument of the saint, decorated with arabes- 
ques and sculpture, executed by Silvestro Salviati in 1505. 
The 1st Chapel on the r. contains a Coronation of the Virgin 
and a Resurrection by della Robbia. 

From S. Bernardino the traveller descends a flight of steps 
and, passing through the Porta di Collemaggio to the 1., arrives 
at the opposite (5 min.) monastery of 5. Maria di Collemaggio. 
The Gothic *facade, inlaid with coloured marble, consists of 3 
portals and 3 corresponding wheel-windows. The niches of the 
principal portal contain several statuettes of saints. Contiguous 
to the church is an ancient and remarkably small clock-tower. 
The interior gorgeously modern. To the 1. the Chapel of Celestine 
(closed). Celestine V. was elected pope in 1294. His life and 
acts have been represented in a series of pictures by the Celestine 
monk Rater, a pupil of Rubens. 

The handsome *Town Hall in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
contains, in the passage and on the walls of the stair-case, a 
valuable collection of Roman inscriptions, also a number of por- 
traits of celebrated natives of the place who acted a prominent 
part in the history of Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Several pictures here of the old Aquilan school, most of them 
restored, will interest the connoisseur of art. 

The *Palazzo Torres (below the Piazza Grande) contains a 
picture-gallery with an admirable *portrait of Cardinal Torres by 
Domenichino ; Stoning of St. Stephen by the same master, on 
copper ; Eucharist, by Titian, on marble. The Palazzo Drago- 
netti also contains pictures, the best by Pompeo a" Aquila of 
the 16th cent. 

to Naples. OAPESTRANO. 25. Route. 181 

Ascending the Corso the traveller reaches by a gate to the r. 
the Citadel, constructed by a Spaniard in 1543 under Charles V., 
a massive square with low round towers, surrounded by a moat. 
From this point the best view is obtained of the Gran Sasso 
and its ramifications, of the town itself, and the mountainous 

Between Aquila and the hill of S. Lorenzo, on June 2nd, 
1414, Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone, the dreaded rival of 
Sforza, was conquered and wounded by the united armies of Queen 
-Johanna II. of Naples. Pope Martin V. and the Duke of Milan, 
commanded by Jacopo Caldora. In consequence of the wound then 
received he died on June 5th of the same year. 

About 3 M. to the E. is situated the village of S. Vittorino on the Aterno, 
on the site of the ancient and celebrated Sabine town of Amiternum, where 
the historian Salhtst was born. On an eminence once occupied by the 
ancient Arx, or citadel, stands an ancient tower with inscriptions and 
sculptures built into the walls. At the base of the hill are remains of 
buildings, a theatre, and amphitheatre, dating from the imperial epoch, 
where antiquities are frequently found. 

A new road leads from Aquila through the valley of the Aterno, the 
wild passes of Monte San Franco, the ravine of Totta, by Senaricria, then 
on the 1. bank of the Vomano to (48' |2 M.) Teramo on the Tordino (p. 160). 

From Aquila corriere and diligences by Popoli (p. 176) to 
Pescara (p. 160), 12 fr. ; others to Caianello (p. 7). To Popoli 
29 M. ; two-horse carr. 15 — 20 fr. The road descends the valley 
of the Aterno, passing Fossa on the r., traversing a highly 
cultivated district, to Civith Retenga, the halting-place of the 
vetturini, commanded by an ancient chateau. About 6 M. to the 
E. lies Capestrano, birthplace of the celebrated Franciscan monk 
Johannes Capistranus, the undaunted opponent of Hussites and 
Turks, who died in 1456, and in 1690 was canonised by 
Alexander VIII. In the church of Capestrano is interred Alphonso 
Piccolomini, Duke of Amain, who in 1498, two years after his 
marriage with the beautiful Johanna of Arragon, was assassinated 
At Solmona by the Count of Celano. 

From Popoli to Naples, see R. 14. 

16. From Ancona to Naples by Avezzano. 

Lago di Fucino and Valley of the Liris. 

This route coincides with the direction of the proposed Abruzzi rail- 
way, and passes through the most interesting parts of the mountain-district 
in the interior, which also forms an interesting object for an excursion 
from Naples. No through-communication. From Ancona to Pescara rail- 
way in 4 — 5 hrs. (K. 11). From Pescara to Popoli diligence in 5 hrs. (R. 14). 
From Popoli to Avezzano a drive of 8 — 10 hrs. ; road bad, and partially 
covered with snow in winter. A diligence leaving Popoli at 5 a. m. conveys 
the traveller to Raiano only, whence he must proceed on horseback to 
Avezzano, a ride of 8 hrs. — Two-horse carr. from Popoli to Avezzano 
25 — 30 fr. — From Avezzano diligence daily at 4 p. m. to Roccasecca, a 

182 Route 16. CELANO. From Ancona 

station on the Rome and Naples railway, in 8 hrs. ; fare 9 fr. 45 c. — 
From Roccasecca to Naples by ordinary trains in 5, by express in 4 hrs. - 
fares 12 fr. 90, 8 fr. 60, 5 fr. 50 c, or' 13 fr. 35, 9 fr. 5 c. 
From Ancona to Popoli, see R. 14. 

For the first two miles the road beyond Popoli is the same 
as that to Solmona; it then diverges to the W., crosses the 
Gizio, and ascends a hill, soon reaching Pentima, 3y 2 M. from 
Popoli. On the road, a short distance beyond Pentima, is 
situated the *Cathedral of S. Pelino, dating from the 13th cent. 
(keys kept by the canon who resides in the village). The 
architecture is very interesting, but the interior has unfortunately 
been modernised. Ancient pulpit. The chapel of St. Alexander 
on the r. dates from the 16th cent. On the lofty surrounding 
plain lie the ruins of the extensive town of Corfinium, once 
the capital of the Pseligni, and subsequently the federal capital 
of the Italians in B. C. 90, during their struggle for indepen- 
dence against the Romans, and termed by them Italica. It was 
soon, however, compelled to succumb to the Romans. The 
arches of an aqueduct are the most conspicuous of the ruins. 

The next village is Raiano, beyond which the road ascends 
rapidly, affording magnificent retrospects of the valley of Sol- 
mona and the Maiella (additional horses are required for the 
ascent). An undulating hill-district is now traversed, and the 
village of Goriano Sicoli passed. The country now becomes 
very dreary. This was the ancient territory of the Vestini, 
whose cheese was dear to the Roman epicure. A succession of 
mountains are passed, and the Gran Sasso continues visible to- 
wards the N. At length, after a drive of about 2 hrs., the last 
height is attained, from which a view of the Lago Fucino, sur- 
rounded by an amphitheatre of mountains, is obtained. The 
road now descends. To the r. Cerchio is visible, to the 1. Col- 
larmele. The vetturini generally halt at a poor osteria which is 
reached after 6 hrs. drive. 

A plain, which was once covered by the lake, is next tra- 
versed, and several towns and villages on the hills on either 
side are passed. The most important of these is the small and 
beautifully situated town of Celano (5908 inhab.), after which 
the lake is sometimes named. The chateau, dating from 1450, 
was once occupied by the unfortunate Countess Covella, who 
was taken prisoner by her son Rugierotto. She was soon 
restored to liberty, but in 1463 the country was bestowed by 
Ferdinand of Arragon upon his son-in-law Antonio Piccolomini, 
Duke of Amalfi, and nephew of Pius II. Celano was the birth- 
place of Thomas of Celano (d. 1253), the supposed author of 
the celebrated requiem 'Dies irae, dies ilia'. From Celano a 
bridle-path leads to Aquila (p. 180), about 28 M. distant; 
carriage-road in course of construction. 

Avezzano (two poor inns), with 5116 inhab., contains little 

to Naples. LACUS FUCINILS. 16. Route. 183 

to interest the traveller except a chateau built by the Colonnas, 
now belonging to the Barberini, and a collection of inscriptions 
in the court-house ; but it is a convenient starting point for ex- 
cursions to the lake for the purpose of inspecting the various 
works which have been constructed for its drainage. 

The Lago di Fucino, the Lacus Fucinus of the ancients, a basin in the 
central region of the Apennines, lies 2181 ft. above the sea-level, and has 
frequently been frozen over (the last time in 1864). There being no natural 
outlet, the level of the lake has long been subject to very great variation. 
In 1861 its circumference had increased to 37 M. and its depth to 60 ft., while 
its average circumference was about 34M.; but in 1871 its extent and depth 
were reduced to about one-third of these numbers. Fish are very abundant 
in the lake, and form a considerable article of commerce. The variations in 
the level of the lake have frequently proved disastrous to the surrounding 
villages. The ancient Marsi suffered from them, as well as their descen- 
dants. Cctsar was the first to propose a permanent remedy for the evil, 
hut the work was not begun till the reign of the Emp. Claudius. The 
bottom of the lake lies about 80 ft. above the level of the Liris at Capi- 
strello, and the plan was to construct a tunnel, or emissar-ius^ through the 
intervening Jlonte Salviano. !No fewer than 30,000 men were employed in 
the execution of the work during eleven years. So vast an undertaking 
has been unknown either in ancient or modern times, until the construc- 
tion of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The length of the passage was upwards 
of 3 1 J2 51., and for about l 3 /«» M. of that distance it was hewn in the solid 
rock. The width of the tunnel varied from 4 to 16 sq. yds., and in other 
respects also the work was entirely destitute of uniformity. The greatest 
depth of the tunnel below the surface of the earth was 298 ft., and 33 
shafts were constructed for the admission of air and the removal of rubbish. 
With a view to inaugurate the completion of the work, A. D. 52, Claudius 
arranged a sanguinary gladiatorial naval contest, which was attended by 
a vast concourse of spectators, but it was found necessary to deepen the 
tunnel, and it was again opened with renewed festivities, as Tacitus re- 
cords (Ann. 12, 57). Ancient writers stigmatise the work as an entire 
failure, but their strictures are not altogether well founded, for it was 
obviously never intended to drain the entire lake, but merely to reduce 
it to one-third of its original size. Serious errors had, however, been 
committed in the construction of the tunnel, and especially in that of the 
channel which conducted the water to the emissarius. Claudius died in 
54, and nothing farther was done in the matter. Trajan and Hadrian 
partially remedied the defects, but the channel and the emissarius itself 
subsequently became choked up. Frederick II. attempted to re-open the 
tunnel, but the task was far beyond the scope of mediaeval skill. Sub- 
sequently to 1783 the lake rose steadily, and by 1810 it had risen upwards 
of 30 ft. Efforts were now made under the superintendence of Rivera to 
restore the Roman emissarius, but under the Bourbon regime there seemed 
little prospect that the task would ever be completed. In 1852 the govern- 
ment was accordingly induced to make a grant of the lake to a company 
on condition that they would undertake to drain it, and the sole privilege 
was soon afterwards purchased from them by Prince Torlonia of Rome. 
The Swiss de Montricher, constructor of the aqueduct of Marseilles (d. at 
Xaples in 1858), and his pupil Bermont (d. 1870), and subsequently 51. 
Brisse have conducted the works. The difficulties encountered were pro- 
digious, and the natives were frequently heard to indulge in the jest, 'o 
Torlonia secca il Fucino, o il Fucino secca Torlonia 1 . In 1862, however, 
the emissarius was at length re-opened. It is an extension of the 
Roman work, but longer and wider, and constructed with the utmost 
care. It is nearly 4 M. long, and about 21 sq. yds. in width. The be- 
ginning of it is marked by a huge lock, erected in a massive style. This 
is the outlet of the channel which is intended to keep the lowest portions 
of the basin drained. A broad road, about 35 31. in length, runs round 
the reclaimed land, the area of which is about 36,000 acres in extent. 

1S4 Route 16. LUCO. From Ancona 

Within the last few years the corn crops have yielded a profit of 30 — 36 
per cent. The cost of the entire undertaking is estimated at 30 million fr. 
(1,200,000 I.). Down to 1871 about 20 millions were already expended. 
Although it was intended to drain the lake entirely, it is now proposed 
to leave it in its present condition, partly on account of its value to the 
fishermen, but chiefly owing to the enormous expense which would have 
to be incurred in draining the deeper S. end, near S. Benedetto and 

An excursion to Luco, about 6 M. distant from Avezzano, 
will afford the traveller a good opportunity of inspecting the 
drainage operations which have been undertaken here. The 
different water-marks of the various levels of the lake are distinctly 
observed. The opening of the Roman emissarius is seen from 
the road, and that of the modern tunnel among the fields 
beyond it. There are also two natural openings on the slope of 
the hills which formerly served for the partial discharge of the 
superfluous water. — Luco, now an uninteresting place, was 
the Lucus Angitiae of the anoients, and derived its appellation 
from a temple of the goddess of that name. The site of the 
temple is now occupied by the venerable Benedictine Church 
of S. Maria di Luco, situated on the N. side of the village, and 
dating from the 6th or 7th cent. Extensive remains of walls 
in the polygonal style mark the boundary of the Temenos, or 
sacred precincts of the temple. Fine view hence, as well as 
from all the high ground in the environs of the lake. On the 
E. bank of the lake lies the village of San Benedetto, on the 
site of Marrubium, the ancient capital of the Marsi, extensive 
remains of which are still to be seen, partly on land, and 
partly in the lake. On the occasion of a great drought in 1752, 
statues of Roman emperors, now preserved at Naples, were found 
here. To the N. of the lake, rising abruptly from the plain, is 
situated the double-peaked Monte Velino (8202 ft.), visible from 
Rome. At its base, 3 1 /'' M. from Avezzano, lies the village of 
Albe, the ancient Alba Fucentia. It lay on the confines of the 
territories of the Vestini, Marsi, and vEqui, and having received 
a Roman colony of 6000 souls, B. C. 303, it became the most 
powerful Roman stronghold in the interior of Italy. It occupied 
three contiguous groups of hills. On the W. side a triple wall 
in the polygonal style is still extant, while in the plain rises a 
vast tumulus. Remains of the Via Valeria, which led from Tivoli 
to Corflnium by Alba, of an amphitheatre, etc. are also trace- 
able. The most important monument of antiquity, however, is 
the *Temple, which has been converted into a church of 8. Pietro. 
Fine views. 

Tagliacozzo is lO 1 ^ M. distant from Avezzano. The road to it traverses 
a level tract, passing Scurcola and the Campi Patent in i, where on Aug. 
26th, 1268, the young Conradin of Hohenstaufen, the last scion of that 
illustrious imperial house, was conquered by Charles I. of Anjou, acting 
under the advice of the aged Chevalier Alard de St. Valery. Charles after- 
wards caused the beautiful, but now ruined church of S. Maria delta 

to Naples. 

SORA. 16. Route. 185 

Vittoria to be erected on the spot by Nicola Pisano. A Madonna which 
once adorned it is still preserved at Scurcola. The anniversary of the 
battle is still commemorated annually, and its issue is either a subject 
of rejoicing or of regret in accordance with the political views of the chief 
orator of the day. 

Tagliacozzo lies on the margin of a deep ravine from which the Jmele 
emerges. The sources of the Liris near Cappadocia may be visited hence 
on foot in li| 2 hr. — A mount;iin-road, impracticable for carriages, leads 
hence to Tivoli. This is the ancient Via Valeria, passing Carsoli, about 27 M. 
distant, with the ruins of the ancient Carseoli. The last portion of the 
route, from Arsoli onwards (15 31.) is suitable for driving. 

Diligence from Avezzano to Roccasecca, see p. 4; to Sora 
in 5 hrs., fare 7 fr. 10 c. The drive through the valley of the 
Liris is one of the most attractive in Italy. 

The road traverses the Monte Salviano, and reaches (7 M.J 
Capistrello, where the emissarius of the Lago di Fucino issues 
from the mountain. It then follows the 1. bank of the Liris. 
On a height on the r. bank lies (33/ 4 M.) Civitdlu Roveto, the 
capital of the Yal di Roveto, as the upper part of the valley of 
the Liris, as far as Sora, is termed. Then, to the 1., Civita. 
d'Antino, the Antinum of the Marsi, with several relics of 
antiquity. To the t. of the river lies Morino, whence the 
beautiful waterfall of Lo Schioppo, 43/ 4 M. distant, may be vi- 
sited. A charming mountainous district is now traversed, and 
the traveller at length reaches (12'/ 2 M. from Roveto) the 
town of 

Sora (*Liri, Hotel di Roma, both tolerable), with 12,031 
inhab., situated in the plain, on the r. bank of the Liris, which 
flows in the form of a semicircle round the crowded houses of 
the town. The Romans wrested the place from the Volsci, and 
founded a powerful colony here, B. C. 303. The cathedral stands 
on ancient substructions. On the precipitous rock above the town 
are remains of polygonal walls, belonging to the ancient Arx, 
and also traces of medieval castles. The town was the native 
place of several celebrated men, and the residence of others 
(the Decii, Atilius Regulus, the orator Q. Valerius, L. Mum- 
mius, etc.). The learned Cardinal Caesar Baronius was born 
at Sora in 1538, and died at Rome in 1607 as librarian of the 
Vatican. Sora forms, as it were, the key of the Abruzzi. From 
Sora to Isola 53/ 4 M., one-horse carr. 3—4 fr. ; from Isola to 
Arpino 9'/ 4 M., carr. 5 — 6 fr. 

The road traverses the well cultivated valley, following the 
1. bank of the river. The abundance of water here imparts a 
freshness and charm to the scenery, such as are rarely met with 
in southern districts. To the 1. the Fibreno falls into the Liris. 
In the former stream, near its mouth, lies the Isola S. P<*oJo, on 
which is situated the monastery of the Benedictine S. Domenico Abbate, 
a native ofFoligno. Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory MI., was once 
a monk here. The island is also supposed to be the Insula Arptnas, the 
birthplace of Cicero, the scene of his dialogue 'de legibus . The dilapi- 
dated abbey-church is said to have been constructed on the ruins ot the 

ISO Route 16. ARPINO. 

illustrious orators villa. The latter was erected by his grandfather, and 
embellished by his father, who devoted his leisure to the study of science 
here, and it was therefore a favourite retreat of Cicero himself, and is 
described by him in his treatise De Leg. 2, 3. In the reign of Domitian 
the villa belonged to the poet Silius Italicus. The Liris was crossed by an 
ancient bridge above the island, the 'Pont* di Cicerone^, one of the three 
arches of which is still standing. 

In the neighbourhood are a number of manufactories, chiefly 
of paper irurtiera), surrounded by well kept gardens. The most 
important of these is the Cartiera del Fibreno, founded by 
M. Lefevre, a Frenchman, now Count of Balzorano. The gardens 
connected with it contain the picturesque waterfalls (Le Casca- 
telle) of the Liris and the Fibreno. The cool water of the latter 
is praised by Cicero. — From this point the road descends to 
Isola, a small town with 4796 inhab., which as its name indi- 
cates, stands on an island in the Liris. The two arms of the 
river here form two magnificent waterfalls, 80 ft. in height. 
That on the E. side, a view of which is obtained from the 
bridge as the town is entered, is a perpendicular fall, while 
the other and more picturesque cascade descends over an inclined 
plane about 160 yds. in length. 

A road passing the paper-mills above Isola winds upwards to Arpino 
(Locanda della Pace, near the Piazza, small, but clean), a beautifully 
situated town with 11,522 inhab., the ancient Volscian mountain-town of 
Arpinum, and celebrated as the native place of JIarius and Cicero. The 
houses in which they were born are still pointed out to the credulous. 
The Town Hall in the Piazza is embellished with busts of Marius, Cicero, 
and Agrippa. The name of the great orator is justly still held in great 
veneration in the entire district. A bombastic inscription here runs thus : 
'Arpinum a Saturno conditum, Volscorum civitatem, Romanorum muni- 
cipium, Marci Tullii Ciceronis eloquentise Principis et Cai Marii septies 
Consulis patriam ingredere viator : hinc ad imperium triumphalis aquila 
egressa urbi totum orbem subjecit: ejus dignitatem agnoscas et sospes esto\ 
The arms of Arpino, which to this day consist of two towers over which the 
Reman eagle hovers, may be seen attached to the fountain on the r. of 
the town-hall. Weavers of wool and fullers are frequently mentioned in 
old inscriptions found here, and according to Bio Cassius Cicero's father 
belonged to the latter handicraft. Arpino was the native place of the well- 
known painter Giuseppe Cesari (1560 — 1640), more commonly known as the 
Cavaliere d'Arpino, whose house is still pointed out. 

The town consists of four quarters. The western quarter ('civitas 1 ) 
lies on an abrupt eminence, connected with the town by a narrow isthmus. 
This was the site of the ancient Arx. On the summit stands a small 
octagonal church, which commands a beautiful view. The town itself rises 
on the slope of a still higher hill. The greater part of the ancient wall, 
consisting of large irregular blocks of stone, broken at intervals by mediaeval 
round towers, is still preserved, and may be traced in its entire extent. 
The ascent should be made on the X. side. On the hill lies the quarter 
termed Civitd Vecclda. In the wall here is the Porta deir Arco, a remark- 
able gateway with pointed arch. 

From Arpino to Koccasecca is a drive of 2>|2 hrs. ; two-horse carr. 6 fr., 
'un posto'' 2>J 2 fr. 

From Isola to Roccasecca 13 M. The road continues to follow 
the 1. bank of the river. To the r. is the loftily situated town 
of Monte San Giovanni, beyond the old frontier of the States 
of the Church. To the 1. lies Fontana, then Arce and Rocca 

EBOLI, 17. Route. 187 

d'Aree, the ancient Arx Volscorum, in a strikingly picturesque 

From Roccasecca to Naples, see p. 4. 

17. From Naples to the Coast of the Adriatic 

by Eboli, Potenza, Melfi, and Venosa. 

The provinces to the S. of Naples are rarely visited by travellers. Not 
only is travelling rendered difficult by the defectiveness of the means of 
communication and the indifferent character of the inns, but these districts 
are not sufficiently attractive to merit a visit from those in search of the 
picturesque. The following route traverses the Province of Basilicata, the 
a cient Lucania. 

Distance 22031. — Railway from Naples to Eboli in 3 hrs. ; fares 7 fr. , 
5 fr. 25 c, 2 fr. 65 c. — The line is to be continued beyond Eboli, and 
will probably proceed by Auletta and Potenza to Torremare, a station on 
the Calabrian line (R. 19). A line by Melfi to Candela, the terminus of the 
Apulian branch-railway (p. 170) is also projected. — Diligence daily from 
Salerno (office adjoining the prefettura ; office at Naples opposite the post- 
office) to Potenza by Eboli in 18 hrs., fare 16 fr. After having secured a 
seat, the traveller may proceed to Eboli by railway, where he may inspect 
the town before the arrival of the diligence. Beyond Potenza local dili- 
gences, see below. 

Railway journey from Naples to Salerno, see p. 147. The 
line commands a charming view of the Bay of Salerno to the r. 
Stat. Pastena Salerno, Pontecagnano, and Battipaglia (p. 150), 
whence two high roads diverge, one to Calabria (R. 20), the 
other to Psstum (p. 151) on the coast. 

Eboli (the best Locanda is situated on the high road, about 
200 paces outside the town ; Albergo del Sorrentino in the town), a 
small town on the slope of the mountain, with an ancient chateau, 
property of the Principe of Angri, commands a beautiful prospect 
of the sea, the oak-forest of Persano, the towns at the base of 
M. Alburno, the temples of Pactum, and the valley of the Sele 
(Silarus). — From Eboli to Pastum, see p. 150. 

The high road from Eboli to Potenza (56 II.) coincides with 
the Calabrian route as far as (23 M.) Auletta. It crosses the 
broad and impetuous Sele 4i/ 2 M. from Eboli, ascends through 
a somewhat bleak district (magnificent retrospects of the plain 
of Psestum and Salerno), turns to the r. near Postiglione, and 
leads to La Duchessa and Lo Scorzo, the common halting-place 
of the vetturini, with a tolerable inn, 14 M. from Eboli. The 
mountain Alburnus, visible the whole way, according to Virgil 
'green with holm-oaks', interposes itself between the sea and 
the plain which extends from Lo Scorzo to Auletta. The small 
town lies on an eminence clothed with vines and forest, near 
the river Negro, Lat. Tanager, which is crossed by the road. 
Here the effects of the fearful earthquake of 1857 begin to be 
recognised in the dilapidated church, and fallen houses, a cata- 
strophe which entirely annihilated a number of towns and vil- 

188 Route 17. POTENZA. 

lages in the Basilicata, and occasioned a loss of upwards of 
32,000 lives. In the district of Sala alone and in the valley 
of the Diano 13,230 persons perished, and 27,150 more died 
from exposure, starvation, and cold. As late as March 1858, 
120,000 individuals were still without shelter. (Every evening, 
on the arrival of the Corriere, a dilig. runs to Potenza in 9hrs.; 
fare 9 fr.) 

The road to Potenza diverges to the 1. near Auletta, crosses 
the Landro, a tributary of the Sele, and traverses an extremely 
picturesque district as far as Vietri di Potenza (believed to be 
the Campi Veteres, where B. C. 242 the proconsul Tiberius 
Sempronius Gracchus, according to Livy, 25, 16, fell a victim 
to his premature confidence in the Lucanian Flavus) ; then 
across the river Marno ; to the 1. the beautifully situated Picerno, 
almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake. The road now 
gradually ascends to the ridge of Monte Foi, and thence descends to 

Potenza (Posta), with 15,777 inhab., the capital of the pro- 
vince of the same name, formerly the Basilicata, which nearly 
corresponds with the ancient Lucania. The town lies on an 
eminence above the Basento, which rises on the mountain Ariosa 
not far from this, and falls into the Gulf of Taranto near the 
ruins of Metapontum. The ancient Potentia, destroyed by Fre- 
derick II., and again by Charles of Anjou on account of its 
attachment to Prince Conradin, lay lower down in the plain, 
at the spot now called La Murata, where coins and inscriptions 
have frequently been found. The earthquake of 1857 was attended 
here with the most appalling results. The greater part of the town, 
including the Lyceum , fell , and numerous lives were lost. In 
consequence of wounds alone 4000 persons underwent amputations. 
The result in 30 or 40 neighbouring villages was not less disa- 
strous; for this stupendous convulsion had taken place in a circular 
course in three distinct shocks, of which the second was the 
most violent. A line drawn from Monte Vulture to the volcano 
of Stromboli intersects the places which suffered most ; thus 
Auletta, Atena, Polla, Sala, Padula, Saponara, Sapri, and many 
other villages were entirely destroyed. In the direction of Mt. 
Vesuvius, towards Naples and Salerno to the W., the concussions 
were much more violent than in the opposite direction. The 
loss of life was not less than that occasioned by the earthquake 
of 1783 in Calabria. The shocks recurred in March and April, 
1858. — A diligence runs from Potenza direct to Trani (p. 166) 
on the Adriatic coast-railway in 14 hrs., fare 17 fr. 

From Potenza a mountain-road (dilig. in 9 — 10 hrs., fare 6 fr.) 
leads by Avigliano and Atella to (38 M.) Melfi (Albergo Basil; 
Trattoria del Sole, with a few bedrooms), with 9863 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the slope of Monte Vulture. It possess- 
es an old castle of the Norman sovereigns, who often resided 

YENOSA. 17. Route. 189 

here, now restored by Prince Doria as a chateau. The upper 
portion of the town was entirely destroyed by the earthquake ; 
a great part of the remainder has been re-erected. Here in 
1059 Pope Nicholas II. invested Robert Guiscard with the 
duchies of Apulia and Calabria. The magnificent Cathedral of 
1155, almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 1851, has 
since been modernised. The town-hall contains a fine Roman 

From this point the conspicuous Monte Vulture, an extinct 
volcano, may be visited. Horace mentions it as the 'Apulian 
Vultur' ; at that period it formed the boundary between Lucania 
and Apulia. Calabria extended hence in a S. E. direction to 
the Japygian or Salentinian promontory, the modern Capo di 
Leuca; and S. W. the land of the Bruttii, as far as the Sicilian 
straits. Since the middle ages, however, the latter district has 
been termed Calabria, while the ancient Calabria is now the 
Terra d'Otranto. 

The former crater of M. Vulture is densely overgrown with 
oaks and beeches, among which two small and deep lakes are 
situated. By one of these is the most picturesquely situated 
Capuchin monastery of S. Michele and the ruined church of S. 
llario. On the farther side of the principal crater rises the 
summit of the mountain, II Pizzuto di Melfi (4359 ft.). Melfl 
lies on a bed of lava on the N. E. slope. The circumference of 
the mountain is about 35 M. 

From Melfi a diligence runs to Candela, situated 21 M. to 
the N. ; railway thence to Foggia in l l / t hr. 

A road leads from Melfi E. to (15 M. ; or by a bridle-path, a pleasant 
route, 7 31. only) Venosa (two miserable inns), the ancient Venvsia, colo- 
nised by the Romans after the Samnite war, now a small town with 7038 
inhab., picturesquely situated on the slope of Monte Vulture, not far from 
the Fiamara, the 'pauper aquae Daunus* of Horace (Od. III. 30, 11), and near 
the more considerable Ofanto, Lat. Aufidvs. The Castle was erected by 
Pirro del Blazo in the 15th cent. The abbey and church of S. Trinita, 
consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. in 1058, contain the tombs of the founder 
Robert Guiscard and his first wife Aberarda, mother of Bohemund. Fres- 
coes of the 13th and 14th cent, have recently been discovered in the church. 
The three principal chapels are still distinctly recognised. The nave is 76 
paces in breadth. The handsome court contains numerous inscriptions, 
columns, and other relics of an amphitheatre, which lay in the neigh- 
bourhood. The church is undergoing restoration in questionable taste. 

Near Venosa, on the road to the Fiumara, Jewish catacombs were 
discovered in 1853, containing inscriptions in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. 
History also records that Jews were numerous here in the 4th and 5th 

An ancient structure of 'opus reticulatum 1 here is termed the Casa di 
Orazio, but without the slightest authority. Horace, son of a freedman, was 
born at Venusia, Dec. 8th, B. C. 65, and there received his elementary edu- 
cation, after which his father accompanied him to Rome in order to procure 
him better instruction. He frequently mentions the 'far resounding Aufidus*' 
in his poems, as well as the villages in the vicinity (Carm. III. 4, 14), such as 
the lofty Acherontia, now Acerenza, 9 M. to the S.E., the woods of Bantia, 
N. of the latter, now Abbadia de' Banzi, near Genzano, and the fertile 
meadows of the low-lying Ferentum (probably Forenza). Near Palazzo, 

190 Route 18. TARANTO. 

6 M. to the E. of Venosa, to the r. of the road to Spinazzola, rises an 
abundant spring, now called Fontana Grande, believed to be identical with 
the Fons Bandusiae so highly praised by Horace (Od. III. 13). 

On the wooded heights between Venusia and Bantia, B. C. 208, 
51. Claud. Marcellus, the gallant conqueror of Syracuse, and the first to 
arrest the tide of Hannibal's success (at Xola, 215), fell into an ambuscade 
and perished. 

Lavello, where King Conrad died in 1254, lies 9>|2 M. to the N. of 
Venosa, beyond the wooded slopes of the Monte Vulture. The traveller 
may proceed thence by (23 l |2 M.) Canosa (p. 165) to the (16 51.) railway- 
stat. Barletta (p. 164). ' 

18. From Bari to Taranto. 

Distance 72 M. — Railway in 3=| 3 — 41(4 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 15, 7 fr. 60, 
3 fr. 80 c. 

Stations Modugno, Bitetto. On a hill, 3 M. to the N. lies 
Palo del Colle, which was once surrounded by four villages 
(Auricarre, Marescia, Staglino, Battaglia), of which scanty re- 
mains only are now extant. Next stat. Grumo, then stat. Acqua- 
viva, about 3 M. to the W. of which is situated Cassano, where 
a stalactite grotto was discovered a few years ago (key kept by 
the Sindaco). The Capuchin monastery of Cassano commands 
a fine view. Stat. Gioia, a town with 17,005 inhab. The line 
now quits the flat country hitherto traversed and enters the 
Terra d' Otranto. The scenery becomes more attractive. Stat. 
Basilio, a tunnel, then stat. Castellaneta. A longer tunnel is 
then passed through, beyond which the line crosses three deep 
ravines ('gravine') by means of iron bridges. Stat. Palagianello, 
Palagiano, and Massafra, the last of which is picturesquely 
situated on the slope of a 'gravina'. The line now approaches 
the sea. Fine view of the bay with the islands of S. Pietro and 
S. Paolo. At length, opposite the traveller, appears 

Taranto (Hotel de V Europe, in the Piazza, R. l'/ofrj dirty; 
Albergo Moro, tolerable, with good trattoria, carriages to be had ; 
Locanda Garibaldi, outside the E. gate; fiacre into the town, 
3 / 4 M. from the station, 1 fr.), an important town with 27.484 
inhab., situated on a rocky island between the Mare Piccolo 
and Mare Grande. The roads are bounded by the Capo S. Vito 
on the S. E. The harbour is protected by two flat islands situ- 
ated in front of it, the Choerades of antiquity, now S. Paolo 
(the smaller), occupied by a fort, and 8. Pietro, the property of 
the chapter of the cathedral. The entrance to the harbour is 
between S. Vito and S. Paolo, on each of which a lighthouse 
is situated. Towards the N. W. the passage is very shallow, 
and navigable for small boats only. The modern town occupies 
the site of the ancient Acropolis, which extended a consider- 
able distance towards the E. It is connected with the mainland 
by bridges on the E. and W. sides. Over the W. bridge runs 
an aqueduct, supposed to have been constructed by the Greek 

TARANTO. IS. Route. 191 

Emp. Nicephorus I. (about 803). It conducted water to Taren- 
tum from a distance of 23 M., and is supported by arches as it 
approaches the town. The ebb and flow of the tide is dis- 
tinctly visible under the bridges of Taranto , one of the few 
places on the Mediterranean where it is perceptible. 

Taranto is the seat of an archbishop, a prefect, and other 
dignitaries, and carries on a considerable traffic in oil, oats, and 
wheat. The population is densely crowded in the confined 
houses and the narrow streets, and the traveller whose expect- 
ations as to the aspect of the town are founded on the celebrity 
of its ancient name, will be sadly disappointed. The Mare 
Piccolo is skirted by the Str. Garibaldi, inhabited chiefly by 
fishermen, and connected by a number of narrow lanes with the 
insignificant principal street, which under various names inter- 
sects the town from E. to W. The Str. Vittorio Emanuele, re- 
cently constructed on the sea, affords a view of the bay and 
the mountains of Calabria, and serves as an evening pro- 

The entirely modernised Cathedral of S. Cataldo contains 
some important monuments, among which is that of Philip of 
Taranto, son of Charles II. of Anjou. The chapel of the saint, 
adjoining the choir on the r., is sumptuously decorated. The 
crypt is not accessible. The Castle, at the E. end of the town, 
as well as the other fortifications, date from the time of 
Charles V. Towards the E., where the Tarentum of antiquity 
was situated, new buildings are now in course of construction. 

Tarentum, or Taras, as it was termed in Greek, was tlie most powerful 
and wealthy city of Magna Greecia, and lay in a beautiful and fertile district 
to the S. of Mt. Aulon and W. of the mouth of the GalBesus. It was 
built by Spartan Parthenians under the guidance of Phalanthus, B. C. 707, 
and was under the special protection of Neptune, by whose mythical son 
Taras it is said to have been originally founded. Its extensive commerce 
and powerful fleet were a source of great prosperity, but with the increase 
of wealth the citizens became luxurious and effeminate. In addition to 
their navy and other resources, they possessed an army of 30,000 infantry 
and 5000 cavalry. Pythagoras of Samos once taught his philosophy here, 
and his system was farther developed by Archytas of Tarentum, the cele- 
brated mathematician. With the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus, Tarentum 
defended itself successfully against the attacks of the Romans, but at 
length succumbed, B. C. 272, after the departure of Pyrrhus from Italy. 
In the Second Punic War the town esx^oused the cause of Hannibal, but 
was conquered in 209 by the Romans, who plundered it, carried off its 
treasures of art, and sold 30,000 of the citizens as slaves. In 123 the 
Romans established a colony here, and the city again became noted for its 
wealth and luxury. The famous purple dye and wool of Tarentum were 
its chief resources at this period, and were extensively manufactured. In 
Horace's time Tarentum was a place which the poet regarded as the 'most 
smiling corner of the world, where the spring is long, and Jupiter vouch- 
safes mild winters' (Carm. II, 6). In the middle ages Tarentum was the 
residence of Bohemund, son of Robert Guiscard, who took part in the first 

The relics of the celebrated ancient city are but scanty. 
The road skirting the sea to Lecce intersects an extensive Circus, 

192 TAR AN TO. 

•/ 4 M. from the gate. About l / 3 M. farther, in the vineyards 
sloping towards the sea, are the extensive ruins of private houses, 
now termed Le Fornaci, and dating from various different periods, 
some of them being obviously mediaeval, others constructed of 
the Roman 'opus reticulatum', while a few are apparently of still 
more ancient construction. To the latter class belongs a curious 
cellar (or stable?) with ceiling of flat vaulting and a shaft for 
air. At the entrance of one of the rooms is a mosaic. The 
ruins are in a sadly neglected state. 

The ancient coins of Tarentum are remarkable for their fine 

The Mare Piccolo is divided into two halves by the promon- 
tory II Pizzone, and the Punta della Penna. At its E. extremity 
is the mouth of the river Cervaro, which is supposed to be the 
ancient Galaesus. At the S. end, 3 / 4 M. from Taranto, stands 
the villa of S. Lucia, once the property of the celebrated Arch- 
bishop Capecelatro (d. 1816), afterwards that of General Pepe. 
Although in a dilapidated condition, it still merits a visit, and 
is thus described by an old writer. 'This is one of the most 
charming spots in the neighbourhood. The Mare Piccolo looks 
like a broad lake. Gentle slopes, covered with olive-groves, rise 
in every direction. A fine view of Taranto and its towers, 
perched on a rock, is enjoyed hence, and still higher rise two 
magnificent palm-trees, the finest of which stands in the court- 
yard of the archiepiscopal residence. Gardens with oranges, 
lemons, figs, almonds, and pomegranates slope down from the 
town to the water's edge, filling the air with their delightful 

Fish abound in the Mare Piccolo. They enter with the tide 
under the W. bridge, and are netted at night in great num- 
bers. The stakes protruding from the water mark the situation 
of beds of mussels, of which there are said to be no fewer than 
93 different species. Fishing is the chief resource of the majority 
of the population. 

The honey and fruit of Taranto are still celebrated, as they 
were in ancient times. The date-palm also bears fruit here, 
but the la ter seldom ripens thoroughly. In the district between 
Taranto, Brindisi , and Otranto the venomous tarantola or ta- 
rantella spider occurs. Its bite is said to cause convulsions and 
even madness, for which evils music and dancing are supposed 
to be effectual remedies. It is, however, believed that these 
terrible results exist chiefly in the imagination of the natives, 
as no actual cases have occurred for a long time. In Sardinia, 
however, and some other places the bite of the tarantella is de- 
servedly dreaded. 

From Taranto to L ec ce (p. 169) diligence daily in 9 hrs., traversing 
a flat and unattractive district, and passing S. Qiorgio, Sava, Mandvria 
(an old town with 8284 inhab.), and Campi. 


19. From Taranto to Reggio. 

The bay of Tarentum was once studded with numerous flourishing 
Greek colonies, and the entire district bore the name of Magna Graecia. 
The relics of that prosperous epoch are now but scanty. The period of 
decline began with the Roman supremacy. The art and culture of the 
middle ages never penetrated to these remote regions. The fields once 
extolled by Sophocles for their richness and fertility are now sought for 
in vain, and the malaria now exercises its dismal sway throughout the 
whole of this dreary district. No part of Italy is so far behind the age 
in agriculture as Calabria. The soil belongs to the nobility, who let it to 
a poor and degenerate class of farmers. The custom of carrying weapons 
is universally prevalent here, and brigandage is as rife as ever. The 
members of this fraternity infest the mountains in summer, to which they 
are driven by the malaria, while in winter they are compelled by the 
snow to return to the coast. The villages, which are generally securely 
perched on rocky heights, are miserable and filthy beyond description. 
The inns swarm with vermin, and rarely provide travellers with the 
necessaries of life. No one should therefore attempt to explore this country 
unless provided with letters of introduction to some of the principal land- 
owners (comp. p. 205). It is, however, expected that the condition of the 
country will speedily improve when the railway is completed and the 
dormant resources of the soil are thus called into action. The scenery is 
strikingly beautiful, and will not fail to attract numerous travellers when 
it can bo visited with reasonable comfort. 

Distance from Taranto to Reggio about 368 M. The railway now in 
course of construction is expected to be completed in two or three years. 
The portions of it already open are between Taranto and Cariati (113 M.), 
and between Roccella and Reggio (70 M.). The intervening distance be- 
tween Cariati and Roccella must be traversed on foot, or mule-back (in 
4 — 6 days), as there is not even a carriage-road. Or the traveller will 
probably prefer to avail himself of one of the Ancona and Genoa steamers, 
which arrive at Taranto every Wednesday, via Brindisi, Corfu, and Galli- 
poli, touching on Thursday mornings at Rossano, about noon at Cotrone, 
in the evening at Catanzaro, at night at Siderno, on Friday mornings at 
Catania, and arriving at Reggio and Messina on Saturdays. These vessels 
generally keep near the coast, and the voyage is one of the most beautiful 
in the Mediterranean. Fare from Rossano to Cotrone 12 fr. , to Catanzaro 
18 fr. 20 c, incl. food. 

From Taranto to Cariati one train daily in 6 hrs. ; fares 20 fr., 14 fr. , 
10 fr. 5 c. ; to Rossano two trains daily. Most of the stations are 2 — 5 M. 
distant from the towns and villages from which they derive their names. 

The scenery is at first uninteresting, and the country flat. 
The soil is very fertile, but miserably cultivated. Although 
quite capable of yielding two crops annually with proper manage- 
ment, it is allowed, in accordance with the old-fashioned system 
here prevalent, to lie fallow for two years after each crop. 

271/2 M. Stat. Torremare, a small village. About 37-2 M. to 
the N. E. of the station stand the ruins of an ancient Greek 
*temple in the Doric style, termed La Tavola de Paladini by 
the peasantry (reached by a carriage-road, but no vehicles to be 
had). Fifteen columns of the peristyle (10 on the N., 5 on the 
S. side) are still standing. The limestone of which they consist 
is now much disintegrated. This temple marks the site of the 
celebrated ancient Greek city of Metapontum. Pythagoras died 
here, B. C. 497, in his 90th year, but his philosophy long 
B/edekkk. Italy III. 3rd Edition. |3 

194 Route 79. CASSANO. From Toronto 

survived him in the principal towns of Magna Grsecia, especially 
at Metapontum itself, Tarentum, and Croton. When Alexander 
of Epirus came to Italy in B. C. 332, Metapontum allied itself 
with him, and in the Second Punic War it took the part of 
Hannibal. Its enmity to Rome on the latter occasion, however, 
caused its downfall, and at the time of Pausanias, in the 2nd 
cent, after Christ, it was a mere heap of ruins. 

The railway crosses the Basento. 32*/ 2 M. Stat. 8. Basilio 
Pisticci, 371/2 M. Scanzano Montalbano. The Agri, the Aciris 
of the ancients, is now crossed. 

40!/ 2 M. Stat. Policoro, near which lay the Greek town of 
Heraclea (founded in 432), where Pyrrhus with the aid of his 
elephants gained his first victory over the Romans, B. C. 280. 
At Luce, in the vicinity, the celebrated bronze Tabula Hera- 
cleensis (Lex Julia Municipalis). now in the Museum at Naples 
(p. 65), was dicovered in 1753. 

The railway traverses a wood (Pantano di Policoro), full of 
the most luxuriant vegetation (myrtles, oleanders, etc.), beyond 
which the river Sinno, the ancient Siris, and the town of that 
name are reached. The line now approaches the sea. 

50 M. Stat. Rocca Imperiale. The country becomes hilly. 
Next stat. (54 M.) Monte Giordano, (59 M.) Roseto, (62 M.) 
Amendolara, (67 1 /2 M.) Trebisacce, (74 M.) Torre Cerchiara, 
(77 M.) Buffaloria di Cassano. 

Cassano (8872 inhab.), a beautifully situated town, with warm baths, 
and commanded by an ancient castle on a lofty rock, lies 9 M. inland from 
the station. The castle affords a magnificent survey of the valleys of the 
Coscile and the Crati, the Spbaris and the Crathis of antiquity. The wild 
and barren limestone mountains rise here almost immediately from the 
plain ; above them towers the Monte Pollino (7852 ft.). The Torre di Milo 
is pointed out here as the tower whence the stone was thrown that caused 
the death of T. Annius Milo, when he was besieging the town of Cosa on 
behalf of Pompey. 

The line crosses the Crati. 

The once wealthy and proverbially uxurious Sybaris, founded B. C. 720 
by Achseans and Troszenians, and destroyed 510 by the Crotonians, is said 
to have lain on this river. About 6 M. distant from its supposed site, 
near Terranova, are a few insignificant ruins marking the position of 
Tfmrii, which was founded by the Sybarites who escaped after the des- 
truction of their city. In 443 the Athenians sent a colony thither , and 
with it the historian Herodotus. In consequence of the wise legislation 
of Charondas, Thurii soon attained to great prosperity. In 280 it at length 
fell into the hands of the Romans, and was afterwaros plundered by Han- 
nibal. In 193 it received a Roman colony, and the new name of Capiat, 
but it rapidly peclined, and was subsequently entirely deserted. 

86 M. Stat. Corigliano. The town, with 10,624 inhab., lies 
on a height, 3'/2 M. inland from the station. 

93 M. Stat. Rossano. The town, with 14,267 inhab., situated 
on the hill, and possessing quarries of marble and alabaster, is 
about 5 M. distant (drive of 1 hr., 'un posto' 1 fr.). Beyond it 
rise the pine-olad mountains of Sila, which once furnished the 

to Reggio. STRONGOLI. 19. Route. 195 

Athenians and .Sicilians with timber for ship-building, and was 
also celebrated for its numerous flocks (p. 199). Rossano was 
the birthplace of St. Nilus. The steamboats touch at the landing- 
place opposite the town. The miserable inn on the coast is 
closed in summer in consequence of the malaria. 

The line runs close to the sea through a mountainous district, 
and crosses the Trionto. Stat. (lOCH/aM.) Mirto Crosia, (10372 
M.) S. Oiacomo, ( 109'/2 M-) Campana. 

113 M. Stat. Cariati (Albergo di Sibari, miserably bad), the 
present terminus of the railway, is an excessively dirty place. 

Boat with 4 rowers hence to Cotrone 50 fr. ; mule and guide 
15 fr. (distance about 35 M.). 

The road skirts the sea, passing the Punta Fiumenica, and, 
farther on, leaving Crucoli to the r., leads to the Punta deW 
Alice, the ancient promontory of, where Philoctetes is 
said to have landed after his return from Troy, and to have built 
the temple of Apollo in which he hung up the bow and arrows 
of Hercules. To the r. lies Cirb. The river Lipuda is then 
crossed. Strongoli, a small town on an abrupt height, the an- 
cient Poetelia, founded by Philoctetes, was besieged by Hannibal 
after the Battle of Cannae on account of its fidelity to Rome. 
The road now descends to the plain of the broad and impetuous 
Neto, traverses marshes, and crosses the muddy Esaro, the 
Aesarus extolled by Theocritus. Cotrone, a small seaport with 
7168 inhab., situated on a promontory, was in ancient times 
the celebrated Achaean colony of Crotona, founded B. C. 710, 
which was once so populous and powerful as to be able in 
510 to send an army of 100,000 men into the field against 
Sybaris. After its great victory on that occasion, however, Cro- 
tona itself declined ; not long afterwards the citizens were de- 
feated by the Locrians on the river Sagras, and in 299 Cro- 
tona fell into the hands of Agathocles of Syracuse. During the 
height of the prosperity of the city Pythagoras, who had been 
banished from Samos by the tyrant Polycrates, and was then in 
his 40th year, established himself at Crotona. He attracted a 
band of 540 disciples, and established his brotherhood here, 
but was at length banished in consequence of the jealousy of 
the citizens. 

Oranges and olives thrive admirably in the environs of 
Cotrone, and are largely exported. Liquorice is also a staple 
product of this district. Signor Baracco, one of the wealthiest 
land-owners in Italy, resides in the neighbourhood. A letter of 
introduction to him will enable the traveller to explore the 
whole of this neighbourhood with safety. 

The steamers from Ancona touch at Cotrone. About 7 M. 
to the S. H. is the Capo delle Colonne, or Capo iXao, a low 
promontory, much exposed to the wind. As the steamer rounds 


196 Route 19. CATANZARO. From Taranto 

this cape, the eye is arrested by a solitary column, rising con- 
spicuously above the few modern buildings of the place. This 
is the sole surviving remnant of the temple of Hera of the 
Lacinian Promontory, once the most revered divinity on the 
entire Bay of Tarentum. To the S.W. of this promontory are 
three others, the Capo delle Cimiti, the Capo Rizzuto, and the 
Capo Castella. 

The route to Catanzaro (1172 M.) presents few objects of 
interest. It traverses these promontories and first reaches Cutro. 
It then crosses the Tacina, Crocchio, Simmari, and Alii, and 
reaches the landing-place of Catanzaro at the mouth of the 
Corace, about 9 M. distant from the town itself. 

Catanzaro (Hotel de Rome), with 22,451 inhab., the capital 
of the province Calabria Ultra II., and the residence of many 
wealthy families, lies in a beautiful and sheltered situation. It 
possesses an old chateau of Robert Guiscard, a cathedral, velvet 
and silk manufactories, and valuable olive-plantations. The town 
suffered severely from the earthquake of 1783. 

High road from Catanzaro to Reggio, see p. 200. 

Turning hence towards the coast, the traveller next reaches 
(14 M.) Squill ace, the ancient Scylaceum, situated on an almost 
inaccessible rock near the coast, nearly opposite the lofty Monte 
Moscia, which here projects into the sea. The village of Stalitti, 
situated on the latter, commands a view of singular beauty. 
Cassiodorus, the private secretary of Theodoric the Great, was 
born at Scylaceum, and after the death of his master retired to 
his native place, where he founded a monastery, and within the 
seclusion of its walls wrote a number of learned works. He 
died here in 560, having attained the age of nearly a hundred 
years. A short distance to the N. of Squillace the Emp. Otho II. 
was defeated in July, 982, by the Arabians, who had crossed 
over from Sicily, and had recently been routed by him at Co- 
lonne, to the S. of Cotrone. The emperor himself escaped al- 
most by a miracle, and succeeded in reaching Rossano, where 
he found his consort Theophano. Otho, however, never re- 
covered from the effects of this reverse ; he died at Rome in 
December, 983, and was interred in the old church of St. Peter. 
The route along the coast beyond this point, passing Montauro, 
Soverato, Badolato, and Stilo, is often precipitous, and for the 
most part monotonous. 

Stilo, 7 M. from the coast, and 35 M. from Squillace, poss- 
esses iron-works. The river Alaro is supposed to be the Sagras 
of antiquity, where an army of 130,000 Crotonians is said to 
have been utterly routed by 10,000 Locrians. On this river lies 
Castelvetere, on the site of ttie ancient Achsean Cavlonia, where 
Pythagoras sought refuge after his expulsion from Crotona. 

to Reggio. ROCCELLA. 19. Route. 197 

Eoccella, 23 M. distant from Stilo, a town with 5139 inhab., 
lies near the coast. The railway from Reggio is finished as far 
as this point. Two trains thither daily in 4 hrs. ; fares 12 fr. 40, 
8 fr. 70, 6 fr. 25 c. 

5 M. Stat. Gioiosa. The town, with 6899 inhab., situated 
on the slope of a lofty spur of the Apennines, rose on the 
ruins of Locri Epizephyrii, the once celebrated colony of the 
Locrians, founded B. C. 683, provided with a salutary code of 
laws by Zaleucus (664), and extolled by Pindar and Demosthenes 
for its wealth and love of art. The ruins of the ancient city 
were formerly visible near Torre di Oerace, but the ground has 
recently been converted into an orange garden. 

A mountain path, termed II Passo del Mercante, leads from Gerace 
through charming woods, and over the lofty Aspromonte, to Casalnuovo. 
Thence by a post-road to Gioja, or lo Seminara, about 42 M. The summit 
of the pass commands a most delightful view of the sea in both directions. 
In descending, the eye ranges over the Bay of Gioja as far as the Lipari 

Stat. (15y 2 M.J Ardore, (18 M.J Bovalino, (22i/ 2 M.J Bianco- 
nuovo, (32 M.J Brancaleone. The line now skirts the Capo 
Spartivento, the Promontorium Herculis of antiquity, the S. E. 
extremity of Calabria. 

40 M. Stat. Palhzi. The railway now turns towards the W. 

Stat. (43 M.J Bova, (4572 M.) Amandotea, (51 M.J Melito, 
beyond which the railway proceeds towards the N.W. 

56 M. Stat. Saline. The trdn commands a view, as it pro- 
ceeds, of the coast and mountains of Sicily, and rounds the 
Capo deW Armi, the Promontorium Leucopetrae, which was in 
ancient times regarded as the termination of the Apennines. 
Cicero landed here when on his way to Greece, in B. C. 44, 
after the murder of Csesar, having been compelled to turn back 
by adverse winds, and he was then persuaded by citizens of 
Rhegium to repair to Velia, where he met Brutus. 

Stat. (60 M.J Lazzaro, ((4 M.J PeUaro, (67i/ 2 M.) S. Ore- 
gorio, (70 M.J Reggio (p. 202J. 

20. From Naples to Reggio. 

The projected railway, via Eboli and Potenza, will join the preceding 
route at Torremare. It is completed as far as Eboli, from which the 
distance to Reggio is 327 31. The journey is performed by the Corriere 
in 75 hrs. ; fare 63 fr. 75 c. There are, however, three seats only, which 
are always engaged in advance, so that passengers cannot expect to be 
taken up at an intervening station. Diligence as far as Auletta, see p. 187. 
Vetturini from Salerno require 10 — 12 days ; hotel-expenses had better be 
included in the contract. 

From Naples by railway to Eboli and thence to Auletta, see 
R. 17. 

Beyond Auletta lies the village of Pertosa, halting-place of 
the vetturini, partially destroyed in 1857. Below the village is 

1 OS Route -JO. ROTONDA. From Naples 

a large cavern, dedicated to St. Michael, whence after a sub- 
terranean course of l 1 /^ M. the Negro precipitates itself into a 
gorge. Beyond Pertosa the road crosses a deep ravine, through 
which an arm of the Negro flows, by II Ponte di Campestrino, 
a viaduct of 7 arches, and then ascends the mountain in zigzags. 
A short distance beyond the culminating point a charming view 
is disclosed of the valley of the Diano, to the S., into which 
the road now descends. On entering it the beautifully situated 
Polla, the ancient Forum Popilii, almost entirely destroyed In 
1857, is left to the r. The valley, 15 M. in length, 3 M. in 
width, is traversed by the Negro, or rather the Colore, as it 
is here named, and is remarkable for its fertility. Numerous 
villages are situated on the heights on the r. and 1. The road 
ascends more rapidly. On the 1. lies Atena, the anoient Atina 
in Lucania, with remnants of an amphitheatre, walls, and 
towers, almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1857. 
Then to the 1. Sala, picturesquely situated on a height. Nearly 
opposite to it, on the other bank of the river, which is crossed 
by the Ponte di Silla, an ancient Roman bridge, rises the small 
town of Diano on an isolated eminence, the ancient Tegianum, 
whence the valley derives its name. To the 1., 3'/ 2 M. farther, 
lies Padula, below which are the shattered ruins of the Certosa 
di S. Lorenzo. 

A by-road traversing the Monte 8. Elia and the valley of the Agri, 
leads to Monlemurro and Saponara, where (near Agrimontr) the ruins of an 
amphitheatre indicate the site of the ancient Grumentum. Coins, statues, 
and bronzes are frequently found here. This entire tract was frightfully 
devastated by the earthquake of Dec. 1857, and upwards of 10,000 persons 

At Casalnuovo the ascent commences, and 7 M. farther the 
other side of the mountain is reached. Then across the rivulet 
Trecchina to Lagonegro, a small town in a wild situation, 
surrounded by lofty mountains. Here in 1806 the French gained 
a victory over the Neapolitans, after which they committed the 
most savage excesses. 

The road now winds through dark and profound ravines, 
passing to the 1. the Lago di Seroni, the ancient Lacus Niger, 
near the gorges in which the Sinno, the Siris of the ancients, 
takes its rise. The next village, Lauria, lies at the base of a 
lofty mountain, opposite the huge Monte Sirino, and surrounded 
by vineyards. Then Castelluccio, on an eminence above a branch 
of the Lao, Lat. Laos, surrounded by dense woods. The next 
village is 

Rotonda. The province of Calabria Citra is now entered, 
and the long and desolate table-land of Campo Tenese traversed, 
where in 1806 the Neapolitans fled before the French general 
Regnier. A path winds downwards from this point, and passes 
through the narrow valley at the base of Monte Pollino (7326 ft.), 

to Regyio. COSENZA. 20. Route. 199 

on the W. side of which Morano, the ancient Muranum, is 
picturesquely situated. 

The town of Castrovillari (9'/ 2 M.J, situated on an eminence, 
surrounded by lofty mountains, with an ancient Norman castle, 
is next reached. Cassano (p. 194) is about 9 1 / 2 M. distant. 

From Castrovillari the high road traverses a well-cultivated 
district, through Cammarata, Spezzano, Tarsia, and Ritorto, skirt- 
ing the river Crati, and crossing several of its tributaries, in 
the bed of one of which (the Busento) Alaric, King of the Goths, 
was interred in 410, and reaches Cosenza, the Consentia of the 
ancients, once the principal city of the Bruttii, now the capital 
of the province of Calabria Citra, and an archiepiscopal residence, 
containing well-built houses and palaces of wealthy landed-pro- 
prietors and manufacturers (17,753 inhab.). It lies on the N. 
slope of a hill which separates the Crati from the Busento above 
the confluence of these streams. The town is commanded by a 
castle, the walls of which, although 9 ft. in thickness, were 
unable to resist the earthquake of 1870. Shocks are felt 
here almost every year. In 1181 the town was destroyed by 
an earthquake, and again on Feb. 4th, 1783, when upwards of 
30,000 persons perished in this district. Considerable damage 
was also sustained in consequence of the earthquakes of Feb. 
13th, 1854, and Oct. 4th, 1870. 

The Cathedral contains the tomb of Louis III. of Anjou, who 
died here in 1435, one year and a half after his marriage with 
Margaret of Savoy. 

The exact site of the grave of Alaric is unknown, but ac- 
cording to the tradition current at Cosenza it is at the union 
of the Busento and the Crati. 

Road from Cosenza to Paola (p. 218), where the steamers 
touch once weekly, not always considered safe. Railway, follow- 
ing the course of the Crati, to join the great coast-line, projected. 

About 10 31. to the E. of Cosenza rises the Sila, a lofty and wooded 
range of mountains, extending about 37 31. from N. to S., 25 31. from E. 
to W., attaining a height of 6643 ft., and embracing an extensive network 
of valleys. These mountains, which consist of granite and gneiss, are 
remarkable for their beauty and fertility ; their slopes are studded with 
numerous villages, while higher up they are clothed with chestnuts, oaks, 
beeches, and pines. The snow does not disappear among the higher regions 
till the latter end of Slay, or June, after which they afford a delightful 
summer abode to the natives with their flocks. This beautiful district, 
which has very rarely been explored by travellers, is still in a most pri- 
mitive and uncivilised condition. 

At Cosenza the road begins to ascend, traversing well-culti- 
vated land, whilst the heights on either side are clothed with 
oaks and chestnuts, and, li M. from Cosenza, reaches the small 
town of 

Rogliano, situated on a height to the 1., commanding a 
charming prospect of the fertile country and the surrounding 

200 Route -JO. P1ZZO. From Sxple* 

mountains, above which to the r. rises the summit of Monte 
Cocuzzo (5085 ft.). The road then descends into the ravine of the 
Sttvuto, Lat. Sabutus, which it crosses by a wooden bridge ; it 
then ascends he Crocelle di Agrifolio, a precipitous ridge of the 
Apennines, and leads by Carpanzano, Coraci, Arena Bianca, and 
through ravines and forest to the lofty town of Tiriolo, 33 M. 
from Rogliano, situated on the culminating point between the 
Ooraee, which falls into the bay of Squillace, and the Lamato, 
descending to the bay of S. Eufemia (the ancient Sinus Teri- 
naeus). Near Tiriolo, a name probably derived from the Ager 
Taurianus, numerous antiquities, coins, etc. have been found- 
Here, too, in 1460 a bronze tablet (now in the imperial collection 
at Vienna) was discovered, bearing the decree of the senate 
against the Bacchanalia, of the year B. C. 186, mentioned by 
Livy (39, 18). 

Before Tiriolo is reached, a road to the 1. crosses the river Corace and 
leads to (6 M.) Catanzaro (p. 196). 

To the r. a road leads to O l h ^-1 ^icastro, an episcopal town on the 
slope of the mountain, in the now ruined castle of which Frederick II. 
once confined his son Henry, who had rebelled against him. The latter 
was shortly afterwards drowned in the river Savuto. 3 31. from Nicastro, 
towards the sea, lies S. Eufemia, with a celebrated Benedictine monastery 
founded by Robert Guiscard, but destroyed by the earthquake of 1638. 

The road to Reggio traverses a chain of hills, then crosses 
the Lamato, the r. bank of which it skirts for 4 M., commanding 
nearly the whole way a view of the bays of Squillace and S. 
Eufemia, which are here not more than 20 M. apart. 

Then by Casino Chiriaco across the plain of Maida, where 
in 1806 the English auxiliaries of the Bourbons under Sir John 
Stuart defeated the French under Regnier and drove them out 
of Calabria. The road leads across the fertile, but somewhat 
marshy plain by Francavilla to Torre Masdea, 28 M. from Tiriolo. 
Farther to the r. lies Pizzo, a small town on the coast (p. 218) 
where the steamers from Naples touch. A bridle-path, frequently 
in a bad state, leads hence by the coast to Tropea, beautifully 
situated near the Capo Vaticano, whence Stromboli and the 
Lipari Islands (R. 33) may be visited. 

The road, which runs near the coast, next leads to the 
loftily situated 

Monteleone, 42 M. from Tiriolo, with an ancient castle 
erected by Frederick II., the principal town of the district 
(10,262 inhab.), much damaged by the earthquake of 1783. 
A road leading N. to the coast (3 M.) passes through the village 
of Bivontt, on the site of the ancient Hipponium, which was 
subsequently the Roman colony Vibo Valentia, destroyed by the 
Saracens in 983. The road now traverses a hilly district to 
(972 ^- ) Mileto, once the favourite residence of Count Roger 
of Sicily, whose son, King Roger, was born here. The ruins of 
the abbey of S. Trinith founded by him are still seen, where 

to Begyio. PALMI. W. Route. 201 

his remains and those of his first wife Eremberga formerly re- 
posed in two sarcophagi, now in the museum at Naples. 

The mountains of Sicily, especially the summit of ^Etna, 
now become conspicuous in the horizon. 

From Mileto a mountain-path leads E. to the (20 M.) grand ruins of 
the once celebrated monastery of Santo Stefano del Bosco, situated in a 
lonely valley at the foot of the Apennines. Near the neighbouring village 
of Soriano, are the extensive ruins of the Dominican monastery of S. Do- 
iiienico Soriano, also destroyed by the earthquake of 1783 ; and, on the 
farther side of the low ridge of Monte Astore, the remains of the Certosa, 
in which in 1094 St. Bruno established his austere order of Carthusians, 
and where in 1101 he died and was interred. 

From Mileto the road gradually descends from the heights 
bounding the bay of Gioja on the N., and at (9>/ 2 M.J Rosarno 
enters the province of Calabria Ultra I. The picturesquely 
situated town (3456 inhab.J was destroyed by the earthquake 
of 1783. The plain is then traversed to Oioja, which occupies 
the site of the ancient Metaurum, a desolate looking place, 
situated on the coast to the r., and an extensive depot of oil. 
Owing to the prevalence of malaria here, the workmen always 
spend the night at Palmi. The Marro, the ancient Metaurus, 
is then crossed, a river celebrated for its fish. The effects of 
the earthquake of 1783 were especially violent in this neighbour- 
hood. The earth opened in many places, swallowing up houses. 
and filling up several valleys. 

On the coast to the r., not far from the high road, 11 M. 
from Rosarno, on a cliff which rises perpendicularly from the 
sea, is situated the singularly picturesque town of 

Palmi (no good innj, the capital of the district (9724 in- 
hab.), surrounded by orange and olive plantations, and com- 
manding magnificent views of the Faro, the fort of Scilla, the 
town and harbour of Messina, and the majestic /Etna in the 
background. The N. coast of Sicily is visible as far as Milazzo ; 
towards the sea Stromboli and the Lipari Islands ; to the N. 
the bay of Gioja as far as Capo Vaticano. Seminara, destroyed 
in 1783, 2'/ 2 M. to the S. E. of Palmi, was the scene of two 
important conflicts. In 1495 the French army conquered that of 
King Ferdinand II. under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and on April 
2ist, 1503, the French were conquered on nearly the same 
spot by the Spaniards under Ugo de Cardona, one of Gonsalvo's. 
most able generals. 

The road now traverses chestnut and olive plantations, 
affording a succession of fine views of the sea and the coast, to 
Bagnara (Locanda della Stella, tolerable quarters for the night), 
and Scilla, 12 M. from Palmi, the ancient Scylla, the castle of 
which rising on a narrow promontory commands the town. The 
silk and wine produced at Scilla enjoy a high reputation. 
Numerous sword-fish ( pesce spada ) are caught here in July. 

202 Route ;>0. RKGGIO. From Naples 

The castle, once the seat of the princes of Scilla, a branch of 
the Rufo family, was occupied by the English after the battle 
of Maida, and defended during 18 months (until 1808) against 
the French. 

The rock of Scylla, represented in Homer's Odyssey as a 
roaring and voracious sea-monster, is depicted by the poets in 
conjunction with the opposite C'harybdis, on account of the 
dangers encountered here by mariners, as a beautiful virgin 
above, and a monster with the body of a wolf and tail of a 
dolphin beneath. Of these terrors little is heard at the present 
day, although the currents in the straits are still very rapid. 
It is, however, now believed that the Charybdis of the ancients 
is by no means exactly opposite to the whirlpool of Scylla, as 
the saying Hncidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim appears 
to indicate, but outside the harbour of Messina, 71/2 M. from 
Scilla, at the point now called Oarofalo. 

On the morning of Feb. 5th, 1783, an earthquake almost 
entirely overthrew the town of Scilla, together with the castle, 
whilst the inhabitants fled to the sea. Towards evening a second 
shock rent the promontory asunder, and caused the sea to rise 
with such impetuosity that 1500 persons perished by drowning, 
and the ruins of the town were laid under water. 

The distance from the castle of Scilla to the promontory of 
Faro, the ancient Pelorum, between whioh the strait lies, is 
about 2 M. The passage to Messina is most conveniently effected 
from the beautifully situated Villa S. Qiovanni, to the S. of 
the Punta del Pezzo, 14 M. from Scilla. From that point a 
charming road, skirting the coast, and traversing gardens of 
oranges, pomegranates, palms, and aloes, leads by the villages 
of Oallico, Area, and 8. Caterina to (9^2 M.) 

Reggio (*Albergo Vittoria, Corso Garibaldi ; Cafe Garibaldi and 
Europa; Trattoria Lombarda, in a side-street of the Corse), the 
ancient Rhegium, originally an Euboean colony which was founded 
B. C. 723 by fugitive Messenians and soon rose to prosperity, 
now the capital of the province Calabria Ultra I. and an 
archiepiscopal residence, with a population of 15,692, or with 
the surrounding villages 32,258. The town with its spacious 
streets rises from the sea to the beautiful hills in the rear, 
studded with numerous and handsome villas. Nothing can sur- 
pass the singular beauty of the environs and the view of the 
Sicilian coast, especially in the evening, when the sun sets be- 
hind the mountains near Messina. The distance from the 
cathedral of Reggio to the lighthouse of Messina is about 4% M. 
The supposition that Sicily was once connected with the main- 
land was prevalent at a very early period, and is borne out by 
modern geological investigations. 

to Reggio. REGGIO. 20. Route. 203 

Reggio was almost entirely overthrown by the earthquake of 
1783, and therefore wears a modern aspect, to which the pre- 
vious history of the town has also contributed. It was first 
destroyed by the Romans, then in 549 by the Goth Totila, in 
918 by the Saracens, in 1005 by the Pisans, in 1060 by Robert 
Guiscard, then by Frederick Barbarossa, and finally in 1552 
and 1597 by the Turks. The cathedral contains nothing of 

In the rear of Reggio rises the imposing and forest-clad Aspromonle, 
the W. extremity of the range which in ancient times bore the name of 
Sila; the highest point is the Montalto (6907 ft.). The summit is over- 
grown with beech-trees, the slopes partly with pines. Here, in the vici- 
nity of Reggio, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner by the Italian 
troops under Pallavicini, Aug. 29th, 1862. The ascent, which is somewhat 
laborious, is best undertaken from Scilla. 

Between Reggio and Messina steamboat communication twice daily, fan: 
2 fr. ; boat to or from the steamer at Reggio 25 c. — Carriages may be hired 
in the Piazza Vittovio Emanuele. 


General Remarks. 

Strabo, the Greek geographer, in one place terras Sicily an 'addition', 
in another a 'detached portion 1 of Italy ; and there is indeed not one of 
the surrounding islands so intimately allied, geographically as well as 
historically, with the great peninsula which bisects the Mediterranean. 
Goethe has justly observed that, without Sicily, Italy would lose much 
of its charms. 'The climate cannot be too highly extolled; the beauties 
are innumerable/ This cannot fail to be experienced by every traveller 
who forms acquaintance with this 'pearl among islands'. Nor is the beauty 
of the scenery the sole attraction to the wanderer from the north. Those 
who possess even a superficial knowledge of history cannot but experience 
a profound interest in the places with which the most ancient Hellenic 
and Roman traditions are connected, where the destinies of Athens, Car- 
thage, and Rome have been decided, and where such heroes of the middle 
ages as Henry VI. and Frederick II. have ruled. Not a nation exists 
which has materially influenced the destinies of European civilisation, that 
has not left distinct traces of its activity in this island. 

Those whose time and resources permit are therefore strongly recom- 
mended to visit Sicily before proceeding homewards. A single week will 
suffice for an excursion to Palermo and its environs as far as Segesta. The 
celebrated ruins of Selinunto and Girgenti would require a second week. 
Those, however, whose taste leads them to prefer exploring the beautiful, 
imposing, and peculiar natural features of the island, should confine their 
attention to the N. and E. coast as far as Syracuse, for which a fortnight 
may suffice, without extending their tour to the ruins on the less picturesque 
S.W. angle. 

Travelling in Sicily is no longer attended with the difficulties and 
dangers of former years, but those who desire more than a mere super- 
ficial acquaintance with the island must be prepared for numerous priva- 
tions and considerable expense. Hotels worthy of the name are nowhere 
to be found except at Palermo, Messina, Taormina, Catania, Syracuse, and 
Trapani. Almost all those in other parts of the island are dirty, and often 
swarming with vermin. 

The circuit of the island is performed by steamers weekly. Palermo 
is their starting-point; principal stations Messina and Syracuse. 

The network of railways, with which the island is to be provided, has 
been commenced. The following portions of it are already open : (1) From 
Messina by Catania to Syracuse. 114 M. ; (2) From Catania to Leonforte, 
49 M., being a portion of the line to Girgenti or to Palermo; (3) From 
Palermo to Lercara, 48 M., part of the line to Girgenti. Until the com- 
pletion of these railways the traveller must often avail himself of other 
modes of conveyance. Carriages may be hired in all the larger towns, and 
when drawn by three horses travel with tolerable rapidity, accomplishing 
about 40 M. daily. The usual charge throughout the island for a carriage, 
when engaged for several days, is 20 — 25 fr. per diem, including toll-dues 
(la r^tena) and everything except a gratuity (buona mano, bottiglia) to the 
driver. For a party of 2 — 4 pers. this is the pleasantest mode of travelling, 

(j'eneral Bemarkz. SICILY 205 

but unfortunately a great part of the coast is accessible on foot or on 
horseback only. 

The following are the routes which may be accomplished by carriage 
from Palermo, the distances being given in Engl, miles (1 Sicil. Miglio = 
i'j 2 kilomet. =-. «| le Engl. M. = «| 5 Ital. M.) : 1. To Messina 220 M., by 
Misilmeri, Villafrate, Vallelunga, Castrogiovanni, Aderno (139 M.), Catania 
C162 M.), and Giardini (Taormina); or from Aderno by Bronte, Randazzo, 
etc. to Messina (215 M. only). From this main- route several other good 
carriage-roads diverge; a. S. Caterina to Caltanisetta ; b. From Catania to 
Lentini, Syracuse (47 M.), Noto (67'| 2 M.), Mortica, Ragusa, Vittoria (121 M.J, 
and Terranova; c. From Catania to Caltagirone (48 M.). — 2. From Pa- 
lermo to Girgenti by Lercara (88 M.j ; railway now finished to Lercara, 
48 M. — 3. From Palermo to Corleone by Parco (36!|a M.). — 4. From 
Palermo by Alcamo (30 M.) and Calatanmi* (40 M.) to Trapani (64 M.). — 
5. From Palermo (or Cerda) by Cefalii (45 M.), S. Stefano di Camastra 
(85 M.), and Milazzo (138 M.) to Messina (165 M.). — 6. From Trapani by 
Marsala (20 M.), Mazzara (31 M.), Castelvetrano (42 M.), and Salemi (52 M.) 
to Calatafimi (67>j 2 M.). — 7. From Syracuse to Palazzolo (28 M.). — The 
Sicilian miglio (see above) is the common standard of distance , but some 
acquaintance with the distances in kilometres (1 k. = 5 |s Engl. M.) on 
the post-routes is also desirable. — Accommodation in the diligences 
cannot always be reckoned upon , as no supplementary carriages are pro- 
vided. Passengers for the longer distances have the preference, and those 
who desire to avail themselves of the diligence at an intermediate station 
are never certain of obtaining a seat. This system encourages dishonesty 
on the part of the conductors, who frequently pretend seats are engaged, 
but assign them to the traveller for a consideration. The more modern 
vehicles are tolerable , the old very uncomfortable. A great advantage, 
however, of diligence-travelling is that, when danger is apprehended, an 
escort of carabineers is always provided. Postilion's fee 5 soldi. The 
omnibuses which compete with the diligences on the principal routes, 
the so-called 'Periodica', are still less inviting conveyances. 

Mules, on which about 30 M. a day can be accomplished, afford an- 
other mode of travelling. The tour from Palermo through the interior 
of the island, the so-called 'giro 1 , is most conveniently performed by making 
an arrangement with a guide (vetturino) which shall include hotel expenses, 
fees, and everything requisite for the journey. Giuseppe Aniello, the 
commissionaire of the Trinacria at Palermo, is generally considered the 
best vetturino in the island. His inclusive charges are as follows : for 
1 pers. with 2 mules 40 fr. per diem, 2 pers. with 4 mules 60 fr., 3 pers. 
with 5 mules 80 fr. , 4 pers. with 7 mules 90 fr. Other good vetturini can 
be recommended by the landlord of the Trinacria at Palermo. The land- 
lord Giuseppe Mazzaglia at Nicolosi also offers his services as a guide 
(comp. p. 302) at 15 — 20 fr. per day. This mode of travelling with a guide 
renders the traveller very independent, if the prolonged riding does not. 
prove too fatiguing , but it is gradually falling into disuse , now that 
public conveyances are better organised. Mules and guides may also be 
obtained for short excursions. The character of the Sicilians is polite 
and obliging : the traveller who is fortunate enough to obtain a letter 
of indroduction to a merchant or proprietor in the interior will ge- 
nerally be supplied by him with introductions to his friends in other 
districts. The charges for mules vary in different parts of the island, but 
the maximum may be stated at 10 fr. per diem, which should not be ex- 
ceeded. The attendant expects a trifling additional fee. If a mule be 
engaged with a guide who is also mounted, for a joiimey of several days, 
the entire charge does not exceed 7 — 10 fr. per diem. In this case, how- 
ever, if the traveller does not return to the point of starting, the return- 
journey must be paid for. Toll-dues 2 c. for each mule. The lettiga or 
litter, the lectica of the Romans, is still employed on the S.W. coast, but 
is an uncomfortable and expensive means of conveyance and should be 
avoided except in cases of illness. Those who ride should previously stipu- 
late for a good saddle (sella or sedda inglese), and not a 'bisazza senza 

206 SICILY. General Remarks. 

staffe\ i. e. a saddle without stirrups, such as the Sicilians use. On the 
conclusion of the bargain, it is usual to give 2 — 5 fr. as earnest-money 
(caparra) to the mulattiere, to be deducted from the final account. 

The safety of travellers in Sicily has been somewhat precarious since 
the events of 1860. The provinces of Messina and Catania, including Mt. 
iEtna, are regarded as perfectly safe. The most hazardous locality is the 
environs of Palermo. The city itself was attacked in September, 1866, 
by a band of 2000 freebooters, who after a fierce struggle were expelled 
by the troops. The following places are the most notorious haunts of 
brigands : Misilmeri, Ogliastro, Villafrate, Vallelunga, Termini, Parco, 
Jlonreale, Mezzojuso, Piana dei Greci, Corleone, Castellamare near Palermo, 
and finally the sulphur district near Girgenti, especially Favara, Palma, 
and Canieatti. During the day there is little ground for apprehension. 
Those who travel at night, and have the misfortune to be attacked, are 
recommended at once to quit their vehicle and not to attempt to offer 
resistance. In this case no more serious consequences will ensue than 
the loss of money and watch. 

The best seasons for travelling in Sicily are the months of April and 
May, or September and October. Even in January the weather is often 
fine and settled. The ascent of ^Etna in spring is possible, but the best 
period is August or September, after the first showers of autumn have 
cleared the atmosphere. The ascent is never absolutely impossible, but 
guides cannot always be procured. 

The Italian lire (francs) of 100 centesimi have been current in Sicily 
since 1861. The lower classes, however, especially in the interior, still 
employ the old oncie, tart, and grani: 1 oncia (Sicil. imza) = 12 fr. 75 c. = 
30 tari = 3 ducati di JVapoli = 10 s. 2'|2 d. ; 1 tari = 20 grani = 10 bajocchi 
= 42'|2 cent. — 4'|4<2. Besides Italian and French gold and silver, the old 
Neapolitan piastres (piastra, pezzo) are still in use : 1 piastre = 12 tari = 
5 fr. 10 c. = 4s. Id.; also i|j piastres, 2-tari and 1-tari pieces. Gold and 
silver coin is seen here as rarely as on the mainland. The banknotes of 
the Banca Nazionale and the Banca di Sieilia are in common circulation. 
Those of the Banca di Napoli cannot be exchanged except at a loss. On 
the other hand, notes of the Sicilian bank suffer a depreciation on the 
mainland. The premium on gold is from 1 to 2 per cent, lower than at 
Naples. — Besides the official metre the following standards of measure- 
ment are still employed : 1 carina = 8 palme = 2,065 mitres = 2'|4 yards. 
The palma is divided into 12 once; 1 palma = 10 Engl, inches, approxi- 
mately. The cantaro = 100 rotoli = 176 lbs., is the usual standard of 

The time required for a tour through the entire island of Sicily must 
vary greatly according to the season, the principal object in view, and the 
resources of the traveller. The following is a sketch of the most impor- 
tant routes. For Palermo the minimum is 3 days, to Alcamo 1, to Calata- 
fimi (Segesta) 1, to Castelvetrano 1, (to Trapani 1, Monte San Giuliano and 
Marsala 1, Castelvetrano 1), to Sciacca (Selinunto) 1, to Girgenti 1, at Gir- 
genti life, to Palma i| 2 , to Terranova 1, to Modica (Val d'Ispica) 1, to 
Palazzolo 1, to Syracuse 1, at Syracuse 2, to Catania 1, at Catania and 
ascent of jEtna 3, to Taormina 1, to Messina 1, in Messina 1, to Milazzo 1, 
to Patti (Tyndaris) 1, to S. Agata 1, to S. Stefano 1, to Cefalii 1, to Ter- 
mini 1, to Palermo 1 day. Thus the entire tour, performed on a mule, 
would occupy 30 — 32 days, and embrace the complete circuit of the island, 
i. e., exclusive of the indentations of the coast, about 535 M, For the sake 
of variety, however, the traveller will prefer to avail himself of other con- 
veyances when an opportunity offers. From Palermo to Messina by land 
in 4 — 5 days, or direct by railway and steamboat in 18 hrs. ; thence (if the 
latter mode of performing the journey be selected) to Milazzo and Patti 
(Tyndaris) and back in 3 days, to Taormina 1, to Catania 1, Catania and 
jEtna 3, to Syracuse 1, at Syracuse 2 days. By steamboat in 18 hrs. to 
Girgenti, where 1 — 2 days should be spent. Thence by diligence in 20 hrs. 
to Palermo, or on a mule in 2 days by Sciacca and Selinunto to Castel- 
vetrano. Then in 2 days by Calatanmi (Segesta), or, if Marsala and Tra- 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 207 

pani be included, in 4 days to Palermo by diligence or on a mule. A slight 
acquaintance with the interior may be obtained on a diligence journey of 
20 hrs. from Palermo to Girgenti. Or a journey of 22 hrs. from Palermo 
to Castrogiovanni (Enna), thence either by the main road to Catania by 
Aderno, or in 1 day by Piazza (Lacus Pergusa) to Caltagirone, and thence 
in 1 day to Catania by diligence. An approximately exhaustive tour cannot 
be accomplished in less than a month. 

The great majority of travellers proceed to Sicily via Naples. Steam- 
boats of the Messageries Maritimes also leave Marseilles for Messina every 
Saturday evening. From Genoa to Palermo one steamer weekly, touching 
at Leghorn and Civita Vecchia. From Naples to Messina and Palermo 
steamers almost daily, but Italian vessels only, as this line is at present 
discontinued by the Messageries. The larger vessels of the Peirano- 
Danovaro Co. are preferable to those of the Florio. Communication once 
weekly between the harbours of the Adriatic, the Bay of Taranto, and 
Messina. Messina is in weekly correspondence with the East, and also 
with Malta. To Sardinia and Tunis from Palermo every fortnight. 

Geography and Statistics. 

Sicily (Sicilia, Sikelia, Trinarria, Triquetra, in ancient times) is the 
largest island in the Mediterranean. Is area, according to the most recent 
measurements, amounts to 29,240 sq. kilometres, i. e. about 11,410 Engl, 
sq. M. The form of the island is an irregular triangle, the W. angle of 
which is the promontory of Lilybaeum, or Capo di Boeo, near Marsala, the 
N. E. angle the promontory of Pelorum (Capo del Faro) nearest the main- 
land, the S.E. angle the promontory of Pachunvm (Capo Passaro). The 
X. coast is 200, the E. 135, and the S. W. 177 Engl. M. in length. 

The island is mountainous. Three different ranges must be distin- 
guished. (1). The principal chain, a ramification from the Apennines, 
skirting the N. coast of the island, begins with the Faro di Messina, and 
at first runs parallel to the E. coast, the Monies Neptunii or Pelorian Mts. 
of antiquity. The highest point is the Dinnamari, near Messina, 3707 ft. ; 
other summits are the Scuderi near All, 4107 ft., and the Monte Venera 
near Taormina, 2897 ft. From the Pizzo di Bonavi, not far from the latter, 
the range turns to the W., and now bears the name of Nebrode. Diodorus 
Siculus also calls them the Heraean Mts. The highest points of this portion 
of the chain are the Monte S. Salvatore (Pizzo di Palermo) (6266 ft.) 
and the Pizzo Antenna (6480 ft.), S. of Cefalii. Here they are sometimes 
termed the Madonian Mts. Farther on, to the W. of Termini, the water- 
shed which the range has thus far formed between the African and Ionian 
seas is interrupted, and the mountains become detached and isolated. 
The highest mountain of this range is the Monte Cammarata (5172 ft.), 
between Termini and Girgenti. The highest point to the W. ofPalermo is the 
Monte Cuccio (3445 ft.). Those most remarkable on account of their situation 
and form are the Monte S. Calogero near Termini (4347 ft.), the Monte 
Pellegrino near Palermo (1958 ft.), and the Monte S. Oiuliano near Trapani 
(2464ft.). — (2). The plateaus of the S.E. angle (Heraean Mts., of which 
Monte Lauro, to the N. of Palazzolo, is the highest summit, 3231 ft.) and 
the S. coast, consisting of primary and fossiliferous limestone. This 
district contains the sulphur mines of the island, which are comprised 
within a space bounded by the African sea, on the S. W., the road from 
Girgenti to Lercara on the W., and by that from Lercara to Centorbi 
(and a line drawn thence to the E. coast) on the N. — (3). Ml. jEtna, 
the most recent formation, rises to a height of 10,840 ft., and is com- 
pletely detached from the other mountains by the valleys of the Cantara 
and Simeto. The watershed between these rivers, however, to the N. W. 
of .flitna, attains a considerable height (3792 ft.). 

The island contains no plains of any extent. To the S. of Catania 
stretches the most considerable, the Piano di Catania (Ager Leontinus, Campi 

208 SICILY Geography and Statistics. 

Laeslrytjonii) between the rivers Simeto and Gurnalunga. The plains of 
the coast, of Terranova (Campi Qeloi), Licata, and Milazzo, may also be 

The island suffers greatly from want of water in consequence of the 
removal of the ancient forests. The greater number of the rivers are im- 
petuous and destructive torrents in winter, frequently rendering the roads 
impassable, whilst in summer they are generally dry. The beds thus formed 
are termed fiumara, Sicil. ciumara. The principal rivers, which are crossed 
by boats, are the Oiarretta, formed by the union of the Simeto and Gur- 
nalunga, the Fiume Salso ( Himera Meridionalis) near Licata, the Fiume 
Platani, to the W. of Girgenti, and the Fiume Belici, between Sciacca and 
Castelvetrano. The Cantara is crossed by a bridge. The completion of 
the road on the N. coast from Palermo to Messina is only retarded by the 
innumerable bridges which must necessarily be constructed. 

In consequence of the want of water, which is sold in the neighbour- 
hood of the towns and in the gardens in jets of the thickness of a quill, 
(be once luxuriant fertility of the island has greatly decreased. The wheat, 
which with barley and beans is almost exclusively cultivated here, yields 
on an average a seven-fold return. It is largely exported on account of 
the excellence of the quality, and an inferior description imported for 
home consumption. The quantity produced has, however, been consider- 
ably diminished by the conversion of much of the arable land into cotton 
plantations. The peculiar farm-tenure, inferior agricultural implements, 
and occasional deficiency of hands, which is supplied in many parts by 
peasants from Calabria, are also unfavourable to the agricultural prosperity 
of the country. The fields, like those in Sardinia and N. Africa, are 
enclosed by cactus-hedges, which frequently attain a considerable height. 
Their frui , the cactus-tig, of a sweetish, somewhat insipid taste, is much 
esteemed by the natives. The export of cotton, sumach, and linseed forms 
an important branch of commerce. Other products exported are oranges, 
lemons, citrons, and their essential oils, almonds, olive oil, wine (Marsala, 
Riposso, Catania, Vittoria, Siracusa), nuts, capers, soda, pistachios, manna, 
liquorice, lentils, and raisins. Animal products : silk, hides, wool, ancho- 
vies, tunny-fish, and cantharides. Mineral products : sulphur, salt, and 
marble. The island possesses no mines of the precious metals or of coal. 
A large proportion of the merchants are now Germans, while during the 
last century they were almost exclusively English. About two-thirds of 
the manufactured goods imported into Sicily, as well as Italy, pass through 
the hands of Swiss and German merchants. The statistics with respect 
to the exports and imports are untrustworthy, but it is ascertained that 
the former are far more considerable than the latter. This will be still 
more the case as agriculture advances in consequence of the secularisation 
of monasteries, the partition of the vast landed estates, and the promotion 
of the public safety. 

Mineral Baths, most of them sulphureous, and celebrated in ancient 
times, are established at Sciacca on the Monte S. Calogero (Therms' 
Selinuntinse), at Termini (Ther. Himerenses), at Termini near Barcellona,_ 
and at Ali near Messina. The bath-arrangements are very defective, those 
at the two Termini being the best. 

The Population of the island according to the extremely inaccurate 
census of Jan. 1st, 1862, amounts to 2,391,802, i. e. on an average 206 souls 
per Engl. sq. M. Out of 1000 inhab. about 88 only can read and write, 10 
read and write imperfectly, and 902 are totally uneducated (1864). National 
schools are now, however, everywhere established, and the towns possess 
commercial (scuola tecnica) and grammar schools. Palermo, Catania, and 
Messina even boast of universities, but the two latter are very insignificant. 
Public libraries (in addition to those of the universities) are established at 
Palermo (two), Trapani, and Syracuse. The institution and endowment of 
national libraries has been commenced in several other places, e. g. at 
Termini. Monastic libraries of considerable extent are to be found at 
Catania (S. Niccolo), San Martino near Palermo, and Messina (Salvatore dei 
Greci). "Palermo, 'Syracuse, Catania, and Messina possess museums. 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 209 

The island was formerly divided into three districts, dating from the 
Saracen period to the beginning of the present century : Val (Welaia) di 
Demone, the N. E. portion; Val di Noto, the S.E. ; Val di Mazzara, the 
S. W. Since 1817 it has been divided into 7 prefectures : 1. Palermo, 
with 584,929 inhab. ; 2. Trapani, with 214,981; 3. Girgenti, with 263,880; 
4. Caltanisetta, with 223,178; 5. Catania, with 450,460; 6. Siracusa, with 
259,613; 7. Messina, with 394,761. 

The principal towns (statements of population exclusive of adjoining 
villages) are: Palermo with 167,625 inhab., Messina 62,124, Catania 64,921, 
Modica 27,449, Trapani 26,334, Termini 25,780, Acireale 24,151, and Calta- 
girone 22,015. Of the 123 towns in the kingdom of Italy which contain 
above 10,000 inhab. upwards of one-quarter belong to Sicily. This is ex- 
plained by the fact, that in consequence of the constant wars of the mddle 
ages, the predatory incursions of barbarians, and the insecure state of the 
country, the peasantry were prevented from living in villages, and have 
therefore mainly contributed to swell the population of the towns. The 
island possesses a number of good harbours on the E. coast, especially 
those of Messina, Agosta, and Syracuse. The harbour of Catania is unsafe. 
On the S. coast the vessels in the sulphur-trade lie in the roads of Terra- 
nova, Licata, and Girgenti. The harbour of Marsala is shallow, that of 
Trapani is better. The new harbour at Palermo has been formed by the 
construction of the molo. That of Milazzo is excellent. 

Historical Notice. 

1. Political History. 

First Peiiiod. According to the traditions of ancient Greek mariners, 
Sicily was once inhabited by Cyclopes, Gigantes, Lotophagi, Lgestry- 
gunes, etc., whom Sicilian historians have endeavoured to classify into 
iron-workers, farmers, gardeners, etc. The most ancient people who in- 
habited Sicily appear to have been theElymi,who occupied Egesta ( Segesta), 
Eryx (Monte San Givliano) with the harbour of Drepanum ( Trapani), and 
Entella. They were anciently supposed to be descended from the Trojans, 
and probably belonged to the great Ligurian race, which once occupied the 
greater part of Italy. They were supplanted by a second band of immi- 
grants, and compelled by the Sicani to confine themselves to the limited 
district on the Eryx. The latter are believed by Humboldt to have been 
of Basque, by others of Celtic origin. It is mure probable, however, that 
they belonged to an Italian race. They, too, in their turn, were driven 
towards the W., where they still existed within the limits of the historical 
period, e. g. at Hykkara (Carini). The deserted territory of the Sicani on 
the E. coast of the island was then taken possession of by the Sikeli 
(Siculi = reapers), a Latin tribe which immigrated from the mainland at 
a pre-historical period. Their principal towns were: Hadranum (Adernb), 
Hybla Minor ( Paternb), Geniuripae (Centorbi), Agyrimn ( S. Filippo d'Argirb), 
Assorus (Assaro), Herbita (Nicosia), Morgantia (Mandribianelii), Palica 
( Pallagonia), Menaeum (Mineo), Kephaloediitm (defalk), Kalakte (Ca- 
ronia), etc. With these Siculi the Greeks subsequently came in collision, 
when they began to found their colonies on the E. coast of the island. 
At an earlier period indeed Phoenicians had founded settlements on the 
promontories and adjacent islets, and disseminated the tenets of their reli- 
gion, but the Greeks were the first who demeaned themselves as conque- 
rors and occupiers of the soil, after Theocles from Athens with a band of 
emigrants from Chalcis in Euboea had, B. C. 735, founded Naxos at the 
mouth of the Cantara and erected an altar to Apollo Archagetas. During 
the following year Dorians from Corinth under Archias founded Syracuse, 
and 4 years later (730) Theocles laid the foundations of Leontinoi and 
Katana, after (in 732) Zancle- Messana had been peopled by immigrants from 
Cyme and Chalcis. In 728 Megara Hyblaea on the bay of Agosta was 
Bjeueker. Italy III. 3rd Edition. 14 

21 (» SICILY. Historical Notice. 

founded by immigrants from Lamia, in 690 Gela ( Terranova) by Rhodians 
and Cretans, in 664 Acrae (Palazzolo) and Enna by Syracuse, in 648 Himera 
by Zancle and Selinus by Megara Hyblfea, in 599 Camarina near Vittoria 
by Syracuse, in 582 Acragas (Girgenti) by Gela. These dates show how 
rapidly the Hellenic power spread over Sicily, and how incapable the 
Sikeli, separated as they were into different tribes, must have been of 
offering effectual resistance. They now became tributaries of the Greeks and 
were compelled as serfs to cultivate the land, whilst the Greek nobility, 
the proprietors of the soil, ruled in the cities. But about the middle of the 
6th cent, the Hellenisation of Sicily, as well as of the entire \V. basin of the 
Mediterranean, experienced a check, in consequence of the close alliance 
into which the Italians had entered with Carthage. The Greek colonies 
were at the same time weakened by internal political dissension. About the 
year 5U0 we find tyrants ruling over most of the cities, of whom Qelon of 
Syracuse and T/ieron of Acragas, united by ties of family and interest, rescued 
the Greek sway from the perils which threatened it, when, contemporane- 
ously with the 2nd Persian war, the Carthaginians waged war against the 
Greeks of the western sea. The battle of Himera did not save Himera 
alone. The short but brilliant golden age of Hellenic Sicily now began, 
sullied only by the destruction of the Chalcidian towns of the E. coast 
by Gelon and Hiero. The greater number of the temples, aqueducts, etc. 
at Syracuse, Girgenti. Selinunto, Himera (Bonfornello), etc., the ruins of 
which excite such admiration at the present day, arose between 480 and 
450. But internal municipal struggles, fomented by the democratic parties 
of the different cities, and the renewed antagonism of the Doric and Ionic- 
Achfean elements paved the way for a catastrophe, to which the great 
Athenian campaign against. Syracuse in 413 contributed. Previously to 
this the Greeks bad had a formidable enemy to subdue in Dvcelins of 
Xeetum (Noto), who united the towns of the Sikeli in a confederacy against 
the Greeks (461 — 440), but this league was compelled to succumb to the 
united forces of Syracuse and Acragas. What the Sicilians had failed in 
effecting was now attempted with more success by the great power of 
Africa. After the battle of Himera the Africans had been confined to the 
possession of Pauonnvs (Palermo), Soloeis ( 8ofanto), and Motye (lsola di 
S. Pantaleo), but they now overran the whole island with a numerous 
army. Selinus and Himera were destroyed by them in 409, Acragas taken 
in 406, Gela and Camarina conquered and rendered tributary to Carthage 
in 405, Messana razed to the ground in 396. These events were instru- 
mental in causing the rise of Dionysivs I. in Syracuse, who extended and 
fortified the town, and after a war of varied success finally drove back the 
Carthaginians in 382 to the Halycus (Platani). Till 365 Dionysius was 
master of the destinies of Syracuse, and with it of Sicily. On his death 
dissensions began anew. Dionysius 11. was inferior to his father, Dion 
able as- a philosopher only. Timoleon, however, succeeded in 344 — 336 in 
restoring some degree of order, conquered the Carthaginians in 340 on the 
Crimissus (Fiume Freddo), and restricted their territory to the W. Halycus. 
But even his brilliant example availed little to arrest the increasing dege- 
neracy of the people. In 317 — 289 Agathocles usurped the sovereignty of 
Syracuse, and in 310 the Carthaginians besieged the city, although unsuc- 
cessfully. Pyrrhus too, who had wrested the entire island as far as Lily- 
bseum from the Carthaginians, soon quitted it again for Italy (278 — 276), 
dissatisfied with the prevailing anarchy and disunion. In 274 Hiero 11. 
usurped the tyranny of Syracuse. His siege of Messana, of which Cam- 
panian mercenaries, Mamertines, had treacherously taken possession, com- 
pelled the latter to sue for Roman aid. Thus it was that the Romans 
obtained a footing in the island, and the struggle between them and the 
Carthaginians, who had supported Hiero, now began. The chequered 
contest for the sovereignty of Sicily lasted from 264 to 241. Hiero, who 
in 263 had become an ally of Rome, was now invested with the partial 
sovereignty of the island, which was divided between Rome and Syracuse 
after the final expulsion of the Carthaginians. After the death of Hiero II. 
his successor Hieronymns espoused the cause of Hannibal, in consequence 

Historical Notice. SICILY. "211 

of which Syracuse was besieged by Marcellus in 214—212. taken, and sacked. 
In 210, after the conquest of Agrigentum, the entire island became the first 
Roman province and was divided into two districts or qua'Sturre, Lilybetana 
(with the capital l.ilybseum, now Marsala) and Syracusana. 

Second Period. At lirst the Romans endeavoured to improve the agri- 
culture of the island which had suffered seriously during the protracted wars, 
with a view to render Sicily a more proii tabic province. The system of 
cultivation borrowed from the Carthaginians was indeed successfully em- 
ployed in rendering Sicily the granary of Italy, but at the same time it 
proved the occasion of liie Herpile Wars (135 — 132 and 103 — 100), which 
devastated the island to a greater extent than the Punic wars. Under the 
Roman governors the ancient prosperity of Sicily steadily declined. The 
notorious Verres despoiled the island of its most costly treasures of art in 
73 — TO. The civil war between Se.rtus Pompeius and Octavius, especially 
that of 42—36, also accelerated its ruin, so that Augustus was obliged in 
a great measure to repcople the island and re-erect the towns. But its 
prosperity was irrevocably gone. With regard to the dissemination of 
Christianity in Sicily numerous traditions are current, and are preserved in 
the different martyrologies. It is recorded (Acts XXVIII, 12) that St. Paul 
landed at Syracuse on his journey to Rome and spent three days there, but 
the ultimate establishment of Christianity appears to have emanated from 
Rome, and to have been the subsequent occasion of several martyrdoms. 
Numerous Christian martyrs sulfered at Lentini, notwithstanding which, 
the new religion spread rapidly over the island about the middle of the 
3rd cent., so that the Xeoplatonic Porphyrins, who spent a considerable 
time in Sicily, and his pupil Probus of Lilybieuin wrote their refutations 
in vain. Cottstautiue, however, was the first who formally sanctioned 
Christianity in the island. As late as the 6th cent, heathens still existed 
here, and the Paulicians found adherents at a later date. It is now, how- 
ever, the boast of the Sicilians that their island has never produced a 
prominent heretic, and as late as 1S60 the minister of ecclesiastical affairs 
expressed himself in praise of the unity of the Sicilians in matters of religion. 
The Spanish inquisition found but few victims here. The Sicilian of the 
present day is, however, far from being intolerant, and the majority of 
the educated classes exhibit considerable indifference with regard to these 

After another servile war had devastated the country (A. D. 259), 
Syracuse began, in 278, to suffer from the incursions of barbarian hordes, 
when it was plundered by a mere handful of wandering Franks. In 
B. C. 27 Sicily had become the first of the 10 senatorial provinces, accord- 
ing to Augustus' distribution of the empire, then a province of the diocese 
of Italy, according to the arrangement of Diocletian, but in 395 it was 
separated from the W. and attached to the E. empire, whereby it escaped 
the fate of neither. In 440 Qeiserich besieged Palermo and conquered 
Lilybaeum (Marsala), and the Ostrogoths took possession of the island, 
whence they were again expelled by Belisarius (535). Pope Gregory 1. 
manifested a zealous interest in promoting the civilisation of the island. 
Constans II. even transferred the seat of the E. empire to Syracuse in 663, 
but he was murdered there in 668, and the city was plundered by the 
Arabians the following year. 

Tuiimi Period. In 827 the Saracens , under Ascd-ibn-Forrdt , induced 
by the governor Euphemius, landed nearMazzara. Three years later Palermo 
fell into their hands, which city now became the capital, and swayed the 
destinies of the island. The Saracens, conquering one city after another, 
overran the whole island, and in 878 Syracuse was taken by Ibraliim-ibn- 
Ahmed. Although the Christians could now maintain themselves in the 
N. E. angle of the island only, and even here were deprived of Taormina 
in 901, and finally of Rametta in 965, yet the establishment of a lasting 
peace was rendered impossible by their unalterable antagonism to their Ara- 
bian and Barbarian conquerors, which continually led to sanguinary con- 
flicts. To these evils were added the changes of dynasty. At first the 
Aghlabites of Kairwan ruled. Then Sicily became an independent emirate 


212 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

under the Fatimide Son-reigns of Egypt. The latter half of the 10th cent, 
was the. most prosperous period of Sicily under the Mohammedan sway. 
But the sanguinary struggles <>f the Sunnites and Sohiites in Africa, where 
the Ziritcs had usurped the supremacy, were soon transplanted hither, and 
the insurrection of several cities accelerated the downfall of the Arabian 
dynasty. In spite uf these unfavourable circumstances, the prosperity of 
the island had during this period considerably increased, and agriculture, 
industry, and commerce had progressed so greatly that the Norman con- 
querors found the island a most valuable acquisition. 

Robert and Roger de Hauteville, sons of Tancred of Hauteville in Nor- 
mandy, had on the invitation of their elder brothers, who had declared 
themselves Counts of Apulia, arrived in Italy. Robert, subsequently sur- 
named Gt/iscard, i. e. 'the Shrewd 1 , compelled the pope to invest him with 
the Duchy of Apulia, and then proceeded from Milcto with his brother 
Roger to conquer Sicily in 1061, after Ibn-Thimna of Syracuse had already 
invoked their aid. The first expedition did not immediately produce the 
desired result. But ten years later they returned, and by 1090 the entire 
island was subdued. In 1127 the line of Robert Guiscard became extinct, 
the second son of Roger (Rvggiero) united the whole of the Norman con- 
quests under his sceptre, and caused himself to be crowned as king at 
Palermo in 1130. During his reign Sicily prospered, and its fleets con- 
quered the Arabians and the Greeks, from whom they wrested a portion 
of ancient Greece (Romania). He was succeeded by his second son William 
(1154 — 1166), surnamed by the monkish and feudal chroniclers '■the Bad\ 
who was followed by his son William II. 'the Good" (d. 1189). After the 
death of the latter a contest as to the succession arose. William II. had 
given his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger, to Henry VI., son of Frederick 
Barbarossa in marriage, and that monarch now laid claim to the crown. 
The Sicilians, however, declared themselves in favour of Tancred, a natural 
son of Roger. On his death shortly afterwards he was succeeded by his 
son William. III., whom Henry VI. had less difficulty in subduing (1194). 
Henry did not long enjoy his conquest, and died at Messina in 1197. He 
was succeeded by the Emperor Frederick II., as Frederick I. of Sicily, 
whose activity in behalf of Sicily has been so highly extolled by posterity. 
In 1250—54 his second son Conrad occupied the throne; then Manfred 
until the battle ofBenevento in 1266, and in 1268 Charles of Anjou caused 
the last scion of the Germanic imperial house to be executed (see p. 45). 

Fouktii Pekioo. Charles of Anjou and Provence maintained his su- 
premacy in Sicily, with which he had been invested by Pope Clement IV., 
for but a brief period. The massacre of the Sicilian Vespers (1282) was an 
expiation of the death of Conradin. Messina defended itself heroically 
against the attacks of Charles ; and Peter of Arragon, son-in-law of Manfred, 
became master of the island. But its decline dates from this period. It 
was repeatedly devastated by the interminable wars with the Anjous of 
Naples, and the nobility attained to such power as to render systematic 
administration on the part of the government impossible. When in 1410 
Sicily became an appanage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain, it still 
retained a semblance of independence in its continued freedom of internal 
administration. But this very privilege proved prejudicial to it, whilst its 
external defence against the barbarians was neglected. Not till 1812 was 
Sicily rescued from the condition of a purely mediaeval feudal state, but 
only to experience once more ( I S 1 5 — - 1 860) the evils of a despotic govern- 
ment. The following is a chronological sketch of the history of this period 
of 6 centuries : 
a. 1282—1285. Peter of Arragon, King of Sicilv. 

1285—1296. James the Just. 

1296—1337. Frederick II. 

1337—1342. Peter II., co-regent from 1321. 

1342—1355. Louis. 

1355—1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis. 

1377 — 1402. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 1485 to Martin 
of Arragon. 

History of Art. SICILY. 213 

1402—1409. Martin I. sole monarch of Sicily, married to Bianca of 

1409—1410. Martin 11., lather of Martin 1. 
J 410— 1412. Interregnum, 
h. 1412—1416. Ferdinand the Just. Kins of Arragon and Castille. 

1416 — I4f)8. Alphonso the Generous, King of Arragon and after 1442 King 

of Naples. 
1458 — 1479. John of Arragon and Navarre. 

14T9— 1515. Ferdinand 11. the Catholic, after 150") also King of Naples. 
1516—1554. Kmp. Charles V. 
1554—1598. Philip II. 
1598—1621. Philip III. 

1621 — 1665. Philip IV. ; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, Giuseppe Alessi. 
1665—1700. Charles II.; 1672—16(8, Messina revolted in favour of 

Louis XIV. of France. 
1700— 1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 King of Spain. 
1713—1720. Victor Amadeus of Savoy. 
1720—1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germany. 

c. 1734 -1759. Charles III. of Bourbon. 

1159—1806. Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily, married to Caro- 
line, the profligate daughter of Maria Theresa, was com- 
pelled in 1798 to fly from Naples to Sicily before the French 
under Championnet, and again in 1806. 

d. 1806-1815. Ferdinand IV. sole King of Sicily. Owing to the influence 

of William Benfinck the constitution of Sicily was estab- 
lished and a parliament summoned |ISI2). 

ISI5- 1825. Ferdinand IV. reigned as Ferdinand I.. 'King of the two 
Sicilies'. The constitution subverted. 1820, Revolution at 
Palermo and throughout the island for the restoration of 
the constitution. 

1825-1830. Francis I. 

1 830 -1859. Ferdinand II.; 1837, cholera-revolution; 1848-1849, Sicily 
ruled by a temporary government, parliament at Palermo : 
bombardment of Messina. 

IS59 -1860. Francis II. 

Fifth Pi imod: 

186(1— Victor Emmanuel. King ofltaly : Mav 11th, Garibaldi landed 

at Marsala; .May 15th, battle of Calatalimi ; May 27th, cap- 
ture of Palermo; July 20th, Battle of Milazzo. — Since 
September, 1860, Sicily has been incorporated with the 
Kingdom of Italy, and, notwithstanding the still prevailing 
brigandism and the insurrection of 1866 at Palermo, bids 
fair to becomi' more prosperous than at any period of its 
past history. 

2. History of Civilisation and Art. 

Almost every one of the nuno-ruiis nations which in the course of 
centuries have inhabited or governed Sicily has left behind it some trace 
uf its peculiar capacity for art, modified, however, at the same time, by 
tie* characteristics peculiar to Sicily, and therefore in most cases bearing 
a Sicilian stamp. Cicero has observed that the Sicilian is never so miser- 
able as to be unable to utter a bon-mot, and a similar opinion might be 
expressed at the present day. The Sicilians of all ages have displayed 
decided, though not brilliant abilities. Their wit, How of conversation, and 
power of repartee were universally known to the ancients. It was not, 
therefore, the result of mere chance that Greek comedy attained its earliest 
development here, and that bucolic poetry originated in Sicily, where to 
this day the natives delight in rural life. Sicily has in all ages produced 
admirable speakers, although rather sophists and phraseologists than great 
orators. In the studv of the historv of their island the natives have ever 

2 1 1 SICILY History of Art. 

displayed the utmost zeal, and tor the concrete sciences as far as they are 
connected with practical lite, such as mechanics and medicine, they possess 
considerable ability. In the manufacture of objects of an artistic character 
(in opposition to pure works of art), as in architecture, the art of engraving, 
the composition of representations in mosaic, etc., the Sicilians have in al] 
ages distinguished themselves. 

The monuments of Sikelian culture of the pre-Hellenic period still 
preserved in Sicily merit a more minute investigation than has hitherto 
faJlen to their share. Of these the most important are: the Subterranean 
Cities with which the S. E. angle of the island is replete, the so-called 
Didieri of Yal d'Ispica, Palazzolo, Panteliea, etc.. the Tombs of Phoenician (V) 
immigrants at Palazzolo with remarkable reliefs, the Phoenician Burial 
vaults near Solanto, the germ of the more recent excavation of catacombs, 
thf Polygonal Structures at Cefalii, and the colossal ruins on Monte Artesino. 

The Mt-tojiae of Selinus, mementoes of the most ancient style, form the 
transition to the Hellenic sculpture. Some of the most magnificent 
Greek temples still extant have been erected in Sicily: Temple of Zeus at 
Selinus 376 ft. long, 177 ft. broad;, Temple of Zeus at Girgeuti 356 ft. long, 
174 broad (Parthenon at Athens 229 ft. 1., 101 ft. br. \ Temple of Zeus at 
Olvmpia 233 ft. 1., 97 ft. br. ; Temple of Apollo at Phigalia 195 ft. 1., 75 ft. 
br. ; Temple of Diana at Ephesus 388 ft. 1., 187 ft. br.). The Ruined Tem- 
ples at Girgeuti, Segesta, Selinunto, Syracuse, and Himera are nowhere 
surpassed. The Theatres of Syracuse, Taormina, Segesta, Tyndaris, Pa- 
lazzolo, and Catania have indeed been somewhat modified by additions 
during the Roman period, but the Greek origin of their foundations and 
arrangements may easily lie recognised. The fortifications of the Epipolae 
of Syracuse are the best existing specimens of Greek structures of the kind. 
Comparatively few Sculj>tures of Greek execution have come down to us. 
Among these may be mentioned the more recent metopee of Selinus. in the 
museum at Palermo, and a few relics preserved at Syracuse. Of Bronzes, 
in the casting of which Perilaos of Agrigentum and Pythagoras of Lentini 
excelled, scarcely a single specimen lias survived. On the other hand a 
copious collection of the finest ancient Coins in the world has come down 
to us. Beautiful Vases are likewise found in almost every part of the 
island. The climax of the prosperity of the Sicilian Greeks was contem- 
poraneous with that of their mother-country. This is not proved by their 
architecture alone. About the year 550, Stesichoros of Himera perfected 
the Greek chorus by the addition of the epode to the strophe and 
antistrophe. jEschylns resided long 7 in Sicily, where he died (456), and 
was interred at Gela. Pindar, Sap>pho, and Alcaeus also enjoyed the hos- 
pitality of Sicily, and sang the praises of the victories of her sons al 
Olympia. Simon ides composed appropriate lines for the gift dedicated to 
the gods by Gelon after the battle of Himera in 480. Phormt's, an officer 
of Gelon at Syracuse, who invented moveable scenes, Epicharmus in 480, 
Sophron in 460. and Xeuarcltus in 460 distinguished themselves in the com- 
position of comedies. Nothing is more characteristic of the Sicilian enthu- 
siasm for art. than the story that the Syracusans once set at liberty several 
Athenian prisoners, who were languishing in the latomia? (or quarries in 
which captives were condemned to labour), because they knew how to recite 
the verses of Euripides with pathos. Even during the periodk of decline 
the national poetical bias was still pre-eminent, and gave birth to a new 
description of poetry, the idyls, in which their inventor Theocritus of 
Syracuse was unsurpassed, and which even in modern times have found 
numerous admirers. 

The Sicilians have never manifested much capacity for philosophical 
research, although not entirely without taste for studies of this nature. 
Pythagoras found followers here. Xenophaucs of Elea died in Syracuse 
at an advanced age. Plato thrice visited Syracuse. But the most illustri- 
ous Sicilian thinker was Einpedocles of Acragas, distinguished as a natural 
philosopher, and also as a practical statesman, physician, architect, and 
orator. The names of a number of eminent physicians are recorded: 
Pausanias, Acrott, Herodicus, Menccrates. The distinguished Celsxts was 

History of Art. SICILY. 215 

also a Sicilian, born ;it Centuripse. Distinguished historians were: Ait- 
tiochus, Philistus of Syracuse, Timaeus of Taormina, Dicaearchvs of Messana, 
and the learned Diodorus (tiiatlits) of Agyrium, who wrote his celebrated 
Bibliotheca Historica in the reign of Augustus. The most brilliant of the 
numerous orators were Corax and Thisias^ teacher of Isocrates, Gorgias 
and Lysias (Gorgias, the celebrated Greek sophist and orator, was a native 
of Leontinoi, and Lysias was the son of a Syracusan). Among the ma- 
thematicians and mechanicians Archimedes was the most distinguished. 
Xicetas of Syracuse was one of the first who taught that the earth moved 
and the. sun remained stationary. Of theoretical musicians Arhtoxenun of 
Selinus deserves mention. 

The Roman-Byzantine supremacy gave the death-blow to the intellec- 
tual activity of the Sicilians. The soldier who slew Archimedes may be 
regarded as symbolical of this epoch. No architectural remains, save a few 
amphitheatres, theatres, and aqueducts, date from this period. The rapacity 
of Verres and other governors despoiled the island of innumerable treasures 
of art. New works were not undertaken. The Christians possessed no 
churches, but employed the catacombs for sacred purposes. A single Byzan- 
tine church of small dimensions near Malvagna alone remains from this 
period. A proof of the abject, condition to which Sicily had sunk is the 
circumstance that down to a late period of the Mussulman supremacy not 
a single author of eminence arose, although innumerable monks and priests 
resided in the island. Theophanes Cerameus (842) and Petrus Siailus, the 
historian of the Maniehseans, alone deserve mention. The wandering Sa?> 
Simeon of Syracuse died at Treves. 

The Mohammedans were the first to infuse new life into the island. 
They enriched the architectural art with new forms of construction and 
decoration (pointed arch), and although no perfect specimens of their 
works are preserved (the Cuba, Zisa, etc. were altered during the "Norman 
period), yet the influence they exercised on mediaeval architecture is still 
distinctly recognised. The Arabians also inaugurated a new era in history 
and geography, and under King Kuggiero the first mediaeval geographer 
Fdrisi completed his great work (Nushat-ul-Muschtak). Among the Mo- 
hammedan Kasides (poets) Ibn-Hamdis was the most conspicuous. Art 
developed itself to a still greater extent under the Xovman rule; and, 
although Henry VI. despoiled the island of many treasures (e. g. the German 
imperial robes now at Vienna), his son Frederick II. rendered ample com- 
pensation. The Norman princes and their illustrious pai'tizans have im- 
mortalised their memory by such monuments as the cathedrals of Cefalu 
(best mosaics), Palermo, Messina, Monreale. Catania, S. Maria dell 1 Am- 
miraglio (Martorana), the Capella Palatina at Palermo, etc. The importance 
they attached to learning is proved by the fact that they were in the 
habit of summoning the most erudite men of the East (e. g. Petrus Ble- 
sensis) to instruct their young princes. Whilst the Arabians deserve 
commendation for the introduction of the best commercial products (grain, 
cotton, sumach, etc.) which the island possesses, the Norman princes esta- 
blished the manufacture of silk \ and a school for the arts of weaving and 
the composition of mosaic was maintained in the royal palace. The bril- 
liant reign of Frederick II., his legislative merits, and his zealous promotion 
of every art and science are well known. At his court at Palermo the 
Italian language developed itself so as to become a written language, and 
his counsellors, his sons, and even he himself made the first attempts at 
Italian poetry. Of Frederick II., Manfred, Enzius, Ciullo of Alcamo, Peter 
de VineiSy Gvido delle Colonne, Stefano, Mazeo da Riccho of Messina, Rai- 
nieri of Palermo, Arrigo Testa of Lentini, etc. poems are still preserved 
to us. But this golden age was of brief duration. Amid the vicissitudes 
of subsequent centuries all intellectual superiority became extinct. Even 
the chroniclers manifest distinct traces of this degeneracy. Whilst well 
written and interesting chronicles of Sicily were composed in the 13th 
cent. {Hugo Falcando, Neocastro, etc.), those of a later period are almost 
unreadable. The revival of classical studies, however, infused new life 
into the inert condition of literature. At the close of the 15th cent. 

'2 1 6 SICILY. History of Art. 

Messina distinguished itself by its promotion of Greek studies. Here Con- 
stantine Lascarh taught, and Bessarion was archimandrite. The following 
century produced the learned and indefatigable Thomas Fazello of Sciacca 
(d. 1570), the originator of Sicilian history and topography. His work 
was completed by the historian Maurolpcus of Messina. 

At the same time the tine arts had revived in Sicily. Until recently, 
although without sufficient foundation, it was asserted that Italy was in- 
debted for the introduction of oil-painting exclusively to Anionelto of Mes- 
sina (born in J 44*2 ^ works by him at Messina and Palermo, but the most 
important are al Paris, Berlin, and Antwerp ; not to be confounded with 
other artists of the same name). Girolamo Alibrandi, a younger contem- 
porary of his, has been surnamed the 'Raphael of Messina 1 . Polidoro 
Caldara, surnamed da Caravaggio, murdered by his pupil Tonno, was 
also an artist of Messina. But the most distinguished painter of Sicily 
was Pietro JVocello of Monreale, thence surnamed Morrealese, numerous 
works by whom are preserved in Palermo and its environs. He perished 
in the revolution of 1649. Among the sculptors Antoni Gagini (d. 1571), a 
pupil of Michael Angelo, enjoys the highest reputation. Every church 
which contains one of the numerous works of this artist, who excels in 
drapery only, imagines itself in possession of an invaluable treasure. It 
is, however, probable that G-agini was a native of Carrara, and not of Messina 
or Palermo. Works by Giovanni Angelo Poggibonzo, surnamed Montorsoli, 
another pupil of Michael Angelo, are also preserved at Messina. 

The enlightened absolutism of the Bourbons during the last century 
tended to promote the progress of scientific activity in Sicily, which, how- 
ever, was principally directed to archaeological research with respect, to the 
history of the island. The wealthier of the nobility formed collections of 
antiquities and wrote descriptions of them (Biscay/, Torrfinuzza, Astuto^ ./«.- 
dica, Airoldi, Gaetani, etc.). The clergy collected materials for the history 
of Sicily, and others composed detailed monographs on the subject. The 
superficial polyhistor Mongitore had been preceded by the eminent Antonino 
da Arnica, Pirro, Agostino hireges, and Giovanni Battista Caruso, and, 
whilst still engaged in study, died suddenly in 1743, at the advanced age 
of 80. Di Giovanni, Francesco Testa, Rosario Gregorio, and the brothers Gio- 
vanni Evangelista and Salvatoro di Blast, form a series of historians of the 
last century who would have done credit to any nation. The art of 
poetry also revived, and found its most talented representative in the poet 
of nature Giovanni Meli of Palermo (d. 1815). His anacreontic songs in 
the national dialect were universally popular even before they appeared 
in a printed form. Among the most distinguished scientific men of the 
present century may be mentioned the naturalist and literary historian 
Domenico Scinu, the astronomer Piazzi thorn, however, in the Val Tellina 
in X. Italy), the brothers Gemellaro, the patriotic historian Giuseppe La- 
farina, etc., whilst at the present day the island boasts of many eminent 

In the history of music modern Sicily occupies a less distinguished 
position than in the other arts. Bellini, however (b. at Catania 1802, d. 
near Paris 1835), is justly admired for the beauty and sweetness of his 
melodies. Lablache and Pasta were also Sicilians, natives of Palermo. 

For the study of the history of the island and the dialect, which is 
characterised by the frequent elision of consonants, transposition of letters, 
and incessant use of the half mute vowels o and it, the following works 
may be recommended: Giuseppe Biundi, Dizionario Skiliano-Italiano ; Pa- 
lermo, 1857. — Gius. Perez, Vocabolario Sicil. Italiano-, Palermo, 1870. — 
Lionardo Vigo, Canti popolari Siciliani ; Catania, 1857. — Useful for com- 
parison, Conti e Kaemnti del Popolo Italiano, Turin, 1870; and Sicilian 
Fables, by Laura Uonzenbach, I.eipsic, ISjO. — Alessio "Narbone, Biblio- 
grafia Sieola; Palermo, 1850; 4 vol*. Svo (a collection and description of 
all the works on Sicily, to which the author has obtained access ; invaluable 
to the student). — The best, compendium of the history of Sicily: Pietro 
San Filippo, Compendio della Storia di Sicilia; Palermo, 1859; 7th edit. — 
The best detailed work : Giovanni Kvang. di Klasi, Storia del Reeno di 

CETRARO. 21. Route. 217 

Sicilia ; Palermo, 1844 ; 3 thick 8vo vols. — Vito Amico, Dizionario to- 
pogratico della Sicilia, tradotto da Gioacchino di Marzo ; Palermo, 1855; 
2 vols. 8vo. — Among works of a special character may be mentioned : 
Serradifalco, Antichita di Sicilia, 5 vols. fol. •, H. G. Knight, Saracenic and 
Norman Remains in Sicily ; Hittorf et Zanth, Architecture moderne de la 
Sicile. — A magnificent work on the cathedral of Monreale was lately 
published at Palermo (price 800 fi\). — Among others are those of M. 
Amaris on the Sicilian Vespers and the Mussulman supremacy, Isidoro 
La Lumias on the reign of Charles V. and the revolution of 1649 and 1860, 
Sartorius v. Wallershausen on JEtnn (a magnificent work in German), 
Palmieri on the Constitution of 1812. 

21. From Naples to Sicily. 

A . To M t s s (?) a. 

Departure of the steamers, see p. 30; offices p. 30. For the emharcation 
of each person with luggage 1 fr. (comp. Introd. VII). Direct passage in 
20—22 hrs., fares exel. food 34 1 | 2 or 22'|« fr. It has already (p. 31) been 
observed that the Italian mail-steamers touch alternately at the principal 
places on the coast; those to Messina slop at Paola (p. 218), Pizzo (p. 200), 
and Reggio (p. 202), which affords a pleasant variety, especially as the 
vessels generally skirt the coast; but the time occupied is about, one-third 

On the direct passage, as on that to Palermo (p. 219), the vessels usu- 
ally pass on the W. side of Capri; on the indirect, to the K. of Capri, 
between that island and the promontory of Sorrento, where an exquisite 
survey of the bays of Naples and Salerno is enjoyed. 

The steamboats weigh anchor in the evening, and at once 
proceed in a S. direction. The islands of Isehia and Procida 
remain to the W. (see 'arrival in the bay', p. '23). In M'/.i hrs., 
after Castellamare and Sorrento are passed, the strait between 
Capri, with the nigged and precipitous Lo Capo (p. 144J and 
the Punta di Campanella (p. l.u ), is entered. Shortly afterwards 
a view of the Bay of Salerno is disclosed. As the sun sets and 
the vessel gradually stands out to sea, the aspect of Alt. Vesuvius 
is indescribably majestic. During the night the promontories 
delta Licosa and dello Spurtirento and the Bay of Policastro are 
passed. The once powerful town of the latter name was taken 
by Robert Guiscard in I Oof), destroyed by the Turks in 1~)4'2, 
and now contains 4000 inhab. only. 

On the following morning, about S a. m., Monte Pottino 
(7326 ft.), which terminates the Neapolitan Apennines, is 
especially conspicuous. Contiguous to it the Calabrian Mis. 
commence. From this point S. towards Paola a succession of fine 
views is enjoyed. The coast is studded with numerous towns 
and villages, most of them situated on the heights, between 
which valleys descend to empty their brooks into the sea. 
About 9 a. m. Verbicaro is seen somewhat inland, then (9. 30) 
Diamante, at the base of a lofty cliff. Farther on. Belvedere 
with 46'27 inhab., charmingly situated on the slopes of the 
mountain. Then, after a small promontory is passed, in the 
bay to the S. lies Cetraro, the inhabitants (6051) of which gain 

2JS Route 21. PAOLA. From Naples 

their livelihood principally by the anchovy-fishery. About 10 a. in. 
(iuiirdiit, lying on a lofty mountain, with warm baths (1323 
inhab.): then the more important town of Fuscaldo, with 8935 
inhab. and the ruins of an old castle. 

("12 o'cl.) Paola (860(5 inhab.), beautifully situated in a 
ravine and rising on the slope of the mountain ; extensive oil 
and wine trade. If the vessel stops here a scene of the utmost 
animation is witnessed, and the inhabitants come on board bring- 
ing all kinds of articles for sale. In summer ices of very poor 
quality are offered (4 soldi, though 6 — 8 are demanded at first). 

Paola, believed by some to be the Palycus of the Greeks, 
was the birthplace of Francesco di Paola, founder of the men- 
dicant order of Minimes. At the beginning of the present cen- 
tury this order possessed upwards of 450 monasteries, number- 
ing '25.000 friars, but the greater number of these have since 
been suppressed. 

After a halt of about 1'^ nr - the vessel proceeds on her 
course. On the coast the villages of San Lucido (2 p. m.), 
Fiumefreddo, and Belmonte, in the rear of which the conspicuous 
.Uonte Cocuzzo (1804 ft). Amantea next becomes visible, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Amantia of Bruttium. The town and 
fortress, erected on a lofty rock, were in 1806 garrisoned by 
royalists, who repelled the attacks of the French troops ; but in 
the following year, after severe sufferings from famine, they 
were compelled to surrender. To the S of Amantea the Savuto 
falls into the sea. The coast becomes flat and less richly culti- 
vated. (12. 45) Noceru, then by the Capo Suvero to the Golfo 
di Santa Eufemia, at the S. extremity of which lies 

(5. 45) Fizzo (p. 200), founded on a rock of sandstone (halt 
about l'/'ihr-)- Projecting into the sea below the town are the 
ruins of the ancient castle in which, Oct. 13th, 1815, Joachim 
Murat, ex-king of Naples was shot, having been compelled to 
land here instead of at Salerno as he had intended. He was 
interred in the church of Pizzo. 

At the S. E. angle of the bay lies Monteleone, see p. 200. 

The steamboat rounds Capo Zambrone. ( 8 p. m.) Tropea, 
an ancient town ( 5332 inhab.) in a delightful situation, the 
climate of which is much extolled. To the S. the Capo Vaticano 
with its lighthouse projects far into the sea. In the bay lies 
Sicotera, which suffered greatly by the earthquake (p. 201) of 
1783. near the influx of the Mesima. [At Oioja (p. 201) the 
post-road from Naples to Reggio (K. 20) leads to the coast, which 
it skirts during the remainder of the route (comp. p. 201)]. 
Soon after the harbour of Pizzo is quitted the Lipari Islands 
(R. 33) become visible to the W. ; Stromboli, with its continually 
smoking crater, is the most conspicuous. Off Capo Vaticano the 
Sicilian mountains suddenly appear. 

to Sicily. PALERMO. :>1 . Route. "IV.) 

Palmi, Bagnara, and Srilla, see p. 201. The Aspromonte 
range, with the Monte Alto (6476 ft.), does not present a very 
picturesque appearance from this side. The Strait of Messina, 
which is now entered, presents a picturesque and busy scene 
during the day time. The vessel first steers for Reggio (p. 202), 
;ind finally, about 4. 30 a. ni., after a voyage of about 38hrs., 
enters the harbour of Messina. Arrival and hotels, see ]{. 32. 
Those who arrive during the night will do well to remain on 
board till the morning, first inquiring of the captain the hour 
when the ve>sel again quits the harbour. 

B. To Palermo. 

The traveller whose destination is Palermo will probalily prefer to 
avoid the above circuitous route by Paola, Pizzo, Reggio, and Messina, 
and to avail himself of the vessels of the Flovio Co. (office at Xaples, Str. 
Piliero 5), which start for Palermo 4 times weekly, usually towards evening ; 
passage 16 — 20 his., fare 34'1-j or 22>|» fr. Embarkation 1 fr. for each pers. 
with luj-'^atre Icomp. Introd. VII.). Delightful view as the vessel approaches 
Sicily, which the traveller should rise at an early hour to witness. 

Departure from the bay. see pp. 21, 223. After the vessel 
has passed Procida, isohia, and Capri, the Ponza Islands (p. 15) 
become visible to the N. ; beautiful retrospect of the bay and 
Vesuvius. Early on the following morning ("between 5 and 6 a. m.") 
the Lipari Islands (R. 33) are seen to the S. (1.); later the is- 
land of Ustir/i (p. 234) to the \\\, long remaining visible; then, 
about 10 a. m., the towering mountains of Sicily, to the r. 
Monte Pellegrino (1958 ft.; p. 231), 1. Monte Catalfano (1233 ft.), 
guarding the entrance to the Bay of Palermo. Finally the widely 
extended city, with its amphitheatre of mountains which enclose 
the fruitful plain, 'La Conca d'Oro' (the golden shell). A little 
to the 1. of Monte Pellegrino rises the lofty Monte Cuccio 
(3445 ft.), then Monreale (p. 2211); farther off, Monte Orifone. 
and still more distant, to the extreme 1., Monte Catalfano with 
the promontories of (r. ) Mongerbino and (1.) Zaffarana. 

22. Palermo. 

Arrival. Travellers are conveyed to the Dogana (i fr. for each pi'rs.), 
where luggage is slightly examined. Thcnee to the town about ! M. ; 
fiacre 75 c, see below. 

Hotels. T TiiiNACKiA (PI. a) (M. Kagusa is an attentive landlord) in 
the Strada Butera, near the harbour, a comfortable house; R. facing the 
Marina on the 1st. 2nd, or 3rd floor o. 4th 4, 5th 2 1 !? fr. \ drawing-room 
6 — 10 fr. ; dejeuner a la fourchette '2 l \v. coffee, etc. 1* ,'-.«, D. 5, served in the 
traveller's apartment 6 fr. ; A. 1, L. 1 fr. — Hotel de France (PI. b), by 
the Giardino Garibaldi, Piazza Marina (PI. ('. 5), charges somewhat lower 
than at the Trinacria, but enquiry recommended. Hotel d'lTALiE, Piazza 
Marina 60, also near the Giardino Garibaldi, E. 2—6, L. and A. 1, B. l 1 ^— 3, 
D. 3'|2 fr. — Of humbler pretensions: *Albekgo Centkale, in the Toledo, 
No. 3 55, R. I1J2— 3, coffee Ifr. , dejeuner ii/z — 2, D. 3, Pension 6— 8 fr. ; 
Albergo di Sicilia, Via Pizzuto, commonly called 'il Pizzuto"', near the 
Piazza Domenico; Albergo di Londka, near the Chiesa del 3Iolo and the 
brewery. — Furnished apartments are beat procured with the aid of a 

220 Route 22. PALERMO. Baths. 

respectable inhabitant of the place. Near the Giardino Inglesc, outside the 
Porla Macqueda (Piazza Oliva 72), is the "Hotel Oliva, a 'casa mobigliattf 
kept by the brother-in-law of the landlord of the Trinacria, Pension 8 fr. 

Trattorie. " Villa di Roma, to the r. in the Toledo, before the Quattro 
t'antoni is reached; "Gaff Oreto, at the corner of the Piazza Marina and 
tlie Toledo. Best ices at the cafe of the Teatro Bellini, in the Piazza della 
Martorana. — Beer at the Birraria, Vicolo della Madonna del Cassaro (in 
the Politccnico, back court, in the corner to the r.). — The Casino Xnovo, 
or new club, in the Palazzo Gerace in the Toledo, contains handsome 
apartments, worthy of a visit ; strangers may easily obtain an introduction 
for a fortnight; for a longer period they should apply for a card of admis- 
sion (10 fr. per month). 

Carriages (fares fixed by tariff). One-horse carr. for 1 — 4 pers. per 
drive within the city 50 c. ; in the suburbs, incl. the harbour and railway- 
station, 75 c. ; for one box 20, two 30 c. For 1 hr. 1 fr. 80, each conse- 
cutive hr. i fr. 60 c. After midnight all these charges are raised by one- 
half. Two-horse carr. per drive within the city 1 fr. Driving in the town 
is prohibited on Good Friday. Longer drives according to bargain. To 
Monreale usually 10 fr. for a carr. with two horses, returning via La Zisa, 
Olivuzza, etc. ; one-horse 6 fr. Giuseppe Policino, Via Cara^ello (comp. 
p. 205), is recommended as a vetturino. — Donkey to S. Martino, return- 
ing by Boccadifalco and Monreale, 2'|2 fr. ; to Monte Pellegrino 2 fr. ; if 
the donkey be sent for at the hotel the attendant demands 2 fr. in ad- 
dition. — Valet de place 5 fr. per day. 

Baths. "Via Rosolino Pilo 37 (PL E, 4), outside the Porta Macqueda, 
cold or warm bath 85 c, Russian bath for 1 — 2 pers. 5 fr. — Sea Baths 
near Acqua Santa (PL I, 7). Swimmers will probably prefer to bathe early 
in the morning from a boat, which they may hire i}[i fr.) at the Sanita, 
outside the Porta Felice. 

Post Office (PL 88) adjoining the Martorana (S. Maria dell' Aminira- 
glio). Letters are conveyed to and from the mainland four times weekly. 
The poste-restante office for strangers is a separate department. The di- 
ligences to the interior start hence. The Periodica (or omnibus, not re- 
commended) starts from the Palazzo Sambucco, near the Convento della 
Gangia, Str. Alloro. 

Steamboats. Florio Co. (Corso Vitt. Emanuele, at the corner of (he 
Piazza Marina) to Maples 4 times weekly; to Leghorn every Friday in 
33 hrs. ; ow Tuesdays a vessel of the Messageries Maritime* (Piazza Marina, 
82) direct io Marseilles in 50 hrs. ; to Messina 3 times weekly (once by 
Cefalii) ; to Syracuse by Trapani and Girgenti once weekly ; to Cagliari 

Shops. Photographs, Maps, Books: Loose, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 383. 
— Lo Forte, Via di Bosco 23, Pal. Belvedere, sells photographs of the 
principal objects in the Museum. — Italian books : Fratelli Pedone Laitriel, 
on the r. in the Toledo. — Old books: Gior. Fiorenza, in the Toledo. 

Teacher of Languages, M. Stiimpfli, Via Calataflmi 84. 

Bankers. Messrs. Kayser & Kressner, Palazza Fitalia. 

Theatres. Teatro Bellini (PL 95), Piazza della Martorana, the best. 
Cirrus Giiillnirint', near the Porta Macqueda, erected in IS7I, opens periodi- 

Consuls. American: Luitji Monti , Via Butera, Casa Pujero. — British: 
Ceorge Dennis, Via Butera. — There are also German, French, Belgian, and 
I>uteh consuls resident here. 

English Church, Via Lolli 44; Scotch, Via Giuseppe d'Alessi 13, at the 
back of the University. 

The Festival of St. Rosalia (p. 231), 11 — 15th July, accompanied with 
horse-races, illuminations, processions to the chapel of the saint, etc., 
attract- a great concourse of country-people to Palermo several days before 
the beginning of the festivities. The Municipio usually contributes 30 — 
40,(1011 fr., in order that this famous feast may be celebrated with be- 
coming splendour. 

Principal Attractions. During a stay of 3 days at Palermo the traveller 
should visit: 1st Day. The city itself, the Museum [p. 22G). La Martorana 


7 7. ffibhotuca communal* - C.S 

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26. diJaola T.3 

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36. S.Zuetd. i. 5 

D 5 

40 . Madonna del Carminr. B . 3 

41. — magqioreW'S 

42 . deBa-Majfione. B . 5 
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Situation. PALERMO. 22. Route. 22 J 

(p. 225), the Cathedral (p. 223|, the Royal Palace (p. '222), the Giardino 
Inglese, La Flora, and the Marina. — 2nd l>av. Villa Tasca, Monreale, 
La Zisa (R. 23 a), La Favorita (p. 232). — 3rd Day. Monte Pellegrino 
(R. 23 b) in the forenoon ; in the afternoon the Bagaria, or S. Maria di 
Gesii (R. 23 d). 

Palermo (167,625, and with the .surrounding villages 194,463 
inhabitants) forms an oblong quadrangle, one of the shorter sides 
of which adjoins the sea. It is justly entitled to the epithet 
ia felice', on account of its magnificent situation and delightful 
climate. The town is on the whole well built, although the 
houses are not well kept externally. Two main streets divide 
the large quadrangle of the town into four quarters. From the 
Porta Felice on the sea as far as the Porta iXuova by the royal 
palace extends the Cassaro, or Strada Toledo. This street, also 
termed Corso Vittorio Emanuele. is intersected at right angles 
by the Strada Macqueda (Corso Garibaldi) ; at the point of inter- 
section is the octagonal Quattro Cantoni, or Viyliena, a piazza 
constructed in 1609, adorned with colonnades and statues, and 
forming the central point of the city. The E. gate is the Porta 
S. Antonino, the W. Porta Macqueda. The prolongation of the 
street from the Porta della Macqueda is the Str. delta Liberth, 
which with the Via del Capacioti forms the Piazza Quattro Can- 
toni della Campagna, and leads to the Giardino Inglese. 

The principal Town Gates are the Porta Garibaldi or Termini 
(PI. B, 4). near the Porta S. Antonino, by which Garibaldi en- 
tered the town, May 27th, 1860; the Porta Montalto (PL B, 2), 
outside of which the events of the Sicilian Vespers were enacted, 
to the E. of the Palazzo Reale ; the Porta S. Giorgio (PL F, 5), 
through which the road to Monte Pellegrino (p. 231) leads. 

Palermo is strongly recommended as a winter residence for 
consumptive patients on account of its mild, humid climate. In 
summer, especially when the sirocco blows, the heat is often 

The narrow and shallow harbour, in skirting which the ruins of Fort 
Oastellamare are passed, termed La Gala, extended in ancient and mediaeval 
times far into the city, and was divided between the Piazza Marina and 
C|Juattro Cantoni into two arms, which enclosed the Acropolis, and separated 
it from the suburbs on the r. and 1. The r. arm extended as far as the 
Palazzo Reale, whence the Greek appellation of the city 'Panonnos' 
(entirely harbour) and its reputation as a sea-port, although now inacces- 
sible to large vessels. The ancient Panormus was erected on the site of 
the Phoenician settlement Machanath by the Greeks, but, until the conquest 
of Sicily by the Romans, was one of the most important strongholds of the 
Carthaginian invaders. It was then captured by the Romans and afterwards 
colonised by Augustus. On the fall of the W. empire the city fell under 
the sway of the E. emperors ; in 831 the Arabians, and in 1072 the Normans 
obtained possession of it, and here their emirs and kings resided. After 
1266 the French took possession of Palermo, but were expelled in 1280 (Si- 
cilian Vespers). The monarchs of the house of Arragon seldom resided here. 
Palermo had fallen into the hands of the Chiaramonte, powerful feudal 
barons, who erected a spacious palace for themselves here. Subsequently 
the viceroys of Sicily, notwithstanding the loud remonstrances of Messina, 
selected tliis city as their residence and ruled here until 1799, when the 

222 Route -2-2. PALERMO. Palazzo Rente. 

Bourbon Ferdinand IV. was expelled from Naples, and himself took up his 
quarters in the royal palace. After 1815 viceroys again resided here, resu- 
med their rule, and hail to contend against the rebellions of 1820, 1837. and 
1848, till in 1860 the subversion of the existing government was at last 
effected. A prefect now resides at Palermo. It is the seat of the first 
military authorities of the island, of the supreme court of justice, and of one 
of the seven Italian universities of the highest rank. The commerce of the 
place is, after Messina, the most considerable in the island ; sumach is the 
principal export. From [827 to 1848 not a single new house was erected 
in Palermo, but the town has extended considerably since 1860, espe- 
cially towards the S. W. It is divided into 6 sections; the 4 former di- 
visions were termed llioni. 

With the exception of the Catacombs, outside the Porta 
d'( issuna (to the r. of the Porta Nuova, discovered in 1785), no 
ancient architectural remains are now in existence. Access ob- 
tained on application to the Commissione delle Antichita ( Antiro 
Oollegio de' Gesuiti, PI. 79). This want, however, is amply 
compensated for by the interesting mediaeval monuments and the 

We begin at the Porta Nuova at the W end of the city. 

The *Palazzo Beale (PI. S7) rises on a slight eminence, 
which has in all ages been the site of the castle of the city. 
It is of Saracenic origin. Robert Guiscard, King Roger, the two 
Williams, Frederick II., and Manfred added to the structure, 
and it underwent many subsequent alterations. 

When approached from the Toledo, the last door to the 
1. leads to the palace-court. Here on the first floor, in the r. 
wing, is situated the celebrated **Cappella Falatina, erected by 
Roger IX. in 1132, and dedicated to ,St. Peter, a most magni- 
ficent specimen of medieval architecture, and accounted the most 
beautiful castle-chapel in the world (when closed, it is opened 
bythe custodian, who lives on the opposite side of the arcades, 
No. S3; fee "/ 2 fr.). 

Including the apse it is 108 ft. in length, 42 ft. in width. The church, a 
basilica consisting of nave and aisles with a choir 5 steps higher, is entered 
by a vestibule of 7 columns, 6 of which are of Egyptian granite. The 
Saracenic pointed arches of the aisles are supported by 5 granite or cipol- 
line Corinthian columns, 16 ft. in height. The walls are covered with 
^Mosaics an a gold ground, representing subjects from the Old Testament, 
and the lives of Christ, St. Peter, and St. Paul. In the centre of the apse 
Christ is represented in the slyle which recurs in all Norman mosaics, the 
finest specimen of which is at Cefalii. The dome, rising 59 ft. above 
the mosaic pavement, is perforated by 8 narrow windows, and bears Greek 
and Latin inscriptions. The characters on the other portion of the ceiling 
are Culic or ancient Arabian. An ambo or reading-desk on the r., and a 
marble candlestick, 15 ft. in height, also deserve inspection. The Gothic 
choir-stalls are modern. 

The tower of 8. Mnj'a, containing the observatory (director 
Sign. (Jacciatore), is regarded as the most ancient portion of the 
castle ( accessible S — 3 o'clock ; ascent from the court by the stair 
opposite the entrance; then by a passage to the 1. beneath the 
arcades of the 3rd floor, and another ascent by a stair on the r.; 
custodian '/■> — 1 fr. ) 

Spediile Grande. PALERMO. •>■>. Route. 223 

Magnificent "panorama from the summit: at the feet of the spectator 
lies the Piazza Vittoria, above the 1. angle of which rises S. Rosalia; in 
front of the latter the Pal. Vcscovile; r. the Toledo, to the 1. beyond it 
the harbour, commanded on the 1. by the Monte Pellegrino; 1. in the 
background the mountains of the Capo Gallo ; beneath them, in the fore- 
ground, the Porta Nuova, where Garibaldi once resided ; ]., farther distant, 
J. a Zisa, a yellow building with numerous windows; farther 1. in the back- 
ground the pointed Monte Ouceio, prolonged on the 1. by the hill of Mon- 
reale. Farther 1., at the spectator's feet, the Giardino Reale, above it the 
Piazza delT Indipendenza with the obelisks. In the foreground S.E. the 
tower of the red church of S. Giovanni degli Kremiti, beyond it the 
cypress-grove of the Campo Santo: in the distance, at the base of the lofty 
M. Griffone, lies S. Mar>a di Gesii ; more to the 1., 31. Catalfano, abutting 
on the sea; on the promontory, to the r. of the latter, the Bagaria. 

Besides the Cappella Palatina the palace contains the so- 
called Stanza di Kuyyiero, with interesting mosaics; also an 
apartment with portraits of the viceroys. 

In the piazza of the palace are the excavated remains of a 
Ronvin House, with interesting mosaics (permes»r> obtainable from 
the director). 

In the vicinity, behind the Piazza della Vittoria, or palace- 
yard, where a Statue of Philip IV. stands, and separated from 
the palace by the street leading to the Porta di Castro, is situated 
the church of :i: S. Giovanni degli Eremiti (PI. 32) (generally 
closed ; entrance Via de' Benedittini 36, fee 1/2 — 1 fr."_), one of 
the earliest existing Xorman ecclesiastical structures, and still 
presenting an almost entirely oriental aspect. The church is con- 
structed in the form of a so-called Egyptian cross (T), with 
3 apses, a large, and 4 smaller domes. Adjacent to the church, 
the bell of which was the first to ring the alarm on the occasion 
of the massacre known as the Sicilian Vespeis. are small, but 
interesting cloisters, in a dilapidated condition. 

Opposite the palace stands the Spedale Grande (PI. 93j, 
erected within the space of one year by Count Matteo Sclafani 
in 1330, purchased by the city in 1440 for the sum of 150 on- 
cie (about 75 (. sterl. ! ), now a barrack. The arcades of the 
court are decorated (r. ) with a large fresco of the loth cent, by 
Antonio Crescenzio, the 'Triumph of Death', in a style resembling 
the Florentine. 'Paradise', another large fresco by Pietro Xnrelli. 
1634, is much damaged. 

The N. W. corner of the Piazza is occupied by the Arclii- 
episc.opal Palace (PI. <S4); the facade towards the Piazza del 
Duomo in its present form dates from the 16th cent. The tower, 
connected with the cathedral by a graceful arch, was erected in 
the 12th cent. 

To the r. in the Strada Toledo, and separated from it by the 
Piazza del Duomo, stands the *Cattedrale, il Duomo della S. Ko- 
salia (PI. 15; generally closed 12 — 4 o'clock), a remarkable edi- 
fice, in which restorations to its disadvantage have been under- 
aken in each century since its foundation. It was erected in 

224 Route ->;>. PALERMO. Cattedrale. 

1169 — II So on the site of a more ancient church which had 
been converted into a mosque and subsequently reconverted into 
a Christian place of worship by the Archbishop Walter of the Mill 
(Oualterio Offamilio). The crypts, a portion of the S. side, and 
the E. end are the only remaining portions of the original struc- 
ture. The chapel of S. Maria l'liicoronata, a remnant of the most 
ancient cathedral, in which the Sicilian monarchs were wont to be 
crowned, was destroyed by the bombardment of 1860. The S. 
portal is an approximation to the northern Gothic style. The W. 
Facade, with the principal portal and the two towers, was erected 
in 1300—1359. and the whole disfigured in 1781—1801 by a 
dome constructed by the Neapolitan architect Fernando Fuga 
in spite of the remonstrances of the Sicilian architects. The 
restoration of the interior was undertaken by the same indi- 

The r. aisle (1. of the S. Portal) contains the Tombs of the Kings. Here, 
in sarcophagi of porphyry, surmounted by canopies, repose : King Roger 
(d. 1154); his daughter (.'(instance, wife of Henry VI. (d. 1198); his son- 
in-law Henry VI. (d. 1197), and his illustrious grandson Frederick II. 
(d. 1250). The sarcophagus of the latter, supported by 4 lions, is the finest. 
On the wall to the r. of the mortuary chapel are recorded the privileges 
granted to the city by Frederick, inlaid in marble. In 1781 the sarcophagi 
were transferred hither from a chapel contiguous to the choir, and opened. 
The remains of Henry VI. and Constance were greatly decomposed, whilst 
those of Frederick II. were in a good state of preservation. With the 
latter the remains of two other bodies were found, one unknown, the other 
probably that of Peter II. of Arragon. The corpse of the great emperor 
was enveloped in sumptuous robes with Arabian inscriptions *, beside him 
lay the crown and imperial apple, at his side a sword. The sacristy con- 
tains the imperial crowns and remains of robes, to which access cannot 
always be obtained (10 a. m. the best hour, application may be made to 
one of the facchini of the church). 

The marble sculptures of the church arc chiefly by Antonio Gayini, the 
finest of which are those on the pilasters of the Chapel of St. Rosalia, to 
the r. of the high-altar. Here the saint reposes in a sarcophagus of silver, 
1300 lbs. in weight, exhibited only on Jan. 11th, July 15th, and Sept. 4th. 
The choir, which possesses fine old carved stalls, is separated from the 
church by a marble screen. The statues in the niches, Christ and the 
Apostles, are by Gagini. The crypt beneath the choir, containing the 
remains of the archbishops, some of them in ancient sarcophagi, should also 
be visited. Here, among others, repose Gualterio Offamilio, and the arch- 
bishops Frederick and Peter of Antioch, both of Hohenstaufen extraction. 

Proceeding hence by the Str. Toledo towards the sea, the 
traveller passes (1.) the Colleyio Nuovo (PI. 79) of the Jesuits, 
which now contains the National Library (open the whole day) 
and the Lyceum, and reaches (r.) the small Piazza. Bologni, 
adorned with a Statue of Charles V. by Scipione Livolsi da 
Susn. To the W. stands the Palazzo Villafranca. 

Continuing to descend, the traveller reaches the Quattro Can- 
to n i (p. 221) and, passing the richly decorated church of 8. Oiu- 
seppe tle.i Teatini (PI. 3o), proceeds (to the r.) towards the E. 
by the Via Macqueda, in order to arrive at one of the most 
interesting quarters of the town. 

Martorana. PALERMO. 22. Route 225 

To the 1. is the Piazza Pretoria with a large Fountain erected 
in the 16th cent, by order of the viceroy Garcia di Toledo; the 
Palazzo del Municipio (PL 8(5), containing on the ground-floor 
Roman inscriptions and monuments, and in the large saloon on the 
first floor a *statue of the youthful Dionysus, erroneously called 
Antinous; and the mansion of the Duca di Serradifalco. 

A few paces farther the Post-Office (PL 88) is reached, with- 
in the precincts of which is situated the deserted church of 
S. Cataldo, a remarkable specimen of Sicilian-Norman architecture, 
probably erected previous to 1161 by Count Sylvester, the grand- 
son of Duke Roger I. 

Adjacent to the post-office buildings stands the celebrated 
church of S. Maria dell Ammiraglio, commonly called *La 
Martorana (PL 54), erected by Georgios Antiochenos, grand- 
admiral of Roger I. and Roger II., in honour of the Virgin, 
during the first half of the 12th cent., as the well-preserved 
mosaic of the Madonna in the first chapel to the 1. of the 
entrance shows. The church was originally quadrangular, with 
3 apses towards the N., and a dome borne by 4 columns, en- 
tirely Byzantine in character, adorned inside and out with 
mosaics. In 1590 the nuns of the convent Martorana (founded 
in 1193, and in 1433 presented with the church, whence the 
name) caused the edifice to be extended towards the W. In 
1685 the central apse was demolished and superseded by a square 
chapel, and in 1726 the work of destruction was carried still 
farther by the removal of the mosaics from the walls. The 
church is, however, now being restored in accordance with the 
ancient plan. One of the 8 Corinthian columns bears Arabic 
inscriptions. To the r. a representation in mosaic: King Roger 
crowned by Christ. The original mosaics in the apses on the 
r. and 1. and those in the dome are furnished with Greek 
inscriptions. Over the altar, which is richly adorned with lapis 
lazuli, is an Ascension by Vine. Anemolo. 

The two upper stories of the four-storeyed campanile date from 
the 14th cent. In 1726 the dome was removed in consequence 
of the damage done by an earthquake. 

To the r. in the Via Macqueda, opposite the post-office, is 
situated the L'niversity (PL 99). 

In the street adjoining the university on the r. the Casa 
Professa (PL 13) is reached, with the Jesuits' Church, com- 
pleted in 1683, overladen with ornament. Adjacent is the 
Biblioteca Comunale (PL 77), entered by a Doric vestibule. It 
contains a most valuable collection of books and MS.S. relating 
to Sicilian history. On the first floor is the 'Historical Hall', 
open daily from 9 to 2. Returning hence to the Via Macqueda, 
the traveller reaches the extensive Palazzo Paternb, with handsome 
arcades in the court, and, near the Porta San Antonino, the 
Bjedeker. Italy III. 4th Edition. 15 

226 Route ■>•>. PALERMO. Tribunati. 

former Teutonic Lodge, the sadly disfigured church of which 
{La Mug tone; PI. 42) was founded in the 12th cent, hy the 
chancellor Matteo Ajello of Salerno, and presented to the Teu- 
tonic Order by Frederick II. 

If the Toledo be followed and the Ouattro Cantoni be crossed 
in the direction of the sea, after f> min. a transverse street [Via 
OintorinariaJ to the r. leads to S. Francesco d'Assisi (PI. 25), 
in the piazza of that name. This church is a Norman structure, 
of which the facade now alone remains. The interior contains 
remains of frescoes by Novelli, of which that over the entrance 
is the best preserved. 

About 3 min. walk farther the Toledo emerges on the Piazza 
and Piazzetta delta Marina, one of the finest in Palermo, adorned 
with fountains and grounds. Here is situated the historically 
remarkable Palazzo dei Tribunati (PI. 98), erected by Manfred 
Chiaramonte in 1307. Here Queen Bianca resided in 1410, and 
victims of the Inquisition were subsequently confined here down 
to 1782. The building is now occupied by the courts of justice 
and the dogana. The well-preserved court is accessible through 
the Dogana Regia. 

In the vicinity, in the Str. Alloro, is situated the monastery 
delta Oancia (PI. 28j, the monks of which have always acted 
a prominent part in every revolution, down to that of 1860. 

Farther on, to the 1., is the small church of S. Maria delta 
Catena (PI. 47), erected in 1400 on the site of an earlier 
structure. The facade, in which the ancient style predominates, 
exhibits an unusually depressed form of arch, such as is fre- 
quently seen in S. Italy towards the close of the Gothic period. 
The Loggia commands a survey of the small harbour of La Cala. — 
Following the Toledo, the traveller reaches the Piazza di S. Spirito, 
with the Ciiiiserratorio (Foundling Hospital, etc) of that name, 
founded in 160S; beyond it are the Porta Felice and the 
promenades skirting the coast. 

The finest of the other churches is S. Domenico (PI. 22), 
in the piazza of that name, erected in 1640, and remarkable for 
its simplicity and spacious dimensions. It is capable of ac- 
commodating 12,000 persons. It contains several good pictures 
by Pietro Novelli and Vincenzo Anemolo. 

INear S. Domenico is situated the * Museum, formerly estab- 
lished in the University, but recently transferred to the sup- 
pressed monastery dei Filippini all' Olivella (PI. 63), near the 
Porta Macqueda. It is open daily, except Sundays and Mondays, 
10 — 3 o'clock (closed from the Wednesday of Passion Week to 
Faster Tuesday inclusive). 

A small court with a colonnade is Mist entered, a door on the 1. side 
ol' which leads to the collection of vases and the picture-gallery. The 
visitor then pusses through more extensive cloisters, along the walls of 
which are placed Etruscan cinerary uru-i, to the Museum. A room is first 

Museum. PALERMO. -J-J. Route. 227 

entered containing two freely restored statues of Jupiter from Soluntum 
and a Caesar from Tyndaris, as well as several tomb-cippi and sarcophagi. 
Beyond this is a room with busts, a statue of Marcus Aurelius, and other 
sculptures. The arrangement of all these is still uncompleted. A door to 
the 1. in the latter room leads to the principal saloon of the Museum, 
containing the celebrated Metopar of Selinus, the most ancient specimens 
of Greek sculpture, with the exception of the lions of Myrene. They 
belong to different periods. The oldest, dating from the first half of the 
7th cent., still bear traces of the Oriental style from which Greek art 
derives its origin. 1. A Quadriga (combat of Peleus and CEnomaus) ; 2. 
Perseus slaying the Medusa; 3. Hercules Melampygos with tin* Oereopes. 
These reliefs belonged to the central temple (C) of the W. hill of Selinus 
(p. 244), and were discovered in 1823. — 4. and 5. Fragments of temple 
F. of the Neapolis of Selinu.->, representing, as is conjectured, a contest be- 
tween the gods and giants, probably coeval with those from the temple of 
jEgina, now at Munich. 6 — 10. From the pronaos and posticum of temple 
K., and probably belonging to the 5th cent.: : '6. Heracles and Hippolyta ; 
7. Zeus and Hera on Ida; 8. Diana and AcUeon; 9. Athene and the 
giant Pallos; 10. Apollo and Daphne, erroneously so called. These were 
discovered by Cavallari in 1831. The nude portions of the female figures 
are inlaid in white marble. In 1865 the same investigator discovered 
another fragment, with the altar of Hera from temple E., a Greek in- 
scription, and remains of the statue of the goddess. — The two Greek- 
Phoenician sarcophagi from Cannita near Palermo (p. 233), placed near the 
entrance-door, should also be examined. — The door to the 1. leads into 
other rooms, in which there are temporarily placed an .Ksculapius from 
Girgenti, an archaic Venus, a Minerva of the same character, a small 
Marsyas of pavonazetto, a young satyr from Pompeii, Greek tomb-reliefs, 
and fragments of sculptures. 

The Picture Gallery (entered from the small entrance-court), 
although not extensive, merits a visit, as it contains works of most of the 
Sicilian masters. Catalogues are supplied for the use of visitors. 'Holbein, 
Male portrait; Leonardo' 1 a School, ('hrist and St. John as children; 
Ag. Caracci, Tuscany in fetters, Fame proclaiming the victories of 
Alexander VII.; Sicilian School of the 15th cent., Madonna delle Grazie, 
with SS. Peter, Lucia, Agatha, Paul, Cosina, and Damianus ; Van Dyck (?), 
Male portrait; Antonello da Messina, Coronation of Mary; Novelli, Peter's 
release; Bassano, Male portrait; "Velasquez, Knight protecting a beggar; 
Flemish School, Portrait of a nun; Van Dtick (V), Female martyr (originally 
an Andromeda). 

The adjoining room contains the celebrated Ram of Syracuse (the 
fellow to which disappeared in the Revolution of IS48). In a straight di- 
rection the visitor observes Hercules capturing the Arcadian stag, a group 
in bronze from Pompeii. At the sides of the room are 6 vases from 
Girgenti, the 2nd of which on the 1. represents the Finding of Triptolemus. 

By the entrance-wall, to the 1., is a collection of vases of Lower Italy, 
to the 1. terracottas and vases from Gfla. Above these are two Pompeian 
pictures, representing a tragic and a comic scene respectively. By the I. 
window-wall is a cabinet containing golden trinkets. The other cabinets 
contain reliefs and figures in terracotta, votive limbs, and vases, most of 
them found in Sicily. 

Palermo contains few private collections. The library of the 
Principe Trahia (Septimiana) (Pal. Trabia, Via Macqueda, No. 3S7) 
contains valuable works on the history of Sicily. The cabinet 
of antiquities contains some good Sicilian vases ; also a tine 
collection of Venetian glass, not easily accessible (application is 
made to the major-domo). M. Agostino Qallo, the historian 
of art, possesses an interesting gallery of portraits of celebrated 


228 23. Route. PALRfiMO. Environs 

*Walks. *La Marina , on the coast , between the Porta 
Felice and the public garden. La Flora, a favourite and fashion- 
able evening promenade in summer (concerts from May to 
September 9 — 12 p. m.), is planted with flowering trees (ery- 
thrina corallodendron and cercis siliquastrum), and has recently 
been extended and embellished. Then the Oiardino Inglese 
(PL J, 4). Also the beautiful Oiardino Garibaldi, in the Piazza 
Marina (PI. C, 5). The Botanical Garden (PI. A, B, 5), ad- 
joining the Flora, containing many rare exotics, and the Garden 
of Acclimatisation in the Stradone di Mezzo Monreale are interesting 
both to botanists and non-scientific visitors. 

23. Environs of Palermo. 

a. Monreale. 

La Cuba. La Zisa. S. Martina. 

Distance about 5 M. Monotonous road as far as the Salitu (can-. 
2 — 2 L |2 fr.), where a carr. may generally he found for the return-journey. 
The ascent of the hill thence is a pleasant walk of i| 2 hr. ; the old road 
should he followed. Carriages for the excursion may also he hired outside 
the Porta }suova, 5 fr., including a stay of 1 1 /^ — 2 hrs. The locandas at 
Monreale arc poor; the least ohjectionaJde is that opposite the cathedral. 
Those who purpose spending several hours at Monreale and then proceeding 
to S. Martino (p. 230), ahout 3 M. farther, will do well to take a supply of 
provisions in their carriage. Those who ride or walk from Monreale to 
S. Martino may send the carriage back to Boccadifalco (p. 230), directing 
the driver to wait there. Donkey 6 — 8 tari. Beggars and donkey-attendants 
in the town often excessively insolent. The excursion to S. Martino is 
hardly safe, in the present state of the country, without an escort. 

When the Porta Nuova is quitted, the Largo di S. Teresa or 
dell' Indipendenza (PL C, 1) is entered. The perfectly straight 
prolongation of the Str. Toledo leads to Monreale. The road to 
the L, the Str. Porrazzi, leads to Parco. On it is situated the 
Casa de' Matti, a well-conducted lunatic asylum. 

Farther on, to the r. in the piazza, stands the Palace of the 
Due d'Aumale. Although the duke has not visited this mansion 
since 1860, the extensive garden is well kept, and should be 
visited by those whose stay at Palermo permits (trifling fee). 
On the road to Monreale, the extensive poor-house is situated 
on the r., ami the *Cuba on the 1. This edifice, now serving 
as a barrack, was once a Saracenic chateau, which, as is con- 
jectured from the illegible Arabic inscription on the parapet, 
was altered by William II. in 1181. The palace, in the interior 
of which remnants of handsome decorations in the Moorish style 
are still preserved, was surrounded by an extensive park and fish- 
ponds. A pavilion once appertaining to it is now on the opposite 
side of the street in the garden of the Cavaliere Napoli, and is 
termed La Cuhnla (Decamerone V. 6). Farther on, on the 1. side 
of the road, is the Capuchin Monastery, in the subterranean cor- 
ridors of which the bodies of wealthy inhabitants of Palermo 

of Palermo. MONREALE. 23. Route. 229 

sumptuously decorated, are preserved. They may be inspected by 
those who have a taste for such a ghastly spectacle. A more 
agreeable impression is created by a visit to the charming * Villa 
Tasca, to the 1. of the road, where the Swiss cottage stands. 
Conte Tasca, one of the first systematic farmers of Sicily, here 
possesses an experimental station, and has surrounded his summer- 
residence with the most beautiful garden of Palermo (no fee ; 
visitors ring at the entrance to the flower-garden). Some distance 
farther, the road, constructed by the celebrated Archbishop Testa 
of Monreale, ascends by windings to the 'royal mount' (1231 ft.), 
on which in 1174 William II. founded a Benedictine abbey, and 
in 1170 — 76 erected the far-famed ** Cathedral of Monreale. 
Around this edifice a town of 15,561 inhab. has sprung up 
since Monreale became the seat of the second archbishopric in 
the island. 

The cathedral, in the form of a Latin cross, 333 ft. long and 
132 ft. wide, possesses 3 apses, a nave, and two aisles. The 
entrance is flanked by two square towers. The magnificent 
portal possesses three admirable *bronze doors dating from 1186, 
the largest of them executed by 'Bonannus Civis Pisanus', 
the two others by Barisano, adorned with reliefs from sacred 
history. The pointed arch of the nave is supported by 18 columns 
of granite. The transept is approached by 5 steps. Four pillars 
support the pointed vaulting which is constructed entirely in 
the Arabic style, and greatly depressed as in the portal. 

The mosaics with which the wails of the church are entirely covered 
occupy a space of 60,896 sq. ft., and consist of three different classes, repre- 
sentations from the Old Testament (prophecies of the Messiah), from the 
life of the Saviour, and from the lives of the apostles. The nave contains 
Old Test, subjects down to the Wrestling of Jacob with the Angel, in two 
rows of 20 representations. The aisles and transepts contain respectively 
each 9 and 15 scenes from the history of Christ. On the arches of the 
transept subjects from the life of the apostles Peter and Paul. In the tri- 
bune the bust of Christ (with the inscription : /. Xq. nanoxgaxaig) ; beneath 
it a Madonna in Trono with two angels and the Apostles at the side \ under 
these are 14 saints. In the niches at the sides Peter and Paul. Above 
the royal throne is portrayed King William in the act of receiving the 
crown direct from Christ (not from the pope!); above the archiepiscopal 
seat he is represented as offering a model of the cathedral. — Sarcophagi 
in the transepts contain the remains of William I. and his three sons 
Roger (d. 1164), Henry (d. 1179), and William II. The monument of the 
latter in the r. aisle was erected in 1575. The beautiful wood-carving in 
high-relief in the 1. transept should not be overlooked. 

The church was seriously injured by a conflagration on Nov. 
11th, 1811, but has been judiciously restored. The visitor should 
not omit to ascend to the roof of the cathedral for the sake of 
the magnificent *view it affords. The garden of the monastery 
(reached by going round to the back of the cathedral) also 
commands a charming prospect ; the atmosphere here in spring 
is laden with the delicious fragrance of the orange-blossoms. 
Of the ancient Benedictine monastery, which William supplied 

230 Route i'3. LA ZISA. Environs 

with monks from La Cava, nothing remains save the celebrated 
^Cloisters, the pointed vaulting of which is adorned with mosaics 
and supported by 216 columns in pairs. The capitals are all 
different, the shafts also vary (date 1200). — In the modern 
monastery the marble staircase adorned with pictures by Velas- 
quez (not the Spanish master of that name) and Pietro Novello 
(Monrealese) are the principal objects of admiration. ■ — The 
library contains a valuable collection of Arabic documents, ancient 
pictures , etc. , all of which are enumerated in detail in the 

From Monreale a steep path to the r. (Le Scale) ascends in 
1 hr. to the summit of the mountain, crowned by a now deserted 
fort (2558 ft.). After passing the culminating point, the tra- 
veller descends to the ancient Benedictine monastery of S. Martino, 
founded by Gregory the Great. Magnificent *view. Handsome 
entrance-hall. The museum contains antiquities of no great value, 
but several well-executed vases, and paintings by Monrealese. The 
library possesses several beautifully illuminated missals. With 
this library is connected the reminiscence of the extraordinary 
historical forgeries of the Abate Giuseppe Vella, who had founded 
a history of Sicily on a forged Arabic MS., but was detected by 
the oriental linguist Hager of Vienna in 1794. 

From San Martino the traveller descends to the picturesque 
valley of Boccadifalco, and thus returns to Palermo. To the 1. 
the Convento di Buida, now occupied by Franciscan Minorites, 
but founded by Manfred Chiaramonte for Cistercians. Here in 
the 10th cent, lay Baidha, a Saracenic village which was connected 
with Palermo by a row of houses. The terrace affords a fine view. 
In the vicinity the not easily accessible stalactite cavern Quattro 
Arce. The village of Aitarello di Baida contains the remnants of 
Mimnermum, a place founded by Roger. Farther on, the piazza 
Olivuzza is reached, where the * Villa Serradifalco (PI. G, 1), 
remarkable for its beautiful grounds and luxuriant vegetation, is 
situated (the celebrated Villa Butera, now demolished' was for- 
merly adjacent). 

In the vicinity, about I M. from the Porta Nuova, stands 
the Saracenic chateau *La Zisa (fiacre from the town 2 fr.), 
the flat roof of which affords the finest *view of Palermo. This 
structure was founded by William 1. on the site of a Saracenic 
palace, of which the fountain-enclosure and a vault with pigeon- 
holes in the upper story are now the sole remnants. Beneath 
an archway decorated with honey-combed vaulting an abundant 
fountain flows over marble steps. It formerly emptied itself into 
a fish-pond with a pavilion in the centre. The Arabic inscription 
is of the Norman period. Of the house, which is now the 
property of, and inhabited by, the Marchese San Giovanni, visitors 
see only the fountain-vault and the platform (fee '/ 2 — 1 f r -j 

of Palermo. MONTE PELLEGRINO. 23. Route. 231 

By paying a trifling fee the stranger may obtain access to the 
neighbouring orange-garden, the luxuriant vegetation of which 
is worthy of notice. 

b. Monte Pellegrino. The Favorita. 

'Monte Pellegrino, an indescribably beautiful m;iss of* ck, consisting 
of grey limestone of very early formation, rises at the N. W. extremity 
of the gulf of Palermo. In a cavern in this mountain the remains of 
St. Rosalia (according to tradition, a niece of William II., who whilst in 
the bloom of youth fled hither from motives of piety) were discovered in 
1664, and conveyed to Palermo. Their presence at once banished the plague 
then raging, and from that time St. Rosalia has been the patron saint of 
the city. Chapels were erected and brilliant festivals instituted to her 
honour. The devout undertook pilgrimages to the mountain. A pathway 
supported by buttresses and arches leads to the sacred spot, which far 
better befits the humility of the saint than the sumptuous festivities 
which are celebrated to commemorate her retirement from the world. 1 


Palermo is quitted by the Porta S. Giorgio (PI. F, 5), and the 
base of the mountain reached by carriage (in 1/2 hr.; U/2 fr.). 
The ascent (1958 ft.) occupies an hour. To the r. as the city 
is quitted stands Fort Castellamare, half demolished in 1810, then 
on the harbour to the 1. the spacious prison. On arriving at 
the foot of the mountain the traveller will perceive the Villa 
Belmonte on an eminence by the sea to the r., to which, if 
time permit, he should drive for the sake of the view it com- 

The path at first ascends the mountain in steep zigzags, 
but afterwards becomes easier. On the summit large herds of 
cattle, horses, and donkeys graze in spring. As late as the 
15th cent, the mountain was clothed with underwood. Hamilcar 
Barca cultivated corn here, on the Eircta, when B. C. 247 — 241 
he settled on the mountain with his soldiers and their families 
in order to keep the Roman garrison of Panormus in check. 
Under an overhanging rock of the summit of the mountain, 
which is not easily accessible from the opposite side, is the 
Qrotto of St. Rosalia, where some pleasant hours may be spent, 
provided the noisy hounds of the quail-hunters do not happen 
to be shut up in the neighbouring yard. The grotto has been 
converted into a church by the addition of a vestibule (dwelling 
of the 'parroco' to the 1.). The water which constantly trickles 
down the sides is collected and carried off in leaden gutters. 
The small decorated cavern in which the holy maiden performed 
her devotions is shown by candle-light; in front of it a re- 
cumbent statue by the Florentine Gregorio Tedeschi , with 
sumptuously gilded robes. 'The head and hands of white marble 
are, if not faultless in style, at least so natural and pleasing 
that one cannot help expecting to see them move' (Goethe). 
On quitting the chapel the visitor should proceed to the 1., 
passing the dirty farm-houses, to the small * Temple (20 min, 

232 Route 23. BAGARIA. Environs 

walk farther), commanding the finest view towards the sea. 
The colossal statue of the saint is said to have been deprived 
of its head by lightning. Active pedestrians may now descend 
by goat-paths towards the S.W. direct to the Favorita ; others 
will prefer to retrace their steps and descend by the same path. 
Between Monte Pellegrino and the mountains W. of Palermo 
lies a flat plain, partially separated from the sea on the N. by 
the Capo Gidlo. The city is quitted by the Porta Macqueda, 
beyond which the Str. della Liberta (on the r. the monument 
of Kuggiero Settimo, the Sicilian nobleman and patriot, d. 1862, 
as honorary president of the Italian senate) leads to the Oiardino 
Inglese, adorned with a bust of Garibaldi, and, passing a number 
of villas belonging to the nobility of Palermo, to the royal 
chateau of la Favorita (a 'permesso', procurable at the hotels, 
is necessary for the chateau itself, but not for the park). This 
magnificent country-residence was erected by Ferdinand IV. in 
the Chinese style with innumerable little bells, and surrounded 
by grounds with winding walks planted with box. — Travellers 
interested in agriculture should now proceed to the Istituto 
Agrario, founded by Carlo Cutto, Principe di Castelnuovo, who 
acted a conspicuous part in the events of 1812 (after bequeath- 
ing a considerable sum to the man 'who should succeed in re- 
establishing the constitution of Sicily ', he committed suicide by 
voluntary starvation). 

c. The Bagaria. Solanto. 

Railway to Bagaria (and Termini) 3 times daily; fares 1 IV. 50, 1 IV. 
10, 80 c. — Carriage 8 to 10 fr. — The railway-station lies outside the Porta 
S. Antonino (PI. B, 3). Travellers starting by the first train may inspect 
the most interesting points of Solanto and the Bagaria, and continue their 
journey by the next train to Termini (p. 263). 

A short distance from the town the railway crosses the 
Oreto; beyond it, to the 1. below, is seen the lofty arch of 
the now abandoned Ponte del AmmiragUo, constructed in 1113 
by the admiral Georgios Antiochenos. Immediately adjoining it 
are situated the ruins of the most ancient Norman church in 
Sicily, San Giovanni del Leprosi, founded by Roger. Here, 
B. C. 251, the consul Metellus conquered the Carthaginians, 
and captured 120 elephants. In the neighbouring bay Duquesne 
annihilated the greater part of the united Dutch and Spanish 
fleets in 1673. Traversing the most fertile district of the coast 
at the base of Monte Griffone, in which the Saracens once cul- 
tivated the sugar-cane, the train passes stat. FicarazelU and 
Ficarazzi, and reaches the Bagaria (or Baylterui), a country- 
town iM/ 2 M. distant from Palermo, containing groups of palatial 
villas of Sicilian nobles, abandoned after the proprietors had 
ruined themselves by the festivals celebrated here in honour of 
Queen Caroline at the beginning of the present century. Of 

of Palermo. SOLANTO. 23. Route. 233 

these the Palazto Valguarnera alone merits a visit, for the sake 
of the magnificent view which it commands. The Vtila Butera, 
Villa Patagonia, and others contain a few works of art in a 
fantastic and quaint style. At Sta. Plavia, 1 M. distant , Phoe- 
nician tombs, which may be regarded as catacombs in their 
infancy, were discovered in 1864. 

Omnibus from the station to the church in 20 min., fare 
1/2 fr. ; thence to the 1. by a road proceeding from the church 
at a right angle. Then through the last house on the 1. to the 
E. hill of the promontory fatal fano , where the Phoenician 
stronghold Soloeis, Soluntum, now *Solanto, once lay. The 
period of its destruction, probably by the Saracens, cannot now 
be determined. The ancient paved causeway, ascending the hill 
in zigzags, has been brought to light; to the r. and 1. are 
houses, among which is the so-called Gymnasium, a court with 
colonnade of two stories (custodian '^ — 1 fr.). Admirable *view 
from the summit, the site of an ancient temple of Zeus, where 
the statue of Zeus now in the museum at Palermo was found. 
A house with mural paintings here deserves inspection. Towards 
the £., where the Tonnara di Solanto is situated, lay the 
harbour of the town. 

Good walkers may clamber down the steep hill, reach Bagaria 
by a direct footpath, and there visit the villas; thence to the 
station U/2 M. 

Farther up on the brook Bagaria (the ancient Eleutherus), 1 M. 
to the E. of Portella di Mare, once lay a large Phoenician town, 
subsequently a Saracenic stronghold, termed Kasr-Sad. The mo- 
dern village is Cannita, and here the Greek-Phoenician sarcophagi 
of the museum of Palermo were found. 

d. S. Maria di Gesft. 

Proceeding from the Porta S. Antonino direct towards the 
Monte Qriffone, the traveller reaches the (2'/ 2 M.J suppressed 
Minorite monastery of S. Maria di Gesft (fiacre li/ 2 fr.J. The 
*view of Palermo and Monte Pellegrino in the background is so 
picturesque that this point is a favourite resort of artists. The 
hill should be ascended at least as far as the crosses. Near the 
monastery, 176 ft. above the sea-level, is the Qrotta de' Qignnti, 
where the remains of antediluvian animals (m mmoth, etc.), 
formerly believed to be bones of giants, were found. 

On the way back to Palermo, to the r. of the road, are the 
remnants of the Saracenic-Norman chateau La Favara, now Mare 
Dolce, the magnificence of which Arabian and Jewish travellers 
of the middle ages were never weary of describing, and where 
Frederick II. also held his court. To the 1., as the town is 
approached, extends the C'ampo di Santo Spirito, where in 1782 
the old cemetery was laid out (the new lies on the N. side of 

234 Route i'.'I. USTICA. 

Monte Pellegrino). Here in 1173 Walter of the Mill had founded 
a Cistercian monastery, and in its vicinity a century later, March 
31st. 1282, the massacre, of the Sicilian "Vespers began, during 
which the bell of S. Giovanni degli Eremiti was tolled. 

From Palermo an excursion may be made by steamboat (on two Sun- 
flays of each month, fare 7'|2 fr.) to the island" of Ustica, 41 M. distant, 
and 10 M. in circumference. Its principal mountains are the Falconiera 
on the E. and the Quadriga di Mezzo (3411 ft.) to the W. The island 
was colonised by the Phoenicians in ancient times, and was subsequently 
taken by the Romans. During the middle ages it was but thinly peopled. 
As late as 1762 the entire population was murdered or carried off by pi- 
rates. The number of inhabitants is now 2231. The cavernous forma- 
tions here are interesting to geologists. Fossil conchylia are also found in 
the island. 

24. Excursion to Tunis. 

Cart hag e. 

(Comp. Map of Sicily, after the Index.) 

When at Palermo, Cagliari, or Malta, the traveller should if pos- 
sible avail himself of this opportunity of visiting Tunis , in order to ob- 
tain a glimpse of Oriental life. The ruins of Carthage in the vicinity form 
an additional attraction, and few will omit to visit the site of the once 
mighty city which ruled the ocean. 

Steamboat Communication. 1. From Palermo. A steamboat of the 
Societa Florio leaves every fortnight with tolerable regularity, the day of 
departure varying (Sund. or Wed.), starting in the morning, reaching 
Goletta the following afternoon, and leaving again on the second day 
after its arrival. Stations: Trapani, Marsala, and Pantellaria. Return 
fares: 1st cl. 94, 2nd cl. 60 fr. ; single: 1st cl. 68i| 2 , 2nd cl. (excl. food) 
37'|-j fr. Should these boats cease to run in 1873, the sole communication 
between Palermo and Tunis will be via Cagliari. It is, however, hoped 
that some other line of direct communication may be opened. 2. From 
(Genoa, Leghorn, and) Cagliari. A steamboat of the Societa Rubattino 
leaves Genoa every Thursday, Leghorn on Friday, and Cagliari on Sunday 
morning, reaching Goletta on Monday morning, and returning on the second 
day after its arrival, at noon. Fares from Cagliari to Goletta: 1st cl. (incl. 
dinner) 52'|-2. 2nd cl. 37'|2 fr. 3. From Malta to Tunis there is a regular 
service three times a month by good steamers, belonging to a Maltese 
company, in 22 hrs.; fare, 2l. 8s. Both the passenger and goods traffic 
by this line is considerable (comp. p. 320). Travellers are advised to 
enquire on the spot with regard to all the above routes, in case of alter- 

Xapoleous will lie found the best kind of money for this excursion. 

After quitting Palermo the steamboat touches at Trapani 
(p. 245") and Marsala (p. 248), and arrives on the following 
morning at Pantellaria, a volcanic island about 50 sq. M. in 
circumference, containing an extensive establishment for convicts, 
and about 5000 inhabitants, who carry on a thriving trade in figs, 
raisins, etc. The race of donkeys here is very fine. The island 
possesses numerous hot springs which emit carbonic acid gas. It 
is 36 M. in circumference, and was named Cossyra by the an- 
cients. The Phoenicians appear to have been its earliest occu- 
pants. The glistening white houses contrasted with the dark 
mountains give the island a peculiar aspect. The steamboat then 
steers due W. ; Cape Bon, a promontory of the in summer barren 
coast of Africa, soon becomes visible, and the Bay of Tunis is 

GOLETTA. 24. Route. 235 

entered. At the entrance lie the small islands of Zembra and 
Zembarotta, where quarantine takes place. 

The bay contracts, and after a few hours more (to the 1. 
precipitous and barren cliffs, forming, as it were, a most imposing 
frame to the picture presented by the bay), the landing-place 
at Goletta becomes visible. On the r. rises the promontory of 
Carthayena , crowned by a conspicuous lighthouse (admission on 
payment of a trifling fee), sloping precipitously on the B. and 
N. sides, while the picturesque Arab village of Sidi-Bu-Said, 
which commands a noble panoramic view of the Bay and the 
country around , marks the spot where stood the ancient city of 
Carthage (comp. p. 239). 

Goletta. Arrival. As soon as the steamboat has cast anchor she is 
boarded by the sanitary officer of the port and the agent of the steam- 
boat company, who carries away a bill of lading for the Dogana. After 
these officials have gone ashore, a number of large boats approach the 
vessel to land the passengers and freight. The traveller is now conveyed 
to the Dogana (custom-house), where his luggage is examined, and where 
he should be careful to obtain the proper certificate from the authorities, 
as otherwise his effects are liable to be examined a second time, at Tunis. 
Should any difficulty arise during the examination, the traveller should 
threaten to appeal to his consul, which will generally have the desired effect. 
The most promising of the throng of negroes and Arabs who proffer their 
services may be engaged to carry the luggage to the Railway or Steamboat to 
Tunis (p. 236), and to act as guide (fee 50-70 c). If the traveller addresses 
them in Italian, they will generally understand his wishes, although 
rarely conversant with that language. Offers of assistance from other 
persons should be declined. If there is time to spare before the depar- 
ture of train or steamboat, luggage may be entrusted to the landlord of 
one of the numerous cafes or inns, while the traveller explores the town), 
with about 3500 inhab., is the port of Tunis, from which it is 
about 10 M. distant, and the residence of a Caid (p. 238). Its 
coolness in summer (thermometer seldom above 82° Fahr. in the 
shade) renders it a favourite resort at that season, and it possesses 
excellent though primitive sea-baths. The town is fortified, and 
has a small garrison, which, there being no barrack, usually encamps 
in the open air, or finds accommodation wherever it can. The pre- 
sent Bey of Tunis has a villa at Goletta, where he resides from May 
to September, during which time the ministers and other officials 
are also resident here. It is contrary to Moslem etiquette for a Bey who 
has recently ascended the throne to occupy the same summer residence 
as his predecessor, and their places of abode therefore vary. The 
Palace of the present Bey is situated to the r. of the canal which 
connects the bay with the inner creek. On the 1. of this canal are 
the Doyana, the Harem of the Bey, the Court of Justice (where the 
Bey presides in summer; comp. p. 238), and the Arsenal. Thehand- 
some villas outside the gate on the coast towards Carthage, are the 
residences of the Bey's ministers, the nearest to the town being 
that of the all-powerful chief-minister, Mustapha el Chasnadar. 

A busy traffic is carried on between Goletta and Tunis by means 
of a steamboat and also by the recently constructed railway. The 

236 Route 24. TUNIS. 

railway-station is just outside the gate on the road to Carthage. 
The journey to Tunis by railway occupies 25 min. The steamboat, 
which is pleasanter, starts from the quay in the canal a little 
beyond the railway, and accomplishes the distance in about l'/4 nr , 
traversing the inner creek named El Bahira. To the 1., immedi- 
ately after starting, the steamboat passenger will observe the wrecks 
of several large vessels of war, which form an idea of the deplor- 
able condition of the armaments of the country. On the island of 
Schykeli, two-thirds of the way to Tunis, is a castle dating from the 
middle ages, containing a large leaden reservoir. The lake is 
haunted by innumerable wild fowl, and flamingoes among the num- 
ber, which afford excellent sport. 

Tunis. Porters, as at Goletta, 50-70 c. 

There are two hotels in the European style : Hotel de France, French 
landlord, R. 2, A. i|g, D. 3 1 J2, B. (with meat) 2'|2fr., in case of a great influx 
of visitors the charges are somewhat higher; Hdtel de V Orient, opposite 
the former, proprietor also a Frenchman, rather cheaper, but good. They 
are both situated in the Street of the Bourse, close to the entrance to 
the town through the gate leading from the coast to the 1. In the same 
street there is a good French Cafe with a garden. 

In case of a prolonged visit, which the delightful climate may well 
induce travellers to make, private lodgings should be engaged beforehand. 
A good dinner may be obtained at a moderate charge at one of the restau- 
rants (Locande). The city is well provided with physicians, druggists, 
baths, (fee. 

No guides should be engaged but those recommended by the hotel- 
keepers or other respectable persons (5 fr. per day). If the following plan 
be adopted, a boy will suffice (2'|2 fr. per day). 

Plan for a short visit. Immediately on arriving the traveller should 
call on his consul and exhibit his passport. The police require this to be 
done, and it is the universal practice. The passports of persons arriving 
from Italian ports require no visa or other formality, but for visitors 
arriving from French ports the rules are somewhat more strict. The next 
thing is to make arrangements for visiting the Bardo the following day. 
The evening may be spent in walking about the town, or in visiting one 
of the numerous coffee-houses, where the Moslem may be seen over his 
pipe and coffee. The performances of Jewish dancing-girls, calling them- 
selves Moors, accompanied by the most barbarous negro music, may also 
be witnessed ; but such exhibitions should only be visited under the 
escort of some one acquainted with the language of the country. I. Day: 
In the morning proceed by railway (or, better still, by carriage, 4-7 fr.) 
to the Bardo and inspect the interior; after dinner walk to the Hammam 
Lef and the vicinity; in the evening walk through the town or visit the 
Italian theatre. II. Day : Excursion to the Ruins of Carthage, for which 
there is time in the morning before the departure of the steamboat if the 
first train from Tunis to Goletta be taken, and no unnecessary delay be 
made. On returning from Marsa to Goletta the traveller should at once 
go on board the steamboat. Dinner is served immediately after starting. 

Permission to visit the Bardo (p. 238) must be obtained through the 
traveller's consul. Application is made by letter to the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, who procures a personal permission from the Bey him- 
self, which is always to be obtained and is quite indispensable. The 
visit may be made any afternoon except a Friday, the Mahometan Sab- 
bath. If the Bey is at his summer residence at Goletta, the consul should 
lie requested to send a messenger thither at once by railway, the expense 
of which the traveller of course defrays. When the permission is obtained, 
the consul scuds his dragoman with it to the Bardo for examination, and 
arranges with the traveller as to the hour of starting, which is usually 

TUNIS. 24. Route. 237 

9 a.m. At the time appointed the dragoman will be found waiting in the 
piazza, who, when the traveller appears, takes his place on the box 
beside the driver. If, however, the Bey is residing at one of his villas 
near the Bardo, the consul merely gives his dragoman a letter of intro- 
duction, which he presents for examination at the Foreign Office in the 
Bardo whilst the visitor remains in the waiting-room. If the Bey is 
engaged the traveller may have to wait half-an-hour or more before the 
permission is obtained. Meanwhile he may amuse himself by procuring 
from one of the black servants in attendance near the waiting-room a 
small cup of coffee prepared in Arabian fashion (2 charrubs, or about 
5 centimes). As the attendants at the Bardo are prohibited to accept any 
gratuity for showing the rooms, uncovering the furniture, &c, and per- 
form their part very reluctantly for a single visitor, the traveller should 
endeavour to make up a party on board the steamer or at the hotel to 
visit the place. The dragoman's fee is 5-15 fr., according to the number 
of the party, the minimum being 5 fr. 

Tunis, the capital of the state of the same name, and next to 
Cairo the largest town in Africa, contains about 150,000 inhab., 
of whom about one-fifth are native Jews, and one-tenth Europeans 
of various nationalities, Italians, Maltese, Greeks, and French. The 
remainder are Moors, Arabs, Turks, Berbers, and negroes. The 
Europeans reside almost exclusively in the European Quarter (Citta 
Franca), which is situated at the ^.E. end of the town, and includes 
the piazza of the Marine Gate. The Jews also for the most part 
keep to their own quarter, which is the dirtiest part of the town, 
while that of the Moors is the cleanest. Various phases of Oriental 
life may be witnessed in the narrow and sometimes unpaved streets. 
At several points the thoroughfare is obstructed by tombs of saints, 
which are very numerous. The town is supplied with excellent 
running water brought from the springs of Ssagnan, 36 M. distant 
in the interior of the country, an ancient Carthaginian aqueduct 
being utilized for the purpose for a portion of the distance (p. 238). 

The *Bazaar, with its numerous rows of shops, presents a very 
entertaining scene. It consists of 17 distinct divisions, named Suk, 
each devoted to the sale of articles of one particular class : in the 
Suk el Chbebdschia ('throwsters') are sold fringes and silk wares ; 
in the Suk el Attarin ('essences') the exquisite Oriental essences 
only ; in the Suk el Birka (formerly the slave market) jewellery of 
every description and ancient coins ; and at the two lateral ap- 
proaches, burnus, haiks, scarfs, etc. 

The Palace of the Bey (Dar el Bey) which is occupied by him 
only during the month of Rhamadan , the Mahomedan month of 
fasting, and also that of the carnival, hardly merits a visit. 

On the highest ground in the city rises the Khasba, an extensive 
and half-dilapidated citadel dating from the time of the Emperor 
Charles V., and still armed with cannon. It commands a fine sur- 
vey of the city and environs. In the vicinity is the palace of the 
Ferik, or governor of the city. 

The Mosques, in the Moorish style with their slender minarets, 
can only be inspected externally, admission to them, as well as to 
the numerous Mahomedan burial-grounds in and near the city, 
being rigorously denied to unbelievers. 

238 Route 24. TUNIS. 

The pleasantest promenade is the Marine Avenue, or avenue of 
the quay, which extends from the gate next to the El Bahira bay as 
far as the Dogana and the steamboat quay. 

About 2 M. to the N.W. of Tunis is situated the *Bardo (adm. 
see p. 236), an extensive pile of buildings resembling a town in 
miniature, where the Bey has his seat of government in winter, con- 
taining also the headquarters of his army and a state prison. The 
chief object of interest in the interior is the throne-room, with its 
characteristic pictures and objects of value, most of them the gifts 
of foreign monarchs. The balcony commands a pleasant view in 
the direction of the fresh-water lake which fills the low grounds 
beyond the heights of Tunis. Near the Bardo is the Manuba, a 
group of villas where the Bey and his magnates reside in winter. 
(That of the young Chasnadar contains a collection of Roman and 
Phoenician inscriptions and antiquities found at Carthage, but 
.admission is not easily obtained. ) In the vicinity is the already 
mentioned Carthaginian Aqueduct, which is still used. 

Excursions may also be made to the Belvedere, an eminence 
1 /i hr. from the town, commanding a fine view; to the Ariane, a 
village with pleasant villas, '/2 nr - distant, where the most beautiful 
roses in the country are cultivated ; to the warm springs and baths 
of Hammam Le/"(or El Enf), with the extensive, now dilapidated, 
summer palace of a former bey, where the internal arrangements of 
a Moslem prince and his harem may be inspected (admission by 
payment of a fee). An excursion to Vtica requires a whole day. 
In and around Tunis the safety of the public is efficiently provided 
for, but long excursions into the interior should not be undertaken 
without an escort. 

The Kingdom, or, as it is more commonly called, the 'Regency*, of 
Tunis, which, since 1575, has been under little more than the nominal 
supremacy of the Sultan of Turkey, embraces an area of 75,000 square 
31., with aboiit 2 million inhabitants. The present. Bey, Mahommed 
Essadok Pasr/ia , who was born in 1813 , is a descendant of the Hussein 
family, which has occupied the throne since 1691 ; and the heir-apparent, 
according to the Osman law of succession, is his eldest brother, Sidi Ali. 
The country is divided into 24 districts and 36 suh-districts, the former 
being presided over hy caids (governors) and caliphs (sub-governors), the 
latter hy mesclieiks. These officials are appointed by the Bey, to whom 
they pay a heavy tax for their tenure of office. The code of law of the 
country is the Karaa, an excerpt from the Koran, with additions and 
amplications, the decision of cases for which it does not provide heing 
left to the discretion of the judge. The supreme judge is the Bey him- 
self, who usually holds a court twice a week. The ahove-mentioned 
officials are the district judges, against whose decisions an appeal to the 
Hey is competent. Spectators are admitted to the inferior courts, hut the 
Bey does not readily grant access to the supreme court. The judgment 
of the supreme court is followed by immediate execution. Criminal as 
well as civil causes in which foreigners are concerned fall within the 
jurisdiction of the consul of their country, and all strangers are exempt 
from taxation unless proprietors of landed property. The slavery of white 
persons was abolished in 1816, that, of blacks in 1844. The armament'; of 
the country, which have greatly declined of late years, now consist of an 
army of about 4UKI regular troops and 12,000 irregular troops, and a navy 

CARTHAGE. -J4. Route. 239 

of four vessels only. The equipment, food, and pay of the men are 
extremely poor, and soldiers are frequently seen occupied in knitting and 
other feminine pursuits with a view to eke out their pittance. The 
administration of the finances, formerly in a most deplorable condition 
from being left entirely to the caprice of the favourites of the Bey, is 
now entrusted to an 'European Finance Commission \ independent of the 
Government, in accordance with a resolution passed by the Great Powers 
in 1860. The current coins of the country are piastres and charvbs : 
1 piastre = 16 silver charubs=24 copper charubs ; 3'J piastres=20 francs= 
1G shillings. A piastre is therefore worth about sixpence, and 24 charubs 
about one franc, but the course of exchange varies. Francs may generally 
be exchanged without difficulty, but this is not the case with English money. 

The Ruins of Carthage (Sidi-bu-Said, Marsa, and Camart) 
are most conveniently visited from Ooletta by carriage (8 t'r). The 
railway passes the rains and goes as far as Marsa (p. 239), but does, 
not suit the requirements of the tourist. A small chapel on the 
hill nearest to fioletta was erected by Louis Philippe in 1841 to 
the memory of his ancestor Louis the Saint, who died here in 1270 
when engaged in a crusade against Tunis. The garden in which 
the chapel stands contains Roman inscriptions and reliefs of the 
Imperial period, found in the course of excavations instituted by 
the French government. (Of late, however, the public have been 
excluded.) A massive fragment of wall here, with two niches, is 
supposed to have belonged to the celebrated Temple of /Eculapius. 
It is at least well ascertained that this hill was the site of the 
Ryrsa, or ancient citadel of Carthage. A large vaulted structure of 
brick, supposed to have been a reservoir, as well as the extensive 
ruins by the sea, belong to the Roman Carthage. The outline of 
the earlier city can no longer be recognised in consequence of its 
having so frequently been destroyed, while the site itself has also 
undergone extensive changes. Mommsen in his History of Rome 
gives the following account of this interesting locality : 

'Carthage was rendered a place of great strength, partly by the nature 
of its situation, and partly by the skilful construction of its walls, to which 
the inhabitants were frequently compelled to trust for protection. (The 
configuration of the coast has in the course of centuries been so changed that 
the ancient local peculiarities of the site cannot now be thoroughly appre- 
ciated. The name of the town still survives in Cape Karthadschena, also 
termed Has Sidi-bu-Said from the tomb of a saint there situated. This 
promontory is the E. extremity of the peninsula which extends into the 
bay and rises to a height of 400 ft. above the sea-level.) In the spacious 
Bay of Tunis, bounded on the \Y. by Cape Farina, and on the E. by Cape 
Bon, a promontory projects in the direction from W. to E., three sides of 
which are washed by the sea, the remaining side towards the W. alone 
being connected with the mainland. This promontory, the narrowest part 
of which is not above 2'|v> 51. in breadth, and altogether somewhat flat, 
expands as it abuts on the bay and terminates in the two heights oi' 
Dschebel-Khawi and Sidi bu Said. Between these extends the plain of 
El Marsa, on the S. portion of which, bounded by the height of Sidi bu 
Said, lay the city of Carthage. The somewhat precipitous fall of this 
height towards the sea and numerous cliffs and chasms afforded a natural 
protection to the city on the side towards the bay, where a simple ram- 
part sufficed ; whilst the land side on the W., being unprotected by natural 
means, was provided with a wall constructed with the utmost care and 
ingenuity. The castle hill, or Byrsa (Syriac birtha = castle), was a com- 
paratively lofty rock, 188 ft. in height and 1>| 2 31. in circumference. 

240 Rnute-J-l. CARTHAGE. 

abutting on the S. extremity of the wall, in the same way as the cliff of 
the Roman Capitol advances so as to touch the ramparts of the city. The 
upper surface of the eminence was occupied by a va6t temple of the patron 
deity, founded on a basement approached by 60 steps. The S.W. side of the 
city was bounded by the shallow lake of Tunis, which was almost entirely 
separated from the bay by a low and narrow tongue of land projecting from 
the Carthaginian peninsula; on the S. E. side lay the open bay. On the 
latter side was situated the double-harbour of the city, constructed by arti- 
ficial means : the outer or commercial harbour was an oblong quadrangle 
with the narrower end towards the sea, from the entrance to which, 70 ft. 
in breadth only, broad quays extended on both sides; the inner or naval 
harbour, the Kothon, was of a circular form, accessible from the outer, and 
containing an island in the centre occupied by the admiral's residence. The 
two were separated by the city-wall, which extending E. from the Byrsa, 
excluded the neck of land and the outer, but included the naval harbour, 
so that the entrance to the latter must have been closed by a gate. In the 
vicinity of the naval harbour was situated the market-place, connected by 
three narrow streets with the castle, which was open towards the town. 
To the }?. of and without the town lay the considerable space of the 
present El Marsa, at that period termed Magalia, principally occupied by 
country-residences and carefully cultivated gardens, and enclosed by a 
rampart of its own adjoining the city-wall. On the opposite extremity of 
the peninsula, the Dschebel-Khawi, near the modern village of Camart, 
was situated the city of tombs. Thus the city, the suburb, and the tombs 
occupied the entire width of the promontory on the side towards the bay 
and were accessible only by the two high roads to Utica and Tunis which 
traversed the narrow neck of land already described. The latter, although 
not protected by a wall, afforded the most advantageous position to 
armies posted there for and under the protection of the city. 1 

Karthada, or 'new town', as the city was originally called, was founded 
by the Phoenicians (Dido), about 880, and subsequently became their most 
important colony. It was unsuccessfully besieged by Agathocles, but was 
taken and entirely destroyed by Scipio in 146. Augustus established a 
Roman colony here, which owing to the incomparable situation of the 
town and the fertility of its environs, soon attained the rank of the third 
city of the empire. In 439 it was conquered by Genseric and made the 
capital of the Vandal empire, but in 533 succumbed to the attacks of 
Belisarius. The supremacy of the Byzantine emperors was subverted by 
the Arabians in 647, and the city destroyed. 

25. From Palermo to Segesta, Castelvetrano, and 

The most direct route to the ruins of Segesta and Selinunto is by 
Oalatafimi, thence by Salemi to Castelvetrano. 1st Day. By diligence (9 fr 
60 c.) or periodica to Calatafimi (40'|4 M.). 2nd Day. To Segesta, 4 M. from 
Calatafimi, and back ; then to Castelvetrano (27 M., dilig. 6 fr. 45 c). 3rd 
Day. To Selinunto and beyond it, see R. 26. Three-horse carr. from Palermo 
to Castelvetrano , where the carriage-road terminates, 60 — 70 fr. and a 
gratuity. — Those who contemplate visiting Segesta only, and returning to 
Palermo, may. if the steamboats suit, extend their excursion to Trapani 
and Monte S. Giuliano (p. 244) : 1st Day, to Calatafimi ; 2nd Day, to Segesta 
and by diligence to Trapani (5 fr. 55 c.) ; 3rd Day, to Monte S. Giuliano; 
4th Day, by steamer from Trapani to Palermo. Or in the reverse direction, 
by steamboat to Trapani and back by diligence. The steamers of the 
Florio Co. run once weekly from Palermo to Syracuse by Trapani. Once 
a fortnight the Tunis boat touches at Trapani and Marsala, where both 
of these vessels also touch on the return-passage to Palermo. Those who 
desire to visit Segesta only cannot accomplish the journey by carriage 
without change of horses in less than three days. The distance is shorter 
via Alcamo (30 M.) direct to Segesta f8'| 2 M.), but this route is generally 
considered hazardous. Carriage for 3 days 60 — 70 fr. and 3 — 5 fr. buonamano. 

ALCAMO. 25. Route. 241 

The road to Trapani leads by 

(4 M.) Monreale, and crosses the beautiful valley of the Simeto 
with its luxuriant orange-groves, beyond which the small town 
of Parco becomes visible on the 1. and the slope of M. Caputo 
is ascended. After an ascent of '/2 M. the road turns to the W., 
enters a desolate rocky valley enclosed by precipitous mountains, 
which on all sides belong to the monks of S. Martino, and des- 
cends to the small town of Borghetto (6000 inhab.). A fertile, 
well-irrigated tract is now traversed, in which near Giardinello 
the Duo d'Aumale possesses extensive and admirably farmed 
estates (zuppo). From Borghetto the road leads by a royal do- 
main (1.) and at the base of the Montayna della Croce, a red 
limestone-rock, to the country-town of 

(13 M.) Sala di Partinico (Locanda della Bambina), with a 
population of 19.072. Beyond the mountain-chain which towers 
to the N. of Partinico (Mte. Belvedere and Mte. Orso), not far 
from the sea, Carini is situated, once the free Sicanian town of 
Byccara, whence in 415 the Athenians carried off the after- 
wards so celebrated courtezan Lais, then a girl of 12 years. 
Beyond Partinico the dreary village of Valguarnera is passed. 
The conical mountain to the 1. , adjoining M . Mitro (3546 ft. ), 
is the Pizzo di Marabella. The road then leads through se- 
veral ravines to 

(13 M.) Alcamo (Albergo Italiano, in a side-street, opp. the 
cathedral, tolerable ; Locanda della Fortuna, bad), a town of Ara- 
bian origin, with 19,518 inhab. In 1223, after an insurrection, 
Frederick II. substituted a Christian for the Saracenic population. 
The town (853 ft. above the sea-level) still presents a quaint 
aspect. Above it rises the Mte. Bonifato, or della Madonna, 
dell' Autu (Alto) (2713 ft.), whence a magnificent prospect of 
the Bay of Castellamare is obtained. The house here pointed 
out as that of Ciullo d'Alcamo, the earliest Sicilian poet, is in 
reality of much more recent origin. 

From Alcamo the road descends into the valley of the Fiume 
Freddo, the Crimissus of the ancients, on the banks of which, 
nearer its source, Timoleon with 11,000 men conquered 70,000 
Carthaginians, whilst the latter were attempting to cross the river, 
B. C. 340. On the left bank of the mouth of the river lies 
Castellamare, which gives its name to the entire bay between the 
promontory of S. Vito on the W. and Rama on the B. It was 
once the sea-port of Segesta, and now carries on a considerable 
trade with Italy (8986 inhab.). It has the reputation of being 
a very hotbed of Sicilian brigandage. 

The road now ascends from the Fiume Freddo to 

(10 M.) Calatafimi [Locanda di Matteo, poor; Albergo Ga- 
ribaldi alia Piazza Maggiore. The cure Niccolb Consentino will- 
ingly affords information to travellers). If the principal street 
BiEDEKEK. Italy III. 4th Edition. 16 

242 Route 25. SEGESTA. From Palermo 

be ascended, a good footpath diverging to the r. beyond the 
town will lead the stranger to the summit of the castle hill. 
Fine *view hence of the temple, the town beneath, and the 
extensive mountainous landscape in the environs. 

A visit to Segesta requires 3 — 4 hrs., guide necessary (2 — 
3 fr., Niccolb Morsellino recommended; mule 2'/ 2 — 3 fr.). The 
path from Calatafimi to (4 M.) Segesta is rugged, but extremely 
picturesque. It descends immediately from the town to the N. 
into a precipitous valley traversed by several brooks. Before the 
traveller rises the almost perpendicular Mte. Barbaro, on the 
summit of which Segesta was situated. It is advisable to ascend 
to the 1. of the mountain by the course of the Fiumara Pispisa, 
to visit the temple in the rear of M. Barbaro first, and thence 
to ascend to the summit, from which the descent may either be 
made by the ancient approach to the town to the Fiumara, or 
again by the temple ami then to the r. round the mountain to 

Segesta (Egesta) is one of the most ancient towns in the is- 
land, and not of Greek origin, in consequence of which it was 
incessantly engaged in war with the Greek inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood, although in the course of centuries its entire 
aspect had become Hellenic. 

The Greeks entertained the unfounded opinion that the Egestans were 
descended from the Trojans, who settled here near the warm springs of 
the Scamander (Flume Gdggeva), and had combined with the Elymi so as 
to form a distinct people. During the Roman period the tradition accord- 
ingly arose that the town was founded by ^Eneas. The ancient town ex- 
perienced the most disastrous vicissitudes. Oppressed by the inhabitants 
of Selinus, the Egestans invited the Athenians to their aid, and after the 
defeat of the latter at Syracuse, they surrendered to the Carthaginians, 
who destroyed Selinus and Egesta also. After that period the temple 
remained uncompleted. The town, however, recovered, and hoped to throw 
off the Carthaginian yoke by seeking the co-operation of Agathocles ; but 
the tyrant on his return from an expedition against Carthage massacred 
the ill-fated inhabitants on the banks of the Scamander in order to appro- 
priate their treasures, whilst others were sold as slaves. The town was 
then named Dicseopolis. During the first Punic War the inhabitants allied 
themselves with the Romans and changed the name of^ their town from 
Egesta (egestas) to Segesta. The Romans, actuated by a sentiment of 
veneration for the ancient Trojan traditions, accorded them some assistance. 
Verres despoiled the town of the bronze statue of Demeter, which had once 
been carried off by the Carthaginians and restored by Scipio Africanus. 
Tile ruins still in existence are the following: 

The ** Temple, situated without the town, on an eminence 
(904 ft. J above the Torrente Pispisa, a peripteros-hexastylos of 
3(i columns, but never completed. The columns are therefore 
unfluted, the steps of the basement unfinished, and the cella 
not commenced. In other respects it is one of the best pre- 
served Doric temples in Sicily, and its simple but majestic out- 
lines in this desolate spot are profoundly impressive. Length, 
incl. the steps, 200 ft., width 86 ft., height of columns with 
capitals 30 ft. and thickness f>'/2 ft., intercolumnia 8'/ 2 it. in width. 
The architraves wore beginning to give way and were therefore 

to Selinunto. CASTELVETRANO. 25. Route. 243 

secured where necessary with iron rods in 1865. From the 
temple the traveller ascends by the custodian's house to the 
summit of M. Barbaro, the site of the town itself, and enters 
the Theatre, commanding a magnificent view: in the direction 
of the stage rises M. Inice (3491 ft.) in the background, farther 
to the 1. M. Sparagio (3704 ft.), to the r. is the so-called Bosco 
di Calatafimi, and lower down in the valley of the Scamander 
(Gaggera) the remains of the Thermae Segestanae, supplied by 
four different warm springs which are passed on the route to 
Alcamo. The diameter of the theatre, which is hewn in the 
rock, is 208 ft., that of the entire stage 90 ft., and of the orchestra 
54 ft. The twentieth row of seats adjoining the 'pnecinctio' (or 
barrier between the different tiers) is furnished with backs. A 
few remains of houses with Roman and Greek mosaic pavements 
have recently been excavated. 

In returning from the temple the traveller obtains a view of 
the battle-field (indicated by crosses), where Garibaldi obtained 
the victory of May 15th, 1860. 

Those who proceed to Castelvetrano traverse the valley be- 
tween Calatafimi and Vita, from which Garibaldi directed his 
attack on the 3000 Neapolitans posted on the heights under 
Landy. This route from Calatafimi to Castelvetrano (27 M., 6 fr. 
45 c. by diligence) is monotonous and historically uninteresting. 
4 M. Vita; i l / 2 M. Salemi, a town with 13,020 inhab., com- 
manded by a ruined castle. The district is unattractive, but be- 
comes more pleasing as the road approaches 

13 M. Castelvetrano (623 ft.), Sicil. Casteddu Vetranu [Lo- 
canda delta Pantera, tolerable, charges according to bargain; 
*Caffe and Trattoria di Selinunto, in the Piazza), a provincial 
town with 18,797 inhabitants who are hereditary tenants of the 
fertile district around the town, the property of the dukes of 
Monteleone (of the family of Aragona-Pignatelli). The campanile 
of the church adjacent to the palace of Monteleone affords the 
best panorama of the surrounding plain. The church of S. Oio- 
oanni contains a statue of St. John by Oagini. 

From Castelvetrano to Selinunto (7'/ 2 M.) in about 2*/ 2 hrs. 
(mule there and back 4 tari, i. e. 1 fr. 80 c, and 1 — 2 tari for 
food and gratuity). The road to Sciacca is at first followed. A 
field-road then diverges r. to the ruined temples of the Neapolis 
on the W. hill. In order to reach the Acropolis the traveller 
should cross the sand-bank as near the sea as possible, as the 
valley between the Neapolis and Acropolis is marshy. A custo- 
dian is generally to be found at the Acropolis, but previous 
enquiry may be made at Castelvetrano. His services may, how- 
ever, easily be dispensed with. A supply of refreshments 
should be taken for the journey. 

**Selinus, possessing the grandest ruined temples in Europe, 


244 Route 25. 


was founded in 650 or 6'28 hy colonists from Megara Hyblasa 
under Pammilus, and was the most western settlement of the 
Hellenes in Sicily. On an eminence by the sea, 100 ft. in 
height, to the E. of the river Selinus (Madiuni), Pammilus 
erected the Acropolis, behind which, more inland, the town it- 
>elf lay. On the opposite hill , separated by a marshy valley 
( Oorgo di Cotone), the credit of having drained which is said to 
he due to the philosopher Empedocles, the Neapolis was founded 
in the 6th cent. The Selinuntians were still engaged in 
the construction of the temples of the latter when Hannibal 
Gisgon destroyed the town in 409. The conflicts between the 
Selinuntians and Egestans , whose territories were contiguous, 
afforded the Athenians, and afterwards the Carthaginians, a pre- 
text for interfering in the affairs of Sicily. Hannibal attacked 
the town with 100,000 men. Help from Syracuse came too 
late; 16,000 inhabitants were put to the sword, and 5900 car- 
ried off to Africa as captives ; 2600 only effected their escape to 
Acragas. From that blow Selinus never recovered. Hermocrates, 
the exiled Syracusan patriot, founded a colony here in 407, but 
under the Carthaginian supremacy it never attained to prosperity. 
In the first Punic war it was finally destroyed. As the district, 
is unhealthy in summer the town has since that period remained 
deserted. The temples alone were not entirely abandoned, for 
in the early Christian period cells were formed between the 
buttresses and occupied as dwellings. The Mohammedans termed 
the place Rahl-el-Asnam, or 'Village of the Idols', and here 
they resisted the attacks of King Roger. It cannot be exactly 
determined when the columns were overthrown. The temple 
O. only appears to have been destroyed by human agency; the 
ruin of the others was probably occasioned by an earthquake. 

On the W. hill lie the ruins of 4 temples, which in the direction 
from S. to N. (according to Serradifalco) we shall designate by the let- 
ters A. B. C. D., those on the E. hill, also from S. to N., by the letters 
K. F. fJ. The measurements are given approximately in English feet. 

Length of temple inch steps 

Width of temple inch steps 

Height of columns with capitals . 

Diameter of columns 

Height of entablature (traheazione) 


Length of cella 

Width of cella 



































103| 4 

12'| 2 


15i| 3 


8i |2 


8i| 2 

103| 4 









TRAPAN1. 26'. Route. 245 

A. Peripteros-hexastylos, 14 columns on each side, 2 in the pronaos, 
2 in the posticum, and 2 pilasters. 

B. A small structure, ascribed to Hermocrates. 

C. Hexastylos-peripteros, with 17 columns on each side. The Metopse 
1, 2, and 3 in the museum at Palermo were found here. This 
temple was the most important of those on the Acropolis. In front 
of it terminates the Via Sacra which ascends the mountain, the 
gateway of which may still be traced. A portion of the ruined 
wall, however, appears to have been constructed at a later date 
(probably 407) with stones from the temples. It is supposed to 
have been dedicated to Hercules. 

D. Hexastylos-peripteros, with 15 columns on each side. Here the 
Metopse 6 — 10, 3 in the pronaos, and 2 in the posticum, were found 
by Oavallari in 1831. 

F. Hexastylos-peripteros, with 14 columns and double porticus. An 
unwise project of re-erecting one of the columns has lately been 
begun to be carried out at an enormous expense. 
<i. Octastylos-pseudodipteros-hypaethros, with 17 columns and double 
porticus, uncompleted. 
C. was probably the oldest, G. the most recent temple. It cannot 
now be ascertained to what deities they were dedicated. — E., however, ap- 
pears to have been dedicated to Hera from an inscription found in it in 1865 
(beside the altar also discovered there). — G., on account of its magnitude, 
was formerly supposed to have been sacred to Zeus Olympios, but from 
an inscription recently found here it appears to have been dedicated to 

26. From Palermo to Segesta, Trapani, Marsala, 
and Castelvetrano . 

This route to Segesta and Selinunto requires two days more than the 
preceding-, but those whose time permits should not neglect this oppor- 
tunity of exploring the W. angle of Sicily, and especially the Monte S. 
Oiuliano. Four days are requisite for the expedition : 1st, Calatafimi ; 2nd, 
Segesta, then to Trapani Vi'i 1 ^ 51.; dilig. daily except Sat., 5 fr. 55c); 
3rd, Ascent of Monte S. Giuliano (6 l |2 M., an excursion of 6—7 hrs.), then 
to Marsala (10 3 |i M. ; dilig. daily except Frid., 4 fr. 55c); 4th, by Mazzara 
and Campobello to Castelveti-ano (2'2 l J2 M. ; dilig. daily 5 fr. 40 c ; also a 
periodica). With regard to steamers comp. p. 220. The weekly Syracuse 
steamboat is the only vessel which touches at Mazzara. A three-horse 
carr. for the entire journey may be hired for 100 — 110 fr., and 5 — 10 fr. 

From Palermo to Calatafimi and Segesta, see R. 25. 

From Calatafimi to Trapani a hilly road of 23 7-2 M. Midway 
stands the solitary inn of 

(/i2'/4 M.) Colonnetta, or Canalotti. The surrounding wheat- 
fields belong to the inhabitants of Monte S. Oiuliano, the pre- 
cipitous mountain which rises to the r. after the mountains 
forming the peninsula of S. Vito are passed. Skirting the base 
of Mte. .S. Giuliano, and passing the extensive salt works on 
either side of the road, the traveller reaches 

(11 '/4 M-) Trapani (*Albergo delle Cinque Torri, in the Largo 
S. Niccold, also a restaurant; *Leon cTOro, Strada Nuova, near 
the gate, R. 1 fr., dinner not supplied; Caff'e deW Unith Ita- 
Liana, Corsoj, Drepanon, Drepana = sickle, so called from the 
form of the peninsula, now the seat of a prefect and bishop, 
with 26,334 inhabitants. 

246 Route 26'. MONTE SAN GIULIANO. From Palermo 

In ancient times it was the harbour of Eryx (Mte. S. Giuliano), but 
was converted into a fortress by Hamilcar Barca about the year 260, and 
peopled with the inhabitants of Eryx. In 249 the Carthaginian admiral 
Adherbal defeated the Eoman fleet under the consul Publius Claudius off 
the harbour, and in 242 Drepana was besieged by the consul Lutatius 
Catulus, whose principal head-quarters were in the island of Columbaria 
(Columbara). On this occasion the Carthaginian fleet, laden with stores, 
and on its route from Maretimo to Favignana, was completely annihilated, 
March 241. in sight of the town, a decisive victory which terminated the 
First Punic War. During the Roman period the town was of little im- 
portance. In the middle ages it flourished as a royal residence. In the 
MrttiA of Virgil Anchises is represented as having died here, and ^Eneas 
as having instituted games to his father's memory. The island described as 
the goal in the boat-race is now called Asmello. Another tradition is that 
John of Procida formed the conspiracy against Charles of Anjou on the 
Scoglio del Mai Consiglio. It is, however, an historical fact that Peter of 
Arragon, touching here, Aug. 20th, 1282, when on his return from Africa 
with his fleet, was hailed as the saviour of the town. 

With the exception of a few mediaeval structures, Trapani 
contains few objects of interest. It possesses a good public 
library, founded by the Neapolitan minister of war Ferdelli , a 
native of this place. The Lyceum, to the r. in the Corso, con- 
tains a natural history collection and a picture-gallery (i/ 2 fr.J. 
The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, on the r. side of the Corso, pos- 
sesses a Crucifixion by Van Dyck (in the 4th chap, on the r.), 
freely retouched. 

A walk to the Torre de Legni is recommended. The route 
thither is from the gate towards the sea, at the extremity of the 
Corso inclining slightly to the r. — Well-executed ornaments in 
coral and alabaster may be purchased at Trapani (coral, Michele 
Marceca ; pietra dura, Carlo Guida ; alabaster, Francesco Marino). 

A very attractive excursion (conip. Map, p. 228) of half-a-day, 
which should on no account be omitted, may be made from 
Trapani to Mte. S. Giuliano. The traveller had better either ride 
or walk, as the road, although formerly practicable for carriages, 
has been partially destroyed by a landslip (to the summit in 
2'/ 2 hrs. ; donkeys and mules at the gate, 2 — 2</ 2 fr-, attendant 
1 /g — 1 fr. ; carriage with three horses 25 — 30 fr.). 

*Monte San Giuliano, the Eryx of antiquity, is an isolated 
mountain, 2464 ft. in height, on the summit of which is situated 
a town with 10,542 inhab. (*Trattoria). The road traverses the 
plain already crossed by the traveller on the route to Trapani, 
on which, according to Virgil, jEneas celebrated his games. 
The modern water-conduit supplies the town. To the r. the 
church of the celebrated Madonna di Trapani, erected in 1332. 
Here the road diverges, and pedestrians may ascend from it by 
a steep footpath to the 1. The precipitous slopes are in some 
places beautifully clothed with wood ; midway the small but fer- 
tile Piano del Cappuccini, to the r. of which rises the rock Pe- 
trale, 1. La Cintaria. At the entrance of the town stands the 
cathedral , from the campanile of which a fine view may be 

to Castelretrano. MONTE S. G1TJLIANO. -20. Route. "247 

enjoyed. The interior, restored in 1565, contains an ancient 
fountain-coping of almost transparent marble. The traveller now 
ascends through the town to the ivy-clad castle (two towers of 
which are used as a prison, porter 30 c). The rugged, rocky 
eminence on which it stands commands a noble prospect of the 
land and sea. To the W. Trapani at the spectator's feet, and 
the jEgadian Islands : Maretimo (ancient Hiera, with the Monte 
Falcone, 2244 ft.) the most distant, to the 1. Favignana (^Egusa, 
1069 ft.) nearer, r. Levanzo (Phorbantia), all of which have 
been the property of the Genoese family of the Pallavicini since 
the middle of the 17th cent. Towards the S. stretches the fer- 
tile plain of the coast, with Paceco, the 'town of cucumbers' ; 
in the back-ground Marsala. Towards the E. tower the moun- 
tains of S. Yito (from W. to E. Sparagio, Laccie, Saughe, Santa 
Bannaba, Rocca, and Corvo), and the conical peninsula of Cofano 
extends into the sea. which bounds three sides of the mountain. 
In winter Cape Eon in Africa is occasionally visible, the island 
of Pantellaria (p. 235) frequently. In spring the entire district 
at the feet of the spectator is clothed with the most luxuriant 

On the summit once stood tlie shrine of Venus Erycina. On this moun- 
tain Phoenician settlers had formerly erected a temple to Aschera, whose 
worship was attended with the most impure rites. No blood was permitted 
to flow on her altar. Melkarth was also worshipped here; the Greeks 
therefore believed the temple to have been founded by Hercules, and 
Porieus, brother of Leonidas of Sparta, undertook, as a Heraclides, an ex- 
pedition to conquer this district, but was defeated and slain by the Phoeni- 
cians and Egestans. During the First Punic War Hamilcar Barca surprised 
the town and besieged the temple, which was bravely defended by the 
Celtic mercenaries in behalf of Rome, but at the same time plundered by 
them. The Romans restored it, furnished it with a guard of 200 men, and 
accorded it the revenues of 17 towns of Sicily (for Eryx, it was said, had 
also been founded by iEneas !). According to some the temple was founded 
by Deedalus, and Eryx by a son of Venus and Butes. The present appel- 
lation is derived from the tradition that, when the town was besieged by 
King Roger, he beheld St. Julian putting the Saracens to flight. 

The sole remains of the temple of Venus are the foundations 
within the precincts of the castle, the so-called Ponte del Diavolo, 
and the 'Fountain of Venus' in the castle-garden, an ancient re- 
servoir, 4 yds. in width, 8 yds. in length. Of the walls of the 
sacred city of Venus considerable portions still exist beneath the 
present wall, between the gates of Trapani and La Spada, con- 
sisting of huge blocks in layers of equal height. The wall was 
defended by 11 towers at unequal intervals. The entrance to 
the town was obviously between the Monte di Quartiere and the 
Porta la Spada, where in the interior of the town the walls of 
the approach can be traced towards the r. These walls are un- 
questionably of very great antiquity, although it cannot now be 
ascertained by what nation they were erected. The town it- 
self, of which Hamilcar Barca once took possession, lay lower 

248 Route 26. MARSALA. From Palermo 

down on the table-land to the W., immediately above Trapani, 
but no trace of it now exists. 

A road intersecting the beautiful and richly cultivated plain 
of the coast leads from Trapani to (3 M.) La Xitta, (1 M.) 
Paceco, and (13 M.) Marsala (the high road to which is several 
miles longer). Paceco, founded in 1609, is celebrated for its ex- 
tensive cultivation of cucumbers and melons. Beyond Paceco the 
Birgi, the ancient Acithis, is crossed. Here in the plain of 
Falconari, Frederick II. of Sicily routed the united French and 
Neapolitan armies and took Philip of Anjou prisoner, Dec. 1st, 
1299. This was the greatest of the battles which took place 
subsequent to the Sicilian Vespers. To the r. Lo Stagnone, a 
bay bounded by a flat shore, with the islands of Borrone, Isola 
Longa, and nearer the coast Isola S. Pantaleone (see below). 

20 (or by the above road 17) M. Marsala (Locanda il Leone, 
near the cathedral, dirty; Trinacria, tolerable; *Trattoria of 
Francesco Porcelli, at the post-office, near the Porta Garibaldi; 
*Caff"e Lilibeo, opposite the cathedral) is an important commer- 
cial town with 17.732 (with surburbs 31,350) inhab., well- 
known for its wine, which is usually exported in a 'fortified' 
state. The principal merchants are the firms of Ingham, Florio, 
and Woodhouse, from any of whom the traveller is sure to meet 
with a kind reception. Their extensive and interesting establish- 
ments are situated on the shore to the S. of the town. Gari- 
baldi landed here, on May 11th, 1860, with 1007 men, trans- 
ported by the 'Piemonte' and 'Lombardo', and marched to Cala- 
tafimi by Salemi. The town, entirely of modern origin, contains 
little worthy of mention, except the cathedral and the harbour. 
The Municipio (last door on the r.) contains an antique animal- 
group from Motya, a tiger devouring a bull. 

Marsala occupies the site of the ancient Lilybaeum, a frag- 
ment of the town-wall of which is preserved near the Porta di 
Trapani. Other relics are the harbour to the N. , where the 
salt-works are now situated, and a few fragments of houses and 
walls on the coast of Capo Boeo (or Lilibeo), the most western 
point of Sicily and the nearest to Africa. In the centre of a 
field on the promontory stands the church of 8. Giovanni Bat- 
tista, with a subterranean spring in the Grotta della Sibilla 
(Cumanaj. The sibyl is said to have proclaimed her oracles 
through the medium of the water, which is still an object of 
superstitious veneration. 

Lilybaeum was the principal fortress of the Carthaginians in Sicily. 
l J yrrh!i 3 besieged it unsuccessfully in 27U, after which he quitted the island 
In 249—241 the Romans in vain endeavoured to reduce it during one of 
the most remarkable sieges on record. Under the Roman supremacy 
I.ilybaeuni was a prosperous city ('splendidissima civitas'J, and the seat of 
government fur half the island of Sicily. From this point the Roman 
expeditions against Africa, and in modern times those of John of Austria 
were undertaken. The present name of the town is of .Saracenic origin' 

to Castelvetrano. MAZZARA. 26. Route. 249 

Marsa-Ali, harbour of Ali. Charles V. rendered the entrance to the har- 
bour more inaccessible by causing stones to be sunk, with a view to de- 
prive the barbarians of one of their favourite haunts. In 1848 the Molo 
was considerably extended, and it is now again receiving additions. 

On the small island of S. Fantaleo, or S. Pantaleone, about 6 M. to the 
N. of Marsala, situated in the shallow ' Stagnotie' near the coast (boat 
thither from Marsala 4 fr.), was situated in ancient times the Carthaginian 
emporium of Motya. The foundations of the old walls may still be traced 
round the entire island ; so also remnants of the gates, especially on the 
side towards the land, with which the island was connected by an embank- 
ment. The latter, although under water, still exists, and is employed by 
the natives as a track for their waggons. In the year B. C. 397 the town 
was besieged and destroyed by Dionysius with 80,000 men and 6000 vessels, 
and the Carthaginian admiral Hiniilco totally routed. By way of com- 
pensation for this loss the Carthaginians founded LilybEeum. 

From Marsala to Mazzara the road is straight and monotonous. 
To the 1. extensive quarries. Considerable portions of the land 
are completely overgrown with reeds and the low fan-palm 
(ohamcerops humilis; Sicil. giumarre). 

(1 1 J / 4 M.J Mazzara (Locanda Oaribaldi, beyond the river; 
Locanda di Mazzaro, tolerable ; Albergo Centrale, with trattoria ; 
Trattoria d' Italia), a town with 10,229 inhab., the residence of 
a bishop with a revenue of 200,000 fr., and of numerous monks 
and nuns, is surrounded by a quadrangular wall 37 ft. in height, 
which is defended in the characteristic Italian style with towers 
rising from it at intervals. Mazzara, originally a colony of the 
Selinuntians, was destroyed in 409. In the middle ages, in 807, 
the Arabians landed at Bas-el-BUat (Punta di Granitola), 6 M. to 
the S. of Mazzara, with the intention of conquering the island, 
a portion of which was termed Val di Mazzara down to 1817. 
The ruined fort at the S. W. angle of the town-wall was erected 
by Count Roger in 1072, who also founded the cathedral, which 
contains three ancient sarcophagi (Battle of the Amazons ; Wild 
Boar Hunt ; Rape of Persephone, freely restored), and a Trans- 
figuration over the high altar by Gagini. On the river Mazarus 
farther up, into the estuary of which the tide penetrates for a 
considerable distance, are situated grottoes in which the 'beati 
Pauli' (Pauliciani) once celebrated their services. The mansion 
of the Conte Burgio and the Capuchin church of the Madonna 
del Paradiso contain two large and handsome oriental porcelain 

Beyond Mazzara the road crosses the river Arena, and gra- 
dually ascends to (7^2 M.) Campobello. Here the traveller 
should quit his carriage for the sake of visiting (in 1 hr.) the 
*Rocca di Cusa, or quarries of Selinunto, situated to the r. The 
path is bad, but cannot be missed. It passes by the Baglio 
(wine-depot) of Messrs. Ingham and Florio, to the r. of the 
road. On the 1. side of the path lies a monolith, 10 ft. in 
diameter, once destined to form a portion of a column, and 
supposed to have rolled down from the quarries on the r. about 

2.'i(> Rntitt 27. SCIACCA. From Castelretrnnr, 

the year B. C. 409. The principal quarries are on the r. The 
places are distinctly seen where the masses of rock destined for 
the columns of temple G. at Selinus (p. 245) were hewn cylindri- 
cally out of the strata. After a portion had been detached from 
the rock at the sides, it was loosened by means of wedges 
driven in the direction of the cleavage of the strata. The spaces 
between the monoliths and the solid rock are so considerable as 
almost to lead to the belief that machines were employed in the 
operation. The blocks appear to have been conveyed from the 
spot by means of tramways. From Campobello to Castelvetrano 
(p. 243) 33/ 4 M. 

27. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti. 

No carriage-road; the journey between Selinunto and Sciacca (28 M.) 
must therefore be performed on horseback. From Sciacca to Girgenti by 
rowing-boat in about 4 hrs. (return-boats sometimes to be met with at a 
reduced fare), a shorter, pleasanter, and cheaper journey than the land 
route. The latter is a fatiguing ride of 39'|2 M. to Girgenti , as no toler- 
able quarters for the night are to be found between Sciacca and Molo di 
Girgenti, the harbour, 3 3 \i M. from the town. The route is very attractive 
at places , and generally considered safe. If mules can be engaged on 
reasonable terms at Palermo for the entire journey, considerable annoyanci' 
at Castelvetrano will probably be avoided. For 3 mules with 3 attendants 
from Castelvetrano to Sciacca 30 fr. were recently paid; and for 3 mules 
with one attendant from Sciacca to Girgenti 45 fr. It is proposed to prevent 
such extortion for the future by the introduction of a tariff. A boat may 
also generally be found at Selinunto to convey travellers to Sciacca (8 fr.), 
but cannot be reckoned upon with certainty. The Syracuse steamboat 
touches at Sciacca (landing or embarcation 1 fr.) once weekly, a pleasant 
means of conveyance to Girgenti if it should happen to suit the traveller's 

If Castelvetrano be quitted sufficiently early in the morning, 
it is possible to ride in one day by the ruins of Selinus to 
Sciacca (28 M. ; by the direct route from Castelvetrano 25 M."). 
From the Acropolis the traveller in this case again crosses to 
the Neapolis, traverses wheat-fields and vineyards, and reaches 
the Fiume Belici (ancient Uypsas), which is crossed by boat. 
The route then lies partly across the sand of the coast, partly 
through poorly cultivated land to Sciacca. The town of Menfrici 
(Sicil. Memfi; 397 ft.), with 9972 inhab., lies a few miles to 
the 1. Near this town the stones appear to have been quarried 
out of which the Metopffi of Selinus were hewn. 

Sciacca [La Pace, clean; Gaffe d'ltalid), with 14,292 inhab., 
is situated on an abrupt eminence (262 ft.) on the coast. Here 
the Thermae Selinuntinae of antiquity were situated. At Sciacca 
Tommaso Fazello (d. 1570), the father of Sicilian history, was 
born. For the sake, it is said, of acquiring an illustrious 
countryman, he describes Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, as 
a native of Sciacca, whereas it is known that he was born at 
Thermae Himerenses (Termini). In the middle ages the town 

to (Urgent). MONTE 8. CALOGERO. 21. Route. 251 

was a place of considerable importance, being under royal and 
not merely baronial supremacy. Powerful nobles, however, also 
resided here, the ruins of whose castles are still to be seen in 
the town; the most extensive of these are on the E. side of 
the town-wall. Here rise the ruins of the castles of the 
Luna and Perollo families, whose feuds, the so-called Casi di 
Sciacca, disturbed the tranquillity of the town for an entire 
century (1410 — 1529), a fact which serves to convey an idea of 
the condition of mediaeval Sicily. The Cathedral was founded 
by Julietta, the daughter of Roger I. The finest view is afforded 
by the tower of S. Michele. The Casa Starepinto and Casa 
Triolo are interesting specimens of mediaeval architecture. The 
spacious modern palace, with beautiful garden, at the E. gate 
is the property of the Marchese San Giacomo. 

Monte S. Calogero (1279 ft.), an isolated cone, 3 31. to the E. of 
Sciacca, deserves a visit on account of the remarkable vapour-baths si- 
tuated there. In the valley between Sciacca and the mountain are the 
sources of the hot sulphur (133° Fahr.) and salt (88°) springs, which at- 
tract numerous patients in summer. The foundation of the vapour-baths 
(Le Stu/e; temperature varying from 92° to 104°) was attributed to Daedalus, 
and the mountain termed in ancient times Mons Chronios. The grottoes, 
partially artificial, with unimportant inscriptions, such as the Grotta Taphano 
(della Diana) and delle Pttizelle, are curious. In the middle ages the 
discovery of the efficacy of the baths was attributed to S. Calogero 
(bkAos'-j i(nov), and most of the baths in Sicily are accordingly named after 
that saint, as in ancient times they were all believed to have been estab- 
lished by Daedalus. The island of Pantellaria is most distinctly visible 
from the 31onte S. Calogero. On July 18th, 1831, a volcanic island (Isola 
Ferdiuandea), 4 31. in circumference, with a crater, rose from the sea 
between Sciacca and Pantellaria, but on Jan. 18th, 1832, entirely disap- 
peared. In 1864 symptoms of a submarine eruption were again observed. 

From Sciacca to Girgenti is a fatiguing route of SS 1 ^ M. 
(12 hrs. ride). The Fiurne Caltabelotta is crossed; to the 1. on 
a precipitous height, on the r. bank of the river, about 10 M. 
inland, rises Caltabelotta. About 1 M. to the S., on a loftier 
summit (2428 ft.), now occupied by the church of S. Maria a 
Monte Vergine, lay Triocala, celebrated for its siege in the Second 
Servile War, B. C. 102. The view from this point is one of the 
finest in Sicily. On the 1. bank the small town of Ribera. 
Farther on, the river Platani (the ancient Halycus) is crossed, for 
the sake of a halt at Monte Allegro (miserable locanda), after 
20V'2 M- of the journey have been performed. Monte Allegro 
consists of two villages, the older of which, situated on the 
mountain, has been deserted on account of the want of water; 
the newer is lower down. Near the village is a small lake, 
•/2 M. in diameter, strongly impregnated with carbonate of soda. 

(In the Capo Bianco (98 ft. J , between the Platani and Monte Allegro, 
lie the ruins of Heraclea Minoa. At first Macara, a Sicanian town, stood 
here; it then became a Cretan and Phoenician settlement (Rvs-Melkarth), 
the Greek Minoa (where the tomb of Minos is still pointed out). It sub- 
sequently became a Lacedaemonian colony under Euryleon, successor of 
Dorieus who was slain at Ervx, and received the name of Heraclea- Minoa. 

252 Route 27 GIRGENTI. From Custelvetrano 

In 1403 it was destroyed by the Carthaginians, then taken from them by 
Agathocles and Pyrrhus. During the First Punic War it again became a 
Carthaginian naval station. When it was finally destroyed is unknown. 
But few fragments now exist. 

From Monte Allegro the "bridle-path traverses a dreary tract, 
partly inland, and partly near the coast. Near Siculiana once lay 
the ancient Ancyra. After a ride of 14^4 M. the busy harbour 
of the Molo di Oirgenti (Locanda) is reached, where the sulphur 
and corn-exporters possess their extensive magazines. A good 
road ascends thence to (3 3 /4 M.) Girgenti (carriages and mules 
not always to be had; railway, however, soon to he opened). 

Those whose time is limited may on arriving at Girgenti by steamer 
*'rom Sciacca disembark, ride or drive to the temples, and after a stay of 
4 hrs. continue their voyage by the same vessel. A carriage may be 
ordered for the occasion by telegraph (1 fr.) from Sciacca or Licata (p. 255). 
The steamboat-agent at Girgenti may be applied to in this matter. Em- 
barcation or landing 1 fr. 

Girgenti. 'Locanda Gellia , K. 2 — 3, L. and A. li|4 fr. ; Villa di 
Xapoli, similar charges ; " Albergo Nuovo di Empedocle ; Bella Venezia, 
bargaining necessary, Roma e Venezia, dear. Michele Pancucci, the custodian 
of the antiquities, is the best guide to the ruins (5 fr. per diem), but by no 
means absolutely necessary. Models of the temples may be purchased of 
Gerlando Aletto (Piano del Barone). Diligence to Palermo daily (except 
Sat.), also to Catania via Caltanisetta and Castrogiovanni. — The railway 
from Palermo to Girgenti will soon be completed. 

Girgenti, the most richly endowed bishopric of Sicily, the 
seat of a prefect, and the military head-quarters of the district, 
contains a population of 15,925 (with suburbs 17,194). It has 
recently been provided with water-works, partly constructed from 
an ancient aqueduct. The four gates of the town are the Porta 
del Molo, del Ponte, Biberia, and Panitteri. One day and a half 
suffices for the inspection of the chief objects of interest. 

Acragas ( "A*aa; m) , 'the most beautiful city of mortals ' according 
to Pindar, was founded by colonists from Gela in 582. The Doric sett- 
lers, natives of Crete, introduced the worship of Athene of Lindos and 
also that of Zeus Atabyrios, i. e. the Moloch of Jit. Tabor. When a 
temple had been erected to Zeus Polieus, 'the founder of cities 1 , Phalaris, 
the founder, usurped the supreme power and ruled from 564 to 549, 
when he was deposed by the Eumenides Telemachus, and an oligarchy 
of 60 years now commenced. Phalaris had sacrificed human victims 
to Zeus Atabyrios in red-hot bulls of metal. This practice, in addition 
to his tyrannical government, rendered him odious to the Greeks. In 48S 
Theron subverted the oligarchy, and extended the dominions of Acragas 
as far as the X. coast, where he conquered Himera. Allied with his son- 
in-law Gelon, the tyrant of Syracuse, he conquered the Carthaginians at 
Himera 480 (p. 273), after which he devoted his attention to the im- 
provement of Acragas. The town stood on a hill descending precipitously 
on the N. side, and sloping gently towards the coast on the S., bounded 
by the two rivers Acragas ( S. Biagio) and Hypsas (Drago). It consisted 
of two parts: the Acropolis to the 1., where the modern town (1082 ft.) 
is situated, erroneously called Camicus by many, where the temple of 
Zeus Polieus stood; and the Rock of Athene (1104 ft.) to the r., with the 
ancient town extending downwards towards the sea, by the walls of 
which the ruined temples now stand. Besides these there was also a 
Xeapolis (Plutarch), which was probably the seaport-town. Prisoners of 
war (of whom many of the citizens possessed as many as 500) were com- 


kantiea dtta 
B rocca. u attadeUa, 
C 3. monte Taro 
1 H trmpio dx Store I'olico 
( Santa Maria, da Bred ) 
hi rupe Atenea 

3 Si tempio di Cerere e. Iroserpina. 

(Qa&sa Jz- San Biaqio ) 

4 tinea, deBe mztra^ ordentxjH 

costrutte a, grandti madgni 

5 rnaresso aUa dtta 

0x7 tempio di Gaaione Lacada 

6 a fonte antico 

7 2e mure meruiionali taga'ate 

Ultfran, parte neHa rocca 

8 il tempio drJLa Gmeert&Ub 

9 aletmi sepoleri sotterranei 

10 xT tempio d Ercole 

11 -porta Aurea 

12 il sepolcro di 2'erone 

13 3 tempio d ' Eseulapio 
14* sepolehri antrcfd 

15 H tempio di Glove Oh'mpiro 

16 (7 tempio ACaetore e dxPoUwe, 

17 an eatHeo mommu-nto (Stoa ' ) 

A& piscina. 

19 h'- fund a Hi Fead 

20iZ tempio di Vulcano 

21 V oratorio di- falaride 

22 H ponte de nujrti- 

Zitoajpn- ardichi 

24 sepolchri antirkL 

25 (SanJfieola JayanMi' di fcdjbriff& 

26 porta.' del ponte 

27 conrento di, San Vrto 

28 H Ihtomo 

■ yeogr. Anstak nw Sd\ Wagner, PnrmMadt, 

to Girgenti. GIRGENTI. 27. Route. 253 

pelled to excavate the subterranean canals ; the temples were also erected 
at that period, and a large fish-pond constructed. This was the climax of 
the prosperity of Acragas. Theron's successors subsequent to 472 were in 
every respect his inferiors. They were at length banished, and from 
Acragas a democratic revolution spread throughout the whole of Sicily. 
The constitution, however, established by Empedocles at Acragas appears 
to have been of a mixed character. The wealth of the citizens was 
enormous. -They built', it has been said of them, 'as if they expected to 
live for ever 1 . The population has been stated at 800,000, but probably 
did not exceed '|ith of that number. After the city had remained neutral 
during the war between Athens and Syracuse, it succumbed in 406 to the 
Carthaginian generals Hainilcar and Himilco and the treachery of its 
own leaders. The inhabitants fled during the night to Gela. Himilco 
caused the city to be plundered and the works of art to be sent to Car- 
thage. The temples were burned down (traces of the action of fire may 
be observed on No. 6). Until the time of Timoleon the city remained a 
scene of devastation. That tyrant sent a colony thither, and the town 
again prospered, at one time as an independent state, at another under 
the Carthaginian supremacy. In the First Punic War the citizens, as the 
allies of Carthage, were in a position to furnish the Carthaginians with 
a contingent of 25,000 men, when the Romans besieged the city in 262. 
The battle fought without the walls was not decisive, but was so favourable 
to the Romans, that the Carthaginians were compelled to withdraw 
their troops to Heraclea. The city was then plundered by the Romans, 
and shortly after by the Carthaginian general Karthalo also. In the Second 
Punic War the Carthaginians maintained themselves longest in this part 
of Sicily, and Acragas came into the possession of the Romans only 
through the treachery of the Xumidians. From that period the town (Agri- 
gentum) was a place of little importance. 

In order to visit the ruins, the traveller quits the town by 
the Porta del Ponte (PI. 26), and ascends by the suppressed 
Capuchin monastery of .9. Vito to the *Rock of Athene, or Rupe 
Atenea (PI. 2). It has been supposed that a temple of Athene 
once stood here, but according to the most recent investigations 
this appears very doubtful. The depression between the town 
and the rock was, according to a local tradition, artificially formed 
by Empedocles to admit of the passage of the Tramontana and 
thus dispel the malaria. The view in every direction is magni- 
ficent. On the E. slope of the rock (689 ft.) are the fragments 
of a small Greek temple 'in antis', said to have been dedicated 
to Ceres and Proserpine (PI. 3). Beneath the Norman church of 
S. Biagio, at the base of the rock, is the Fontana dei Greet, the 
mouth of an ancient channel 4 M. in length , which supplied 
Girgenti with water. 

The traveller now proceeds to the so-called ** Temple of Juno 
Lacinia (PL 6), which is said to have contained the painting of 
Juno executed by Zeuxis from the live most beautiful virgins 
of Acragas as models. The temple (394 ft.) is magnificently 
situated at the point where the town-wall, which consists of 
huge masses of rock, turns from E. to S. The approach, a few 
min. walk N. of the temple, by which the descent to the Fiume 
S. Biagio is made, is ancient. The temple is a peripteros- 
hexastylos with 34 columns of the most perfect period of the 
Doric style (about the year 500). The columns have 20 flutes, 

254 Route 27. G1RGENTI. From Castelvetrano 

and their height is equal to Ave times their diameter. Earth- 
quakes have here completed the work of destruction : 16 pillars 
only are left standing; those on the S. and E. sides have been 
disintegrated by exposure to the Sirocco. In front of the 
pronaos of the temple are two narrow terraces. To the W. an 
ancient cistern. In the town-wall are tombs. 

The so-called **Temple of Concord (PL 8) is one of the best- 
preserved ancient temples in existence, as in the middle ages it 
was converted into a church of 8. Oregorio delle Rape. The 
arched openings in the wall of the cella belong to that period. 
The temple is a peripteros-hexastylos, more recent than that of 
Juno Lacinia, but still erected before the decline of the Doric 
style. Its 34 columns with the architrave and frontons are still 
standing. The incisions for beams are almost all of later origin. 
Stairs in the corners of the wall of the cella ascend to the 

On the 1. of the road, between this and the following temple, 
is the Orotta de' Frangipani, a dome-shaped tomb hewn in the 
rock, containing numerous separate loculi. 

Not far from the temple of Concord are the ruins of the so- 
called Temple of Hercules (PI. 10), a peripteros-hexastylos of 
38 columns. Regarded in a different light it was an amphi- 
prostylos-hypaethros. Fragments of the entablature, with remains 
of painting, are preserved in the museum at Palermo. It is said 
to have contained the celebrated painting of Alcmene by Zeuxis. 
From this temple the infamous Verres attempted to steal the 
statue of Hercules by night, but the workmen employed by him 
were driven away by the pious Agrigentines. Adjoining the 
temple is the Porta Aurea (PI. 11], the town-gate towards the 
harbour, by which in 210 the Romans entered the town. A 
road to the Molo leads through this gate. Within the walls, 
about 10 min. walk from the gate, is the Norman church of 
S. Niccolb (PI. 25) ; near it a tolerable osteria. The neighbouring 
Oratorium of Phalaris (PI. 21), probably once a small Sacellum, 
was afterwards converted into a Norman chapel. The adjoining 
Panitteri garden contains the Corinthian entablature of an ancient 
circular building and remains of statues. 

To the 1., outside the gate, is the so-called Tomb of Theron 
(PI. 12), which, like the temple of Castor and Pollux and the 
Oratorium of Phalaris, is of later Greek origin. According to 
Serradifalco, it is a cenotaph of the Roman period (?). In a house 
between the Tomb of Theron and the confluence of the Acragas 
and Hypsas, where the army of the Romans was posted during 
the siege, are preserved the fragments of an ancient edifice 
which appears to have been a 'templum in antis'. As a Temple 
of /Esrulapius (PL 13), containing the celebrated statue of 

to Girgenti. 


27. Route. 255 

Apollo by Myron, once stood here, it is believed by some to 
have been identical with the above. 

Beyond the Porta Aurea are situated the ruins of the **TempU 
of Zeus (PI. 15), which was never completed. This vast struc- 
ture, extolled by Polybius and described by Diodorus, was erected 
between 480 and 400. It was a pseudo-peripteros-hypaethros 
with 37 huge half-columns, 6 at the entrance, 7 at the E. ex- 
tremity, and 12 on each side, each 20 ft. in circumference, with 
flutings broad enough to admit of a man standing in them, 
and the same number of pilasters in the interior. In the walls 
of the cella, although uncertain where, stood the colossal Tela- 
mones or Atlantes, one of which has been reconstructed, and 
measures 25 ft. They are supposed to have been situated above 
the pilasters as bearers of the trabeation. In the tympanum of 
the E. side was represented the contest of the gods with the 
giants, on the W. side the conquest of Troy. Down to 1401 a 
considerable portion of the temple was still in existence, but it 
has gradually diminished, and in recent times was laid under 
contribution to aid in the construction of the Molo of Girgenti. 

Near this temple M. Cavallari has caused four Doric columns 
of a temple to be placed , which is commonly termed that of 
Leda (PI. 16), from a statue of Leda found here. Fragments of 
the entablature bear distinct traces of stucco and colouring. It 
was a peripteros-hexastylos of 34 columns. Near it are the sub- 
structions of the so-called temple of Castor and Pollux. 

The dimensions of the temples (the numbers refer to the plan) are here 
given approximately in Engl, feet: 

Length incl. steps 
















64i| 2 

















18'| a 


Height of columns with capitals . 



22'| 2 












5'| 2 






Height of entablature 



9>| 2 





In a garden on the farther side of the valley, which is said 
to have once been occupied by the fish-pond (piscina) mentioned 
by Diodorus, are the remains of what is styled the Temple of 
Vulcan (PI. 20), whence a fine view of the temples opposite 
is obtained. Of the spring of oil mentioned by Pliny not a trace 
has been discovered. The Hippodrome was probably situated N. of 
the temple of Vulcan. 

"256 Route 27. GIRGENTI. 

Remains of the celebrated Cloacae of Phaeax still exist in the 
Piscina , but have not yet been sufficiently investigated. The 
Catacombs or subterranean quarries and caverns beneath the 
present town are probably of more remote origin. They are 
visited from the entrance to the church del Purgatorio. 

The loftily situated Cathedral (1082 ft.; PI. 28), commenced 
in the 14th cent., now presents a combination of almost every archi- 
tectural style ; the best portion is the unfinished tower. The 
modernised interior consists of a nave and two aisles. In the N. 
aisle, between the two first columns, is preserved a celebrated 
marble sarcophagus (shown by the sacristan), with representations 
in relief of the myth of Hippolytus. 

On one side Hippolytus hunting and in the act of slaying a boar. On 
one end Phsedra pining for love, behind her the nurse who unveils her; 
before her young girls playing on the guitar; Cupid discharges his shafts 
from beneath, which Phaedra appears to ward off with her left hand. On 
the other side the nurse divulges to Hippolytus the love of his step-mother ; 
he turns sorrowfully aside. On the fourth side Hippolytus in a recumbent 
position ; behind him the sea-monster. The first and fourth sides are in- 
terior to the others. The whole is probably a copy, executed during the 
Roman period, from a fine ancient work. 

An acoustic peculiarity in the cathedral should be observed 
by the visitor. A person standing on the steps of the high- 
altar can distinguish every word spoken on the threshold of the 
principal entrance (from the W.), although the distance is up- 
wards of 90 ft. In the N. transept, to the 1., a Madonna by 
Guido Reni. 

The Archives (in the tower) of the cathedral comprise collections 
of documents from the Norman period of Sicilian history ; Sicilian 
popular songs of 1680; a letter, the authorship of which is 
attributed to the devil, date 1676; a fine ancient vase from a 
tomb of Girgenti, etc. 

From the cathedral the traveller should proceed to the neigh- 
bouring church of S. Maria dei Oreci (closed, custodian 1/2 fr-)' 
which contains remains of the Temple of Jupiter Polieus (PL 1 ). 
It was a peripteros-hexastylos, the dimensions of which are un- 
known. These are the most ancient relics which Girgenti 

A Museum of antiquities found at Girgenti, especially of vases, 
at present under the supervision of the Sindaco, has recently 
been established. 

The most interesting mediaeval structures are the portal of 
San Giorgio and the Palazzo Buonadonna. 

After a day has been devoted to the examination of the ruins 
without the town, the following morning may he spent in visiting 
the objects of interest in the town itself, and the afternoon in 
riding to the mud-volcano of Maccaluba, unless the traveller 
prefer to proceed as far as Palma. 

To the X. of Girgenti, 6 M. distant (donkey 2 — 3 fr.), and 3 M. to the 

LICATA. : J .S'. Route. 257 

W. of the road to Palermo, rises the small mud-volcano Maccaluba, a hill 
138 ft. in height (859 ft. above the sea), consisting of clay and limestone. 
It is covered with a number of small cones 2 — 3 ft. high, from the fissures 
of which hydrogen is emitted with considerable noise. Occasionally mud 
and stones are hurled into the air to a great height. In winter after 
continued rain the cones lose their shape. This excursion is recommended 
to the notice of tin' scientific. 

28. From Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, 
Terranova, Modica (Vol d'Ispiva), and Palazzolo. 

From Girgenti to Syracuse the traveller may select one of the three 
following principal routes: 1st. Through the interior by Caltanisetta, 
Castrogiovanni, and Catania by carr. (R. 29); 2nd. The coast-route on 
horseback ; 3rd. By steamboat (once weekly). The latter usually starts 
from the JIolo at midnight, reaches Licata at 5 a. m. (at each of these 
places a halt of 1 — 2 hrs.), and Syracuse at 5 p. m. : fare in the cabin 
30'| 2 fr. (incl. early breakfast and dejeuner at 10 o'clock). — The coast- 
route requires 4'| 2 — 5 davs : 1st. Palma, 13 31. (or Licata, 24>| 2 31.); 2nd, 
Terranova, 28 31. (Vittoria :«>| 2 31.); 3rd, Jlodica, 34t| 2 31. (Palazzolo 
34>| 2 31.); 4th, Palazzolo 17 31. (Syracuse 28 31.); 5th, Syracuse 28 M. — 
From Vittoria a carriage-road and diligence-communication (18 fr. 90 c.l to 
Syracuse, by Ragusa, 31odica, and Xoto, 7S :i |i 31. Also from Palazzolo di- 
ligence (6 fr. GO c.) to Syracuse, 27 1 J2 31. Private conveyances are more 
easily procured at Vittoria and 3Iodica than at Palazzolo. In order to 
avoid a long and fatiguing ride, as well as an unattractive and often 
unsafe portion of the route, the traveller should if possible avail himself 
of the steamer from Girgenti to Terranova. Travellers at Syracuse may, 
without undertaking the above route, visit the most interesting parts of 
it (Palazzolo, Val" d'Ispica. etc.) in 3 days. — From Girgenti to Licata 
34 fr. were recently paid tor 4 horses, one sumpter-horse, and two atten- 
dants ; for the same number from Licata to Terranova 25 fr. Boat from 
Licata to Terranova also 25 fr., 5 fr. of which were expended on the ne- 
cessary certificate of health, which the boatman procures; the voyage 
should be commenced at an early hour, as the wind frequently rises 
towards noon. 3Iule from Terranova to Vittoria 5 fr. and fee. 

The road from Girgenti to Palma (13 M.J descends from the 
Acropolis into the ancient city, intersects the valley of the <S. 
Biagio, and ascends to the table-land, where, on a height (1217 ft. J 
to the 1., Favara (12,829 inhab.) is situated, with a picturesque 
chateau of the Chiaramonti of the 14th cent. On the summit 
of a hill (1942 ft. ) farther to the 1. rises Naro (10,253 inhab. J, 
also possessing a castle of the Chiaranionte family. Traversing 
pasture-land, within a few miles from the sea which is concealed 
by a low chain of hills, the traveller soon enters the fertile 
valley of Palma. The town contains nothing to arrest the traveller, 
and a halt is seldom made here unless for the night ( Vittoria, 
landlord Nicolo Sortino). 

From Palma the road traverses a beautiful valley with gigantic 
almond-trees (the almonds of Palma are the finest in Sicily) and 
leads to Licata, situated on the Flume Sidsn. the ancient Himera 

(.1 !'/._, M.J Licata (La Bella Siritia, in the principal streetj, 
popul. 14,338, occupies the site of the town which, after the 
Bjeoekee. Italy III. 4th Edition. 17 

2."i8 Route :'S. TERRAMtVA. From Girgenti 

instruction of Gela in '280, the Tyrant Phintias of Acragas erected 
and named after himself. It lies at the base of a hill, Poggio 
di S. Angela, termed Ex-jojj-o? by the the Greeks, because Phalaris 
once sacrificed his human victims here. 

It was an ancient. Phrenician-Carthaginian fortilication, garrisoned by 
the Carthaginians during their war with Agathocles in 310, whilst the 
latter was posted on M. dclla Guardia on the opposite side of the river. 
Agathocles was conquered chiefly through the skill of the Balearic 
slingers. Here in 256 Regulus, before his expedition to Africa, conquered 
the Carthaginian fleet in one of the greatest naval battles on record, in 
which not fewer than 300,000 men were engaged. Carthalo, favoured 
by a storm, destroyed a large fleet of Roman transports on this coast 
in 249. 

Licata (Alicata) is the most important commercial town on 
the S. coast of Sicily. Extensive sulphur-export. One of the 
principal firms (e. g. Messrs. Legler) may be applied to by the 
traveller in case of emergency. 

The road from Licata to Terranova (17 M.) traverses a ste- 
rile district, at one time skirting the coast, at another separated 
from it by hills. As far as the chateau of Falconara, a modern 
residence of Baron Bordinaro, wheat-fields are traversed, and the 
road is bordered with large aloes. High above Falconara rises 
Butera (1319 ft.), a town with 5141 inhab. In 853 it was 
besieged by the Saracens for 5 months before it succumbed, and 
it was one of their Sicilian possessions which they retained 
longest (down to 1089). The next cultivated tract which is 
reached is near Terranova, the Campi Geloi of Virgil. The plain 
here is chiefly planted with cotton. The height on the r. im- 
mediately before Terranova is reached (Capo Soprano) was the 
ancient Necropolis, where numerous vases have recently been 

Terranova (Domenico Guttilla, in the C'orso ; Venice; charges 
at both according to agreement), a seaport-town with 13,974 inhab., 
founded by the Emp. Frederick II., intersected by the long Corso 
from W. to S., contains little to interest the traveller. Sign. 
Carlo Navarra possesses a collection of fine ancient vases found 
in the neighbourhood. 

Near Terranova are the remains of Oela, where the dramatist 

iEschylus died, B. C. 456. 

Gela, founded in 690 by a Dorian colony under Antiphemus of Rhodes 
and Entimus of Crete, so rapidly attained to prosperity that in 5S2 it was 
itself in a position to send forth a colony to found Acragas. After an 
aristocratic form of government, Hippocrates obtained the supreme power. 
Vnder his rule Gela rose to the culminating point of its prosperity (498 — 
iill ). His successor Gclon transferred the seat of government of the 
Deinoinenidcs to Syracuse, carrying with him one-half of the population 
of Gela. The remainder he left under the rule of his brother Hiero. 
In 405 Gela was captured and destroyed by the Carthaginians under Ha- 
milcar. The description given by Diodorus (XIII.) proves that the town 
lay to the E. of Terranova, beyond the Finnic of Terranova or Gela. The 
remains of a Doric temple are still standing about !| 2 M. to the E. of the 
town (Piazza del Molino a Yento); 300 paces farther is the river. Here 

to Syracuse. VITTORIA. '28. Route. 259 

stood the temple of Apollo, whose celebrated statue was sent by Hamilcar 
to Tyre, where it was found by Alexander the Great. Here the camp of 
the Carthaginians was pitched. Timoleon re-erected the town and popu- 
lated it with colonists. Agathocles subsequently caused 5000 of the in- 
habitants to be put to the sword, and Phintias, the Tyrant of Acragas, 
entirely destroyed the town, B. C. 280. Since that period it has disap- 
peared from the pages of history. 

The direct road from Terranova to Palazzolo leads by (13 M. ) 
Biscari and (H'/t M.~) Chiaramonte, two small towns which 
contain nothing remarkable. As the road, moreover, is bad, most 
travellers will prefer the circuit by Modica, for the sake of see- 
ing the Val d'hpica (to which a new road will soon be com- 

The route from Terranova runs near the coast, till the rivers 
Gela and Dirillo (ancient Achates') have been crossed (bridges in 
course of construction ), and afterwards joins the high road to 

(17 M.) Vittoria (Alberyo di Michele Santonocito, with trat- 
toria, good wine; Locanda dell' Unione) (15,855 inhab.). The 
archteologist is recommended to perform the route from Vittoria 
to Modica by Scoylieti, the 'Marina' of Vittoria, and the site of 
the ancient Camarina (20 M.). 

Camarina was founded by Syracuse in 599, and destroyed in 553 for 
having attempted to assert its independence, but was re-erected by Hippo- 
crates of Gela after the battle of the Helorus (Telluro or Abisso). Gelon 
again depopulated the town, but it was a second time colonised by Gela 
in 461. In 439 it was sacked by the Syraeusans, and during the war with 
Athens remained neutral. In 405 Dionysius on his retreat compelled the 
inhabitants to follow him, and the town was destroyed by the Carthagini- 
ans. In 339 it was re-colonised by Timoleon, but soon after fell into the 
hands of the Romans. A. 1). 853 it was entirely destroyed by Abhas-ibn- 
Fahdl. Camarina was about 5 W. in circumference, and lay to the r. of 
the river I'amarana (ancient Hipparis), at the point where the chapel of 
the Madonna di Cainarana now stands on a sandhill, 100 ft. in height. 

From Camarina the traveller then proceeds to S. ('voce &\i 51.) (poor 
inn), and Scicli (ll'| 4 11.) [Locanda del Carmine; Loc. de~ t'arceri), a town 
with 10,231 inhab., on the site of the ancient Syracusan colony Casmenae, 
founded in 644. From Scicli to Modica diligence daily, 1 fr. ; from Modica 
to Xoto see p. 262. 

From Vittoria to Modica (and beyond it) diligence daily, ex- 
cept Sund., fare ") fr. 40 c, private carr. 17 — 20 fr. 

The road from Vittoria to Modica leads by 

(4 M.) Wmiso, a miserable country-town with 15,803 inhab. 
Here was situated the celebrated fountain of Diana, the water 
of which refused to mingle with wine when drawn by women of 
sullied reputation. Beyond Comiso the road ascends, bordered 
with large carob-trees, to the barren table-land, destitute of 
shade. Descending to the valley, the traveller perceives to the 1. 

(13 M.) Rayum (poor inns, the best at Ragusa Inferiore), 
a country-town with 22.000 inhab., most romantically situated, 
probably the ancient Hybla Heraea. It consists of Kagusa Supe- 
riore and Inferiore, each possessing its own administration, post- 
office, etc. The whole of the surrounding district is the property 
of Baron Arezzo di Donnafugata, who possesses a cotton-spinning 


260 Route 28. MODICA. From (iirgtnU 

manufactory here. The neighbouring rocks contain numerous 
grottoes. Count Bernardo Cabrera (d. 1423), who boldly at- 
tempted to possess himself of the crown of Sicily, is interred in 
the church of the Capuchins. 

(9!/ 4 M.J Modica (13 M. from Comiso) (Loc. Bella Italia, 
with good trattoria ; Locanda of Maestro Oiorgio, near the Sotto 
Prefettura; Locanda Nuova, etc.), the capital (27,449 inhab.J 
of the ancient county of that name, is situated in a rocky 
valley, consisting of two ravines which unite in the town. The 
height between the two valleys affords a survey of the three 
different arms of the town, which itself contains nothing worthy 
of mention. 

From Modica by the Val d'Ispica to Palazzolo a journey of 
one day (2 mules 15 fr., and 1 fr. for the attendant), which 
should be commenced at sunrise ; provisions necessary. It is 
not necessary, as the guides sometimes assert, to return from 
the Val d'Ispica to Modica, in order to proceed to Palazzolo ; nor 
can this circuit be easily accomplished in a single day. The 
road from Modica to Spaccaforno is quitted beyond the road 
which descends to Scicli, and the traveller proceeds to the 1. by 
a very rough road to the (6 M.J remarkable and picturesque 
*Val d'Ispica, a rocky ravine B M. in length, in the limestone 
rock of which subterranean dwellings and tombs have been dis- 

The banks of the Mediterranean appear to have been peopled during 
a pre-historical period by a race who excavated their dwellings in the 
rocks, and deposited their dead in rocky niches (didieri). Caverns of this 
description have been discovered in Sardinia, the Balearic Islands, in the 
Cyrenaica, and in Etruria. They occur in Sicily in considerable numbers 
in the S. E. angle of the island only, between Terranova and Syracuse ; 
a few, however, have been found near Caltabelotta (di San Cono) and 
between Bronte and Maletto dei Giganti. They may perhaps be attributed 
to the Sicanians. At Sparano, a spot between Xoto and Palazzolo, a 
Druidical relic, or a species of Celtic tfoXo^ has been discovered, which 
appears to favour the view that the Sicanians were of Celtic origin (?). 
The grottoes of the Val cffcpica are the most numerous and present the 
greatest variety. Some of them manifestly served as habitations. They 
either consist of different storeys, connected in the interior by circular 
apertures, or of single chambers, the entrances to which in the rock are 
more than the height, of a man above the ground. Rings hewn in stone 
which are seen here probably served some purpose of domestic economy. 
Other archajologists believe these grottoes merely to have constituted the 
Xecropolis of some ancient city, and not to have been employed as dwell- 
ings until late in the Christian period. 

At the N. E. issue of the valley rises the so-called Castello 
li'Ispica, a rock completely honeycombed by grottoes. Others 
deserving mention are the Spelonca Grossa, Urotta del Corvo, and 
del Vento. About 10 min. from the entrance, about half-way 
up the hill on the 1., stands a house where wine may be 
procured. Near it a rocky path ascends to the bridle-path 
which leads to 

Palazzolo Acreide (Locanda (enlrale), one of the most inte- 

to Syracuse PALAZZOLO. US. Route. 261 

renting towns of Sicily, with 8987 inhab. The custodian Sal- 
vatore Monelli (fee 2 — 3 fr.) keeps the keys of the theatre, etc., 
and shows the principal objects of interest in 4 — 5 hrs. Those 
who commence the walk at daybreak may proceed on the same 
day by diligence to Syracuse. Dr. G. Italia-Nirastro is the most 
learned archaeologist in the place. 

Axpat (Arabian el Akrat, subsequently Placeolum, Balensul, 
now Palazzolo) was founded by the Syracusans in 664 on the 
site, it would appear, of a Phoenician settlement, and belonged 
to the dominions of their city until the latter was conquered by 
Marcellus. The town apparently escaped destruction until the 
wars of the Saracens. The Acropolis and older portion of the 
town stood on the hill which rises above the modern town, and 
were accessible on the E. side only. This eminence is doubtless 
of volcanic origin, as volcanic products are found between the 
limestone rocks. (This district abounds in volcanic formations, 
especially apparent on the route from Vizzini to Buccheri and 
Buseemi.) The summit affords a fine view in every direction. 
The approach from the E. was protected by latomia'. Here 
tombs of all periods have been discovered, some of Greek origin 
with reliefs, others apparently of the Christian period. Then 
the so-called 1'empio Ferale ; aqueducts ; a small Theatre, looking 
to the N.. where on an eminence above a deep ravine the 
small town of Buseemi is visible. The theatre is of late Greek 
origin, and contains 12 tiers of seats for 600 spectators. Ad- 
jacent to it the Odeon, or, according to others, a bath-estab- 
lishment. To the S. of the Acropolis rises the Monte Pineta, 
with numerous ruortuan chambers, the so-called Didieri. Tn 
the Contrada dei Santicelli, a valley l'/-2 M. to tne S. of Pineta, 
are the remarkable bas-reliefs, unfortunately mutilated, of the 
Santoni'. They appear to have appertained to a burial-place; 
on most of them the figure of a goddess (supposed to be Cybele) 
may be distinguished. Not far from this spot is an extensive 
burial-ground, Acrocoro detto della Torre, where some hundreds 
of sarcophagi have been opened. Many of them contained well 
preserved skulls. From E. to W. the skeletons of women were 
found to have been interred, from N. to S. those of men. A 
Phoenician inscription was also found here. — The collection of 
ancient vases, etc. of Baron Judica (Palazzo Jndica), who superin- 
tended the excavations on the Acropolis, is in a deplorably 
neglected condition, and interesting to the professional only. 

The road from Palazzolo to Syracuse (28 M. ; dilig. daily 
about 10 a. m., fare 3 fr. 15 c. ) traverses monotonous fields, 
sterile land, and clumps of wood fdi Madredonna and Oiambra). 
Bauli. another wood to the E., is said to be still infested by 
wolves. A short distance beyond Monte Orosse, the first post- 
station, Syracuse becomes visible in the distance. The road leads 

2(52 Route l>8. NOTO. 

through the small town of 8. Paolo, then through Floridia. 
Below Floridia, on the r. side of the road is a ravine which 
the Athenians on their return from Syracuse under Nicias found 
obstructed, thus compelling them to turn towards the S. The 
towns to the 1. are Cassaro and Ferla, Farther towards the N. 
Sortino, on an eminence. About 4 M. below Floridia, on a 
height to the 1. lies Belvedere, adjoining which are the ruins 
of Euryalun, the most W. fort of the Epipolae of Syracuse. 

From Modica to Syracuse by Nolo. 

.Monotonous post-road by (11 ! |4 31.) Spaccaforno with 7539 inhab. and 
(33| 4 JI.) Rosolini to (8'| 2 31.) Noto. From Noto by (3'| 4 31.) Avola and 
|7'|2 31.) Lungarino to (9i|a 31.) Syracuse. 

Noto (Aqtiila d'Oro, opposite the Dominican monastery, to the r., to- 
lerable; Villa di Roma), a pleasant and wealthy town with U,0lf} inhab., 
contains handsome palaces of the provincial aristocracy. The fertile dis- 
trict of which this is the principal town comprises an area of 70 sq. 31. 
The present town was founded in 1703 near the site of Net it m, which 
was destroyed by an earthquake in 1693, and had been founded by the 
Sikelian prince Ducetius (about 450) on the site of a still more ancient 
town. Traces of the latter existed as late as the 16th cent, between 
Noto and Palazzolo, in the vicinity of the spot where Count Ruggievo 
founded the Benedictine abbey of S. Lucia (Bauli). Of the second Noto 
the ruins are still visible, >|4 M. from the present town. 4 M. to the S. 
of Noto, between the rivers Falconara (Asinaros) and Telluro (Heloros), 
stands La Pizintu, a fragment of a Greek column, about 30 ft. in height, 
It is said to be a remnant of the monument erected by the Syracusans in 
the bed of the Asinarus after the sanguinary defeat of the Athenians 
under Xicias (July, 413). 

An excursion may be made from Noto by a carriage-road to (16 M.) 
1'aechino and the rugged promontory of Passero ( Pachymim) with its islands, 
harbours {Porto d' Ulisse, Porto Palo), tunny-fisheries (tonnare), and the 
remains of the ancient city of Helorus on the 1. bank of the river, now 
called Stampaci. In ancient times the Via Helora led from Helorus to 

From Noto the road leads to Avola (11,000 inhab.), where almond- 
trees and the sugar-cane flourish, skirts the plain of the coast, and crossing 
the river Cassibile (ancient Cacyparis), on the banks of which Demosthenes 
and 6000 Athenians sustained a defeat in 413, leads to Syracuse. To the 
r. is seen the Great Harbour, 1. the remains of the columns of the Olym- 
pieum. The road skirts the r. side of the harbour, passing a large heap 
of reeds used by the potters, who have exercised their craft here since 
the time of Dionysius I. When after the battle of Gela Dionysius pene- 
trated into the city by night and usurped the government, he here destroyed 
the gate of Achradina by piling up and setting fire to bundles of the 
reeds which he found in the vicinity. 

29. From Palermo to Girgenti. 

Railway to Lercara, 48 31.; two trains daily in 3>|.i hrs. — Diligence 
thenee to Girgenti, 48 31. farther. Railway shortly to be opened. The 
whole journey from Palermo at present occupies 14 hrs. (through-tickets 
for which urr obtained at the post-office). Supply of provisions necessary. 

The line from Palermo to Termini traverses the fertile 
plain of the coast (stations Ficarazzelli and Ficaritzzi) to Bagario. 
(p. '2!-i'2), and runs thence between the sea and the hills, passing 
through several short tunnels, and generally parallel with the 

TERMINI. :>ti. Route. 263 

road. 11 M. Stat. Casteldaccia. 13 M. Stat. Altarilla; the 
village, situated on the hill to the v., possesses one of the oldest 
Norman churches extant, termed La Chiesazza, founded by Robert 
Guiscard in 1277. A number of 'tonnare' (apparatus for catching 
the tunny-fish) are observed in the sea. A red flag planted near 
them in the month of May indicates that a shoal has entered, 
or is about to enter the nets, and is a signal for a general 
onslaught of the fishermen. lO 1 ^ M. Stat. Trabia. Then a 
tunnel, and a bridge over the Fiutne S. Liunnrdo. 

23 M. Termini (Locanda Minerva, on the E. slope of the 
hill; Locanda delta Venire, with trattoria, near the town-gate), 
one of the busiest provincial towns of Sicily, with 25, 7S0 inhab.. 
is situated upon a promontory. The town, when entered from 
Palermo, presents a poor appearance. The houses of the nobi- 
lity are situated on the hill, those of the merchants on the K. 
side. The maccaroni (pasta) of Termini is considered the best 
in Sicily. 

Termini (Thermae Himerenses ), probably an ancient Phoenician market, 
was fuuniled as a town by the Carthaginians in 407, after the destruction 
of Hiinera, and maintained by them till 25'.', when it was taken by the 
Humans. Under the latter it was a prosperous place, and even in the 
middle ages it was a place of some importance. Robert of "Kaples, whu 
attacked Sicily in 1338, besieged the strong castle of Termini in vain. This 
ancient stronghold was destroyed in 1860. 

The substructions of a Roman building, supposed to have 
been a curia and baths, have been excavated in the Villa della 
Citta, in the Piano di S. Giovanni, above the town (fine *view). 
where there are also traces of an amphitheatre. The Aqua Cor- 
nelia, a Roman aqueduct to the S.E. of the town, was destroyed 
in 143S. Its remains from Brucato downwards merit a visit 
mi account of the remarkable fertility of the surrounding district. 
A collection of antiquities, comprising some fine vases, most of 
them found in the neighbourhood, is preserved at the Liceo (keys 
kept by Sign. S. Ciofalo, the librarian of the institution). The 
Sindaco, Baron Janelli, also possesses a collection of antiquities, 
(iiuseppe di Giorgi is a vendor of antiques. Termini was the 
birthplace of Niecolo Palmieri, a distinguished Sicilian political 
economist and historian, who was interred in the Chiesa del Monte. 
The bath establishment, situated on the E. side of the hill, is 
well fitted up. Some of the springs are chalybeate, others 
contain sulplmr (10(5° Fahr.). The baths are extolled by Pindar. 

On a rocky slope above the Fiume S. Lionardo about 4 M. from Ter- 
mini, is situated the town of Caccamo (7233 inhab.). Fine view. The 
precipitous Monte San Calogero (4347 ft.), commanding a noble prospect, 
may be ascended thence. 

The line continues to skirt the coast, with the Monte Calo- 
gero rising on the r., crosses the Fiume Torto, and then turns 
inland towards the S., following the r. bank of the stream. 

2S M. Stat. Cerda; the village lies on the hill to the 1.; 
on the r. rises Monte Calogero. 

264 Route ->9. LERCARA. From Palermo 

32 M. Stat. Sciara. The line crosses the Torto, passes 
through a tunnel, and then recrosses the stream. 

38 M. Stat. Montemaggiore, beyond which the river is again 

44 M. Stat. Roccapalumba. On a steep Mil to the r. is 
situated the town of Alia, with 5499 inhab. The line ascends, 
and reaches the watershed between the Tyrrhenian and African 
seas at 

48 M. Stat. Lercara, the present terminus (Locanda d'ltalia, 
on the 1. side of the street, near the post-office, bad). Lercara 
(2165 ft.), with 9007inliab., is a place of very bad reputation. 
Near it are situated the most northern sulphur-mines in the 
island. The line leaves the town on the hill to the r., passes 
through a tunnel, and enters the valley of the Platani, on the 
I. bank of which the station lies. To the r. opens the beautiful 
basin of Castronuovo, where coloured marble was extensively 
quarried in ancient times. The line then crosses to the r. hank 
of the Platani. 

12 M. (from Lercara) 8. Giovanni di Cammarata is a suburb 
of Cammarata, which lies on the hill to the r. (4907 inhab.). 
The entire district is commanded by the precipitous Pizzo di 
Cammarata (5170 ft.), which remains in sight during the 
greater part of the journey. 

The railway follows the r. bank of the Platani, and crosses 
to the 1. bank at Mussomeli, while the road runs farther to the 
W., and next reaches (12 M.) the loftily situated town of 
Casteltermini (Locanda of Luigi Livorsi), the 7607 inhab. of 
which are chiefly occupied with agricultural pursuits. If on 
horseback, the traveller leaves the town to the r. 

On the 1. of the railway lies Acquaviva, on the r. Castel- 
termini. The hill rising on the 1. is the Pizzo di Sutera 
(2687 ft.), with a town (3725 inhab.) and a ruined castle 
crowning its summit. The Arabian name of the town is Sotir, 
probably akin to Soj-f]p. It is supposed by some to have been 
the ancient Camicus, where Daedalus is said to have erected a 
castle fer Cocalus. 

On. the 1. lies Campo franco . The line now quits the river, 
which runs towards the W., and ascends towards the S. in the 
valley of a small brook. On the r. Aragona, the property of 
the Naselli family, with 10,440 inhab.; 1. Comittini. The line 
approaches the valley of the Drago, and describes a wide circuit 
round the abrupt hill on which Girgenti is situated. 

The high road from Casteltermini descends in numerous 
windings to the Platani. A line extended across the river is 
used for the transmission of letters and parcels when the stream 
is impassable for vehicles in winter. The road then winds 
upwards to the post-station of 

to iiirgenti. CORLEONE. 29. Route. "265 

13 M. Cornittini. Here, and at Fa intra, 5 M. to the E. of 
Oirgenti, are situated the valuable mines of Sign. Ignazio Ge- 
imardi, the 'sulphur-king' of Sicily. The superintendent ('il 
fattore'J of the mines will be found obliging. Aragona on the 
r., with its ducal palace, is next passed. To the r., on a steep 
hill farther on, lies Montaperto. The road follows the course 
of the Drago, and ascends rapidly to 

11 M. Girgenti, see p. 252. 

Front Palermo to Scincea by Co r leo it e (66 II.). The road is 
still uncompleted, and is traversed by a diligence as far as Corleone only. 
As it presents few objects of interest either in a natural or historical point 
of view, the following slight sketch will suffice. Palermo is quitted by the 
Porta "Xuova, the Largo delT Indipendenza crossed, and the Strada Pisani 
followed, which leads to the Lunatic Asylum and crosses the Onto. The 
road then ascends to Pareo, where William II. once possessed his exten- 
sive hunting preserves. Thence Garibaldi accomplished his celebrated 
detour round the mountains towards the E., whilst General v. Mecheln 
with his Swiss troops pursued the Sicilian piciotti as far as Corleone. The 
view of Palermo from the height above Parco is one of the most magni- 
licent in Sicily. Piano dei Greet (8'|2 M.), an Albanian colony, established 
in I48H, is next reached. The pecularifies of the language and customs of 
the town are gradually becoming extinct ; the inhabitants are notorious for 
their predatory propensities. The road then ascends a long and dreary 
vnlley. In front the mountain-ridge of Busambra lies in an oblique direc- 
tion, with the woods of Cappelliere towards the E. Above the latter, 
which were seriously injured by a conflagration a few years ago, rises the 
hunting-seat Fkmza, to which Ferdinand IV. frequently resorted when in 
Sicily, in order to indulge in the pleasures of the chase. Another road 
ascends hither from Ogliastro. The road to Corleone descends by numerous 
windings, after having quitted the height where the ruins of the Saracenic 
stronghold Kalata Busam.ara are situated. 

Corleone (Loeanda Grande, in the Piazza, bad), with 15,350 inhab., is 
a town of Saracenic origin, where in 1237 Frederick II. established a Lom- 
bard colony. Its inhabitants were therefore the most strenuous opponents 
of the house of Anjou, and at the present day retain their predilection for 
the Bourbons. 

»om Corleone a carriage-road, skirting the cliffs of Monte de' Cavalli 
and Monte Baructi, leads to Bisacqtiino (8690 inhab.) and (13 M.) Chiusa 
(6840 inhab.). Here the road divides. To the r. the road leads to Giuliana 
and Sambueea, a well-built town with 8982 inhab., which under the name 
of Mahal Zabitlh appertained to the monastery of Hlonreale in 1185. Farther 
to the r. of the latter are situated Co/tlessa, an Albanian settlement, and 
the ruins of Entella on the bank of the Bellici Sinistro, 5 M. from Contessa 
and accessible from the S.E. only. Entella was a Sicanian town, of which 
mention is made in the Trojan-Sicilian myths. In 403 it was taken by 
surprise by the Campanian mercenary troops of Dionysius I. In conse- 
quence of a rebellion of the Saracenic population in 1223, Frederick II. 
transplanted them to Xocera de' Pagani in Campania. From Sambucca the 
road proceeds W. to Sella-Misilibesi, where it unites with the road from 
Partattna (1L972 inhab.) and A. Margherita (7414 inhab.), and then E. to 
Keiacca (p. 250). 

From Chiusa the branch of the road to the 1. follows the valley of the 
river to C'altabelotta (p. 251). 


30. From Palermo to Catania through the interior 
of the island. 

Post Road from Palermo to Catania 152 1 j-2 M. — In line weather the 
journey occupies 34 hrs., but after rain enquiry should be made whether 
the rivers are passable. The route is more conveniently accomplished with 
the aid of the railway. The traveller may proceed by the Girgenti line as 
far as Alia. The railway between Leonforte and Catania is also open. 
With regard to correspondence of trains, etc. enquiry should be made at 
the post-office at Palermo. A supply of provisions for the journey should 
not be forgotten. Travellers intending to visit Castrogiovanni may take 
the diligence as far as Misericordia. 

The road leads E. by Abate and Portella di Mare at the base 
of Monte Griffone, Gibelrosso, and Buongiorno to 

(7^2 M.) Misilmeri, a notorious haunt of banditti (7458 in- 
habitants), where the diligence is provided with an escort. The 
road now ascends and quits the valley of the Fiume de' Mirti, 
or valley of Ficarazzi, beyond Ogliastro, another town (1981 in- 
habitants) of evil reputation. Between Ogliastro and the post- 

(HV4 M.) Villafrati are situated the Bagni di Cifali (Arabic 
Qefala), at the base of a lofty conical mountain surmounted by 
the Castello di Diana (Kalata Gefala), where an ancient Arabic 
inscription has been discovered. The temperature of the water 
is 102° Fahr. On the hill to the r. lies Mezzojuso, one of the 
four Albanian colonies (Piano del Greet, Palazzo Adriano, and 
Contessa are the others) which have been established here since 
1482. The Arabic name of the village is MenzU-Jussuf (village 
of Joseph). The road now skirts the Fiume S. Lionardo, which 
falls into the sea near Termini, and leads to the bridge of 

(7!/. 2 M.) Vicari, below the town (4195 inhab.) of that name. 
In the fort of Vicari Giovanni di S. Remigio, the French governor 
of the island, who had fled hither after the Sicilian Vespers, 
was besieged by the inhabitants of Palermo who had pursued hirr., 
and put to death. At the solitary post-station of Mangonaro, 
1972 M. from Palermo, the road divides. To the r. ascends the 
Via Lercara to Girgenti, to the 1. the Via delta Montagne leads 
to Catania. The post-station of 

(T'^M.) Alia (5499 inhab.), which lies on an abrupt height 
to the 1., is situated below the town, beyond which a dreary, 
uninhabited district is traversed as far as the post-station La 
Gulfa. This tract of land belongs almost exclusively to the 
Principe Villarosa. Thence to the small town of 

(T'/o M.) Vallelunga (4981 inhab.). The country becomes 
wilder. To the r. towers the Monte Campanaro, in the back- 
ground the Madonian Mts. The Fiumicello, an affluent of the 
Platuni, is now crossed, and the base of the Monte Mimiano 
skirted mi the 1., beyond which lies the solitary post-station of 

(ll'/iM.) Landrb. The road then ascends the Monte Murini 

to Catania. CASTROGIOVANNI. 30. Route. 267 

(2214 ft. J; in the distance, beyond vast fields of wheat, the 
indented peaks of Castrogiovanni and Calascibetta become visible. 
This view is one of the most extensive in the interior of the 

( 7 '/ 2 ^0 1<J - Caterina is a small and miserable town, the 
inns of which none but the diligence-conductors consider toler- 
able. The road to Caltanisetta and Girgenti (p. 252) diverges 
here. Between JS. Caterina and 

(ll'^M.) Villarosa flows the Fiume Salso (Himera Meridio- 
nalis), which is crossed by a new bridge. Villarosa is a pleasant 
looking town ; with valuable sulphurmines in the vicinity. Thence 
to the solitary post-station 

(lO'^M.) Misericordia. 

The railway from Palermo to Catania (155 M.J will be 
identical with the Girgenti line as far as stat. Campofranco 
(p. 264), where it will diverge to the E., and ascend by the 
course of the Salito, penetrate the watershed between Fiume 
Platani and F. Salso by a tunnel between Caltanisetta and S. 
Caterina, then traverse the Vallone del Fico, enter the valley 
of the Dittaino (SimetoJ by a tunnel near Castrogiovanni, and 
proceed by Catenanuova to Catania. 

Castrogiovanni (several miserable inns, one of which is kept 
by Mariano Buono. The traveller should endeavour to procure 
an introduction to some resident here), the Arabic Kasr-Janni, 
a corruption of Enna, is situated on the summit of a mountain 
(2605 ft.) which is ascended from Misericordia in 1 hr. 

Cicero describes this locality, and Livy terms it 'inexpugnabilis 1 , facts 
which alone tend to prove the important place occupied by Enna in the 
pages of Sicilian history. With this mountain the myths of the most 
ancient inhabitants were intimately connected. Here the worship of the 
l)eineter-Cora of the aborigines had its principal seat, and here Gelon 
erected a magnificent temple after the battle of Himera in 480. 

Enna was founded by Syracuse in 664, and participated in all the 
vicissitudes of its mother-city. In 403 it fell by treachery into the hands 
of Dionysius I. , his son took it by surprise ; Agathocles also possessed 
himself of the town ; in the First Punic War it was captured by the Car- 
thaginians, and finally was betrayed to the Romans. When the slaves under 
Eunus had thrown themselves into Enna the Romans regained possession 
of the place only after a fierce struggle. The siege lasted during two years 
(133 — 132), and to this day Roman missiles are found at the approach to 
Castrogiovanni where the ascent is most gradual. The besieged were 
reduced by famine rather than by force of arms. In 837 the Saracens in 
vain endeavoured to storm the town, to which the inhabitants of the entire 
surrounding district had fled for refuge. In 859 Abbas-ibn-Fahdl obtained 
possession of the fortress through treachery, a prisoner having introduced 
the Arabians into the town by means of a tunnel on the N. side. The booty 
was enormous. The women were sent as slaves as far as Bagdad. In 1080 
the Normans took the town. In the middle ages it was again partially 

The town is now in a miserable and dilapidated condition 
(14,633 inhab.). The fertility of the soil is greatly inferior to 
what it was in ancient times, when dense forests, brooks, and 
lakes converted this district into a luxuriant garden, where the 

2ISS Route 30 . S FILIPPO D'ARGIRO. From Palermo 

hounds, it is said, lost the scent of their game amid the frag- 
rance of the flowers, and the fields yielded a hundredfold. 

Not a vestige is now left of the celebrated temples of Demeter 
(Ceres) and Proserpine. The former is supposed to have stood 
where the ruins of the castle of Frederick II. are situated, at the 
K. extremity of the plateau. The temple of Persephone is seen 
on the Monte Salvo, near the convent of the Padri Riformati. 
The *view is one of the finest in Sicily : the spectator stands at 
the central point of the island (Enna was termed the 'umbilicus' 
of .Sicily). Towards the E. towers the pyramid of JEtna; to the N. 
two mountain-chains, ramifications of the Nebrodian Mts. ; towards 
the N. N. E. rises Monte Artesino (3914 ft.) beyond the hill of 
Calascibetta. On the upper prolongation of the latter lie Leonforte 
and S. Filippo. Between the two, more in the background, Troina 
1 3(351 ft.). More towards the E. Centorbi. In an extensive 
basin towards the N. N.W., on a precipitous ridge between Monte 
Artesino and the Madonian Mts., Petralia Soprana and Ganci. 
To the N.W.. S. Calogero near Termini is visible; to the W. 
the Pizzo di Cammarata, and to the S. the Heraan Mts. The 
small town of Calascibetta (5365 inhabitants), situated on an- 
other isolated hill (1555 ft.) to the N., was founded in 1080. 

From Misericordia (p. 2(37) the road descends into the valley 
of the ( Chrysas), and again ascends to 

(ll'/'i^l-) Leonforte ('Cafe' to the 1. as the town is entered). 
Here a road diverges to Nicosia and Termini (p. 2(33). 

The railway from Leonforte to Catania follows the valley of 
the Dittaino, remaining on its 1. bank. Distance 49 M. ; two 
trains daily in 3 hrs.; fares 7 fr., 4 fr. 95, 3 fr. 55 c. 

.Stations Assaro Valguamera, Raddusa, Catenanuova, Muglia, 
Sferro, Gerbini, Motta 8. Anastasia, Bicocca (junction for Syra- 
cuse). Catania (p. '29(3). 

The carriage-road, which runs to the N. of the railway, 
leaves the castle of Asaro (Assorus, a Sikelian town) on the I., 
and leads by Nissoria into the valley of the Fiume Salso, an 
affluent of the Simeto. Here is situated 

(8 M. ) S. Filippo d'Argirb, now an insignificant place, but 
one of the most ancient Sikelian cities in the island (Agyrium). 
The historian Diodorus gives an account of this his native town, 
and relates how Hercules visited it in the course of his wander- 
ings with Tolaus and was here worshipped. It appears from 
this that a Phoenician colony existed here at a very remote 
period. Timoleon colonised the town in 339 and erected an 
agora, temple, and handsome theatre, of which not a trace 
remains. St. Philip, whose festival is celebrated here on May 
1st. has long superseded Hercules as the guardian deity of the 
place. Beautiful fragments of marble are frequently found in 
the vicinity. The road leads hence to 

to Catania. ADERNO. lit). Route. '269 

(9'/.2 M.J Regalbuto. In the valley below lies Gagliano, the 
commandant of which, Montaner di Sosa, in 1300 lured the French 
under the Count of Brieime into an ambuscade, so that 300 
French knights, 'I Cavalieri della Morte', were captured or put 
to the sword. High above Gagliano lies Troina (3651 ft.), the 
most elevated of the larger towns of Sicily (8299 inhab.). This 
was one of the first towns of which in 1602 the Normans 
obtained possession. Here in 1603 Roger de Hauteville with 
his heroic wife Giuditta (Judith of Evroult) conquered the 
rebellious inhabitants and 5000 Saracens with a chosen band of 
300 warriors. The Normans were so needy at that period that 
Roger and Judith are said to have possessed only a single mantle. 
The bishopric founded here was transferred to Messina in 1087. 
The Basilian monastery was founded by Roger. The first abbot 
was his brother-in-law Robert of Evroult. In the Matrice 
S. Maria traces of the ancient Norman structure may be dis- 

To the r. on an abrupt eminence above the valley of the Siraeto rises 
Cen-turipe, or, as it was called until recently, Centorbi (Albergo della Pace. 
in the piazza, very poor), with 6913 inhab. ' In ancient times the situation 
of Ceii tu ripae was compared with thatofEryx. Magnificent view of iEtna. 
During the Roman period this was an important place (Celsus was born 
here). In 1233 it was destroyed by Frederick II. on account of its dis- 
affection, and the population removed to Agosta (p. 305). Considerable 
remains of the ancient town-wall are preserved. Numerous vases, terra- 
cottas, coins, and cut, stones have been found in the neighbourhood. An- 
tonio Camerano possesses a fine collection of gems and terracottas. An 
introduction to the Sindaco Emanuele lo Giudice is desirable. The notary 
Francesco Camerano frequently accompanies visitors to the antiquities. 
Most of the vases in the Museum Biscari at Catania are from this locality. 

In the valley of the Simeto the lava-streams of ^Etna are 
first encountered, the oldest of which dates from 1010. About 
'/•2 M. above the bridge now in course of construction are situated 
the remains of a Roman aqueduct (Ponte Carcaci), probably dat- 
ing from the period of the Servile war. From the Ponte and 
Fondaco de' Maccaroni the road ascends to (2^4 M.) the lowest 
terrace of Mt. ^Etna, on which lies 

(147'2 M.) Aderno [Locanda deti Aquila, in the Piazza del 
Castello ; the landlord is a doctor, and was formerly the mayor 
of the town; I.oc. delta Fenice; "Cafe della Sicilia, in the 
Piazza del Castello; Sign. Evangelista Guarnieri, the 'pretore' 
of the town, may be applied to in case of emergency), a 
wealthy town with 12,999 inhabitants. In the Piazza stands the 
quadrangular Norman castle erected by Roger I. It now serves 
as a prison; the interior is in a very dilapidated condition. In 
the chapel are seen remains of frescoes representing Adelasia, 
grand-daughter of Roger I., taking the veil. The monastery of 
S. Lucia, nearly opposite, was founded by Roger in 1157. In 
ancient times the Sikelian city of Hadranum stood here, cele- 
brated on account of its temple of Zeus Adranos which was 

270 Route 30. PATERNO. From Palermo 

guarded by 1000 dogs. Fragments of this structure, probably 
of the cella, are shown in the garden of Salvatore Palermo at a 
place called Cartellerni, on the r. outside the town. This was 
the central point from which Timoleon extended his power, 
after he had conquered Hicetas of Syracuse near Schitino be- 
tween Paterno and Aderno. — An excursion to Centorbi (11 74 M.) 
and back may be accomplished hence in one day, if the traveller 
starts at an early hour (mule '2'/ 2 — 3!/ 2 fr.). The road now 
descends from Aderno to the town of 

(2 M.) Biancarilla, with 9328 inhabitants, some of whom 
are of Albanian origin. The best cotton of Sicily receives its 
name from this place. Then 

(8 M.) S. Maria di Licodia, near which the town of Etna. 
founded by Hiero, on which occasion /Eschylus composed one of 
his tragedies, is said to have stood. Between Licodia and 
Paterno, on the r., 1 M. below Licodia, is the commencement 
of the Roman aqueduct to Catania. 

(l!/ 4 M. ) Paterno (Locanda di Sicilia, tolerable; Albergo 
delta Fenice, with cafe, clean), on the site of the former Sikelian 
town of Hybla Minor, founded by Roger I., who in 1073 erected 
the castle above the town, now contains 15,308 inhabitants who 
belong almost exclusively to the working classes, the landed 
proprietors having retired to Catania to escape the malaria which 
prevails here. The square tower of the castle, like those of 
Aderno and Motta, is now employed as a prison. Around this 
stronghold on the hill the former town was situated, where now 
the Matrice, Cathedral, and Capuchin and Franciscan monasteries 
(fine view of the valley) alone stand. 

Hybla became completely Hellenised at so early a period that 
it was the only Sikelian town which did not participate in the 
insurrection against the Greeks in 450 under Ducetius. In 415 
the territory of the town was devastated by the Athenians. The 
ancient road between Catania and Centuripse passed by Paterno. 
Two arches of the bridge over the Simeto are still standing. ^Etna 
was first ascended from this point in ancient times. In the 
Contrada di Bella Cortina, in the direction of the mountain, 
remains of baths have been discovered. In the vicinity is the 
(/rotto del Fracasso, through which an impetuous subterranean 
stream flows. To the N. E. of Paterno, on the slopes of JEtna, 
lies the town of Belpasso (7339 inhab.), destroyed by an eruption 
in 1(569, and subsequently re-erected on a new site (Mezzocampo). 
The air here was found to be unhealthy, in consequence of 
which the inhabitants quitted the place and re-built their town 
on its original site, where it now stands. By making a circuit 
round the Monti Rossi the traveller may from this point reach 
Xicolosi (p. 301), whence JFAna. is most conveniently ascended. 

Before the descent is made to Misterbianco, the last town 

to Catania. CALTAGIRONE. 30. Route. 271 

before Catania is reached, a road diverges to the r. to Motta 
Santa Anastasia, a town with a castle situated on a precipitous 
basaltic cone, rising above the Piano di Catania (beautiful view). 
In the tower of this castle Bernardo Cabrera (comp. p. 260), 
the supreme judge of Sicily, was confined by the aristocratic 
party in 1410 and treated with great cruelty. From Motta the 
high road may be regained near Misterbianco if the valley to 
the r. be traversed. To the 1. before the main road is reached, 
near Erbe Blanche, are seen the fragments of a Roman building, 
and a few hundred feet farther the remains of baths, called 

(11 M.) Misterbianco, a town with 5000 inhab., was destroyed 
in 1669. To the r. Montecardillo, the S. E. crater of the ^Etna 
group, rises above the plain. Crossing the lava-stream of 1669 
and passing through the Porta del Fortino, the traveller now 
enters the town of 

(4 M.) Catania (p. 296). 

From O a s t roy iov a n ir i to C at a i> i a by C a I tag ir one. 

From Onstrogiovanni to Caltagirone 30 31. The bridle-path, passing 
numerous grottoes and caverns, descends to the S. In 2 hrs. the Layo Per- 
yu&a is reached, the fabled locality whence Pluto carried off Proserpine. 
Of the shady and lofty trees, the fragrant flowers on the banks of the lake 
covered with swans, and the 'perpetuum ver' of Ovid not a symptom 
remains. The lake, like the neighbouring Stagnicello, is a dirty pond em- 
ployed by the inhabitants in the preparation of flax. 

From the lake to Piazza (Sicil. C/tiazza) a ride of 13 31. (Alhergo delf 
Aquila Nera). Before Piazza is reached the bridle-path unites with the 
carriage-road which leads (42 31.) from Caltaitisetta by Pieiraperzia (1463 ft.) 
and Barrafranca to Piazza. The traveller now proceeds S. by this road 
to S. Cono, where it divides, leading to Terranova to the r., and ascending 
to the 1. by S. Mictiele to (14 M.) 

Caltagirone (24,417 inhab.), regarded as the most civilised provincial 
town in Sicily. Although 2172 ft. above the sea-level, it is well-built and 
possesses a fine promenade and handsome market-place, whence a lofty 
stair-case ascends to the castle. The aristocracy of the place is said to be 
zealous in promoting public instruction, etc. Pottery is the staple com- 
modity of the town, and extremely characteristic, well-executed figures of 
-Sicilians, Calabrians, etc. in their national costumes may be purchased. 
Giuseppe Buongiovanni is one of the best manufacturers. The situation 
of the town is healthy, and a magnificent view is enjoyed in every di- 

From Caltagirone diligence to Catania in 10 hrs. (51 31.). On the 
mountain-range to the r. lie the towns of Grammitftrte, Mineo, founded by 
Ducetius and in 840 taken by the Saracens, and Militello. Near Favarotta 
the road passes the celebrated Laeus Palicoium ( Lago di Palizi), usually 
500 ft. in circumference and 14 ft. in depth. In dry seasons it occasionally 
disappears entirely. Two apertures (fratres Palici) in the centre emit car- 
bonic acid gas with such force that the water is forced upwards to a height 
of 2 ft. and the whole surface is agitated as if boiling. Birds are suffo- 
cated in attempting to fly across the lake, and horses and oxen experience 
difficulty in breathing as soon as they enter the water. The ancients 
regarded the spot as sacred and the peculiar resort of the gods. The Dii 
Palici were believed to be sons of Zeus and the nymph Thalia. A sump- 
tuous temple was accordingly erected here, to which the pious flocked from 
all quarters. The historian Fazello mentions the ruins of this edifice as 

272 Route 30. CALTANISETTA . 

having existed in the 16th cent., but every vestige of them has now dis- 
appeared. Fugitive slaves found an asylum in this temple. An oath sworn 
whilst the hand was held opposite the orifice whence the gas issued was 
deemed peculiarly solemn. At no great distance from this spot Ducetius 
founded the town of Palica, which has also left no trace of its existence. 
The name, however, may still be recognised in Palagonia (4904 inhab.), a 
small mediaeval town, once the property of the celebrated Catalanian navae 
hero Roger Loria. Below Palagonia the road ascends to the Fondaco Tr\ 
Fontane ; to the r. lies Scordia, which yields the best oranges in .Sicily. 
The road then proceeds to the 1. of the Biviere di Lentini, running parallel 
with the Fiu/ne Gurnalunga, and unites with the road from Catania to 

F r o m. G i r g en t i to t'astrogio v a n n i and Cat a n i a 
by C a I 1 ani se t ta. 

The road from Girgenti to Catania joins the Palermo and Catania 
high-road at S. Caterina (53 HI.). Distance to Castrogiovanni 76. to Ca- 
tania 140 31. — Diligence daily ; railway in course of construction. Riders 
can cut off the wide circuit described by the road, passing (4 31.) Favara, 
6)1. Castrofilippo,T-2^1. Canicatti, 14 M. Caltanisetta, and reaching (15 31.) 
I'astrogiovanni, i. e. 4(j'ji M. only in all. 

The road to the X. (see It. 2S) is at lirst the same as that from Gir- 
genti to Palermo. It then diverges to the r. and ascends to Le Grolte (the 
ancient Erbessvs, whence the Romans derived their supplies of provisions 
during the siege of Agrigentum, B. C. 262), a poor place, with 64S7 inhab., 
1D| 2 31. from Girgenti. Then (3 31.) Racalmvto (10,623 inhab.), and (9'| 2 M.) 
Canicatti (20,149 inhab.). A carriage-roa'd leads hence to Licata, passing 
Campobello di Licata, with valuable sulphur-mines (diligence daily; fare 
fj fr. So c). Next (9 31.) post-stat. Serra di Falco, from which the editor 
of the Antichita della Sicilia, Domenico lo Faso Pietrasanta, Duca di 
Serradifaleo (d. 18631 derived his title. It lies in the midst of the richest 
sulphur district in Sicily. Thence by 8. Cataldo, named after St. Catal- 
dus of Tarentum, the seat of a marquisate, with 12,795 inhab., to (10 31.) 
Caltanisetta (Locanda d" Italia, in the Piazza del Collegio ; Locanda Gior- 
dano; Aquila Nerd), the capital of the province, with 23,879 inhab., but 
unattractive. About 2 31. distant is the Badia di 8. Spirito, a monastery 
erected in the best Norman style by Roger I. A grand national festival 
is celebrated here every Whitmonday. 2 31. beyond it is a mud volcano, 
resembling the 3Iaccaluba in the Terra Pilata (p. 256). [Carriage-road from 
Caltanisetta to Pietraperzia (10,540 inhab.), Barrafranca (8928 inhab.), 
and Mazzarino (11,474 inhab.) in course of construction.] 

From Caltanisetta the road ascends to (12 1 |-j 31.) 8. Caterina, travers- 
ing the Monte 8. Ghdiano (2385 ft.), and joins the main route (p. 266 and 

31. From Palermo along the Coast to Messina. 

165 31. Railway to Cerda in 1 3 | 4 hr. ; thence by Dil i ge nc e (Vettura 
Corriera) daily in 30 (in the reverse direction in 36) hrs. to Messina. Hours 
of departure in 1872: from Palermo 6 a. m., from Cerda 8, from Cefalii 11 
(halt of l \i hr.), from Castel di Tusa 3. 30 p. m., from »S\ Stefano 5. 15, from 
.S\ Agata 9. 15, from Capo Orlando (Naxo) 1.2. 15 a. m., from Uiojosa 2. 45, 
from Patti 4. 30, from Barcellona 8 , from Arehi (Milazzo) 9. 15, from Gesso 
12 noon , arrival at Messina 2 p. m. — In the opposite direction : from 
Messina 7 p. in., Gesso 10, Archi (Milazzo) 12. 45 a. m., Barcellona 2, Patti 
5. 15 Giojosa 7. Capo Orlando 9. 30, 8. Agata 11. 45, 8. Stefano 3. 30 p. m., 
Castel di Tnsa 6. 15, Cefalii 10. 30 p in., arrival at Cerda 4. 30 a. in., train 
starts at 7. 30 and arrives at Palermo at 9. 15 a. m. — Those who wish to 
see Termini, Himera, and Tyndaris, and t< > perform the whole of the jour- 
ney by day. must either ride or post the intervening distances. The entire 
route is one of the most beautiful in Sicily. The steamboats which ply 

HIMERA. 31. Route. 273 

between Palermo and Messina touch once weekly at Cefalii, Milazzo, and 

From Palermo to Cerda. see p. 262. 

The first part of the route is bleak and treeless, and, as its 
aspect betokens, is rendered unhealthy by malaria. The road 
crosses the valley of the Fiume Torto and soon reaches Bonfor- 
nello, a solitary farm-house. 

The houses on the 1. stand on the ruins of a Doric temple 
which has not yet been excavated. On the height to the r. 
lay Himera, the most western town of the Greeks in Sicily, 
birth-place (about 630) of Stesichorus , orginally called Tisias, 
the perfector of the Greek chorus. If the abrupt hills, over- 
grown with sumach, be ascended, a table-land is reached which 
gradually slopes downward from the small town of La Signora. 
To the E. flows the Himera Septentrhnalis, or Fiume Grande; 
on the W. a small valley, in which tombs have been discovered, 
separates the town from the plateau. To the N. the hills de- 
scend precipitously to the plain of the coast; on this side the 
town was defended by massive walls. 

It was founded in 648 by Zanclseans, and on their behalf one of the 
greatest battles ever fought "by the Greeks took place when in 480 Gelon 
and Theron surprised the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was engaged in 
besieging the town, and annihilated his army. He himself sought a 
voluntary death in the sacrificial fire, in order to appease the wrath of 
the gods. The battle was probably earlier than that of Salamis, although 
Greek historians have stated that both were fought on the same day. In 
409, however, Hannibal Gisgon, grandson of Hamilcar, conquered the town 
and razed it to the ground, after the greater number of the inhabitants 
had abandoned it by night. >*o attempt to re-erect it has since been made. 

The Fiume Orande, with the Fiume Salso, bisects the is- 
land, and has frequently formed a political frontier (under the 
Romans and under Frederick II.). Beyond the Fiume Grande 
the straight and monotonous road traverses a district in which 
malaria prevails (the traveller should beware of falling asleep). 
Then to the r. beautiful glimpses of the fissured valleys of the 
Madonian Mis. near Roccella. Farther up in the valley traversed 
by the brook lies Collesano, a town which possesses remnants of 
walls and buildings of an unknown period. Above the mountains 
enclosing the valley tower the Monte S. Salvadore (6266 ft.) 
and the Pizzo Antenna (6480 ft.), the highest peaks of the 
Nebrode. Below Lascari and Gratteri, and finally below Gibil- 
manna, i. e. the 'manna-mountain', the road leads through a 
beautiful, cultivated district to Cefalii. In the vicinity consider- 
able quantities of manna are obtained from the exudations of the 
manna-tree (fraxinus ornus). 

(22i/ 2 M) Cefalii (Locanda in the market-place without sign, 
to the r. when seen from the cathedral, in the palace of Baron 
S. Anastasio, tolerable; another opposite the latter, with *Tratto- 
ria), Cephaloedium, a thriving town of 11,799 inhabitants, who 

B/edeker. Italv III. 4th Edition. 18 

274 Route 31. CEFALU. From Palermo 

are engaged in commerce, navigation, and the sardine fishery, 
is situated at the base of a barren promontory which rises ab- 
ruptly from the sea on the S. side, and on which the ancient 
town stood. The limestone rock, consisting almost entirely of 
fossils, which towers above the town, bears the fragments of a 
mediaeval stronghold and the remains of a polygonal structure. 
This appears to have been a species of treasury, to which 
during the Roman period a vault was added, and which was 
subsequently converted into a Christian place of worship. The 
summit commands a magnificent prospect of the N. coast and 
the lofty mountains. 

The town is mentioned for the first time in 397 in the wars between 
Dionysius I. and Carthage, and is occasionally alluded to during the 
Roman period. In 837 it was unsuccessfully besieged by the Arabians, 
but captured by them in 858. When in 1129 King Roger was returning 
from Naples and his vessel was in imminent danger of shipwreck, he is 
said to have vowed to erect a church to Christ and the Apostles on the 
spot where he should he permitted to land. The vessel was driven ashore 
at Cefalii, and he accordingly here commenced the construction of a hand- 
some cathedral. The document relating to the foundation, dating from 
1 14"), which is still preserved in the episcopal archives, contains, however, 
no allusion to the above circumstance. 

The '"Cathedral, a noble monument of Norman architecture, 
lies to the \V. of the promontory, and around it the modern 
town has sprung up. Two imposing towers of four storeys flank 
the facade, and are connected by a colonnade, recalling the huge 
towers of St. Etienne at Caen erected by William the Con- 
queror. The walls of the colonnade were entirely covered with 
mosaics, commemorating the instrumentality of Roger and his 
successors in the construction of the edifice. Of these no trace 
now exists. The W. entrance is coeval with the foundation. 
The portal is of unique construction. The apses are externally 
decorated, the remainder of the exterior is plain. 

The church, built in the form of a Latin cross, possesses a nave, two 
aisles, and three apses. Nave double the width of the aisles. Length 245, 
width 90 ft. The pointed vaulting of the nave and aisles is supported by 
15 columns of granite and 1 of cipolline. The *■ Mosaics in the tribune 
are the most ancient and perfect in Sicily, and most resemble, those pre- 
served in the monasteries on Mt. Athos. The beautifully executed figure 
of the Saviour was completed in 1148. A number of other figures, Mary 
with four archangels, prophets and saints, appear from their selection to 
have been the work of Greek artists. Two of the sarcophagi of porphyry 
now in the cathedral of Palermo once stood in the transepts. Frederick II. 
caused them to be transferred to Palermo in 1209, during the absence of 
the bishop Giovanni on a mission to the sultan of Damascus. On the 
return of the latter he indignantly excommunicated the emperor for this 
act of spoliation, but was subsequently appeased by a grant of land. The 
line Cloisters adjoining the church are similar to those at Monreale, hut 
in an inferior state of preservation. 

The heirs of the late Baron Mandralisoa possess a small col- 
lection of antiquities which embraces almost all the objects of 
interest found in the island of Lipari. 

1 1 1/ 4 M. from Cefalii is situated Finale, on the Fiume di 

to Messina. ACQUA DOLCE. 31. Route. 275 

Pollinn, the ancient Monalus. The loftily situated little town of 
Pollina, lying 3 M. inland, is believed to be the ancient Apollonia, 
which Timoleon delivered from its tyrant Leptines. 

6 M. from Finale is Tusa. Near it, on an eminence to the 
»K., lay Akiesa, founded in 403 by the tyrant Arohonides of 
Herbita. The town was a place of importance under the Romans ; 
its ruins are 2 M. in circumference. It is skirted by the Alesus, 
now Fiume di Pettineo. The road crosses this river and then 
the Fiume Regitano, in the valley of which the provincial town 
of Mistretta (10,638 inhab. ) , the Amestratus of the ancients, 
greatly enlarged and embellished since 1860, is situated. 

22'/.2 M. from Cefalfi is S. Stefano di Camastra (Nuova Locanda, 
and another, both tolerable), with 4275 inhab., situated on an 
eminence by the sea. On the W. side of the town a fine view 
of the environs, the sea, and the valley below is enjoyed. Cheese 
manufactured from sheep's milk (caccio cavallo) and wool are 
exported hence in considerable quantities. 

Between 8. Stefano and (^19 3 / 4 M.) 8. Agata is situated the 
llosco di Caronia, the most extensive forest in Sicily. The road 
crosses numerous brooks, and is bordered by the myrtle, mastix, 
and cistus-rose. After the Marina of Caronia (5 3 /4 M. from S. 
Stefano), the Calacte ('beautiful shore'J, founded by Ducetius in 
440, is passed, the Fiumara of S. Fratello or Furiano is reached, 
where in summer the traveller might imagine himself surrounded 
by a forest of oleanders. 

The town of S. Fratello (7200 inhab.), 5 M. inland, is one of the 
Lombard colonies which accompanied Adelaide of Jlonferrat, wife of 
Roger I., hither. Others established themselves at Piazza, Nicosia, Aidone, 
Randazzo, Sperlinga, Capizzi, 3Ianiace, etc. The Lombard dialect is still 
spoken at S. Fratello, Piazza, Nicosia, and Aidone. Near S. Fratello is 
the grotto of San Teodoro, containing fossil bones of many different species 
of mammalia. 

In the vicinity of Acqua Dolce (ll 1 ^ M. from Caronia) lay 
the town of Aluntium, of which nothing more is known than 
the allusion to it made by Cicero in his oration against Verres. 

3 .VI. farther is S. Agata, a small town with a bad inn. 
The road crosses the beds of numerous torrents , in the first 
of which, the Rosamarina, bordered by oleanders, are the fragments 
of a Roman bridge. To the r. lies 8. Marco, probably the ancient 
Agathyrnum. The ruins of a mediaeval palace in the Fiumara 
Zapulla are next passed. Between the mouth of this torrent and 
Capo Orlando was fought, July 4th, 1299, the great naval battle 
in which Frederick II. was defeated by the united fleets of Cata- 
lonia and Anjou under Roger Loria. On the height to the r. 
in front of the traveller the small town of Naso is visible, 
where the silk-culture is extensively carried on. The entire 
district resembles a luxuriant orchard. As soon, however, as 
Capo Orlando is passed, the extreme rocky point (305 ft.) of 


"276 Route 31. PATH. From Palermo 

which lies to the 1. of the road, the aspect of the country is 
changed. Here the mountains rise abruptly from the sea. Capo 
Orlando is 100 M. distant from Palermo, which in clear weather 
is visible from the extremity of the promontory. The broad 
Fiumara of Naso and the picturesque Brolo, with the small 
town of that name, are next reached; then Piraino. The tra- 
veller may proceed direct hence by Sorrentini to Patti, and thus 
considerably shorten his journey. A mountain of considerable 
height must, however, be traversed (2608 ft.). whilst the coast- 
route by Capo Calava is remarkably picturesque. 

The road ascends from a valley to Giojosa (Kieil. Giujusa ; 
4(324 inhab.), then rises to a considerable height above the sea, 
winding round the abrupt granite promontory of Calava, which 
it penetrates by a short tunnel, and descends to the Marina of 
Patti, whence it again ascends through an avenue of pepper- 
trees to the town with its extensive monasteries. Patti (1. of 
the road the small locanda of Antonino Arriyo ; Locanda Nuova, 
inferior), with 7574 inhab., notwithstanding its fine situation 
on the mountain, is unhealthy. In the modernised Cathedral, 
Adelasia, mother of King Koger and widow of Count Roger and 
of King Baldwin of Jerusalem, is interred. The wealthiest 
family in this district is that of the barons of Sciacca, who 
possess a beautiful chateau on the Scala, 3 M. to the N. of 
Patti. To the same family the environs of Tyndaris belong. 
From Patti to Messina direct 44 M., to Milazzo 27 M. 

The road to Milazzo (6 M. from Patti) now ascends. The 
promontory to the 1. with the Pizzo di Mongib (Monte Giove) 
was formerly the site of the town of Tyndaris (small locanda 
on the road). 

Tyndaris, one of the latest. Greek colonies in Sicily, was founded in 
M96 by Dionysius 1. with Locrians and Peloponnesian liessenians. It soon 
rose to prosperity, at an early period became allied to Timolcon, and 
remained faithful to the Romans during the Punic wars. It was therefore 
favoured by the Romans, and attained to great power and wealth. Its 
inhabitants were the first who opposed Verres, and engaged Cicero as their 
representative. During the Christian period it became the seat of a bishop. 
The exact date of its destruction is unknown. Before the time of Pliny 
;i small portion of the town was precipitated into the sea by a landslip. 

The promontory, rising 918 ft. above the sea, consists of 
granite, gneiss, and above these a stratum of limestone. The 
Mimmit is occupied by the church of Santa Maria (Madonna. 
.\era). Remains of a theatre and two mosaic pavements have 
been preserved. The internal diameter of the theatre is 213 ft., 
orchestra 78 ft. ; the cavea is divided into 9 cunei, and contains 
27 tiers of seats. Several statues of Roman workmanship found 
here are now in the museum of Palermo. 

Beneath the extremity of Capo Tindaro is the Stalactite 
Grotto of Fata Donnavilla, popularly supposed to be the haunt 
of i fairy who kidnaps young brides on their wedding-night. 

to Messina. M1LAZ20. 31 . Route. 271 

and to be identical with the Fata (fairy) Morgana. The curious 
may reach the entrance of the grotto by being lowered over the 
cliff with ropes. 

The ascent of the promontory is amply compensated for by 
the magnificent *view of the sea, Milazzo, the Lipari Islands. 
the Neptunian Mts., the conical Piz/.o di Tripi, on which Aba- 
caenum (now Noara) lies, and yEtna. 

Guide" to the ruins necessary ; custodian (iaetano Sedotti. 
Baron Sciacca Iras recently caused new excavations to be made. 

The road then descends to the bay of Olivieri, between Tyn- 
daris and Milazzo. The fertile plain is traversed by a number 
of torrents which frequently prove very destructive. The largest 
of these are the Olivieri, Arangia, Crancotta, Salica, and dell' 
Aranci, on which the sulphur-baths of Termini di Castro are 
situated. Beyond these the wealthy towns of Barcellona and 
Pozzo di Orotta are reached. Here, on the Longanus, Hiero of 
Syracuse defeated the Mamertines in '270. Then the Fiumara 
Cantone, Landro, and S. Lucia. The road now divides, to the 
r. direct to Messina, to the 1. through the vast vineyards of 
the Neapolitan ex-minister Cassisi (formerly the property of the 
order of St. John) to Miln-no. The Kmp. Frederick II. once 
possessed an extensive park for game here. According to Homer 
the herds of Helios were pastured here. 

Milazzo {Locanda delta Villa Nuova, in the principal street, 
tolerable), with 10,403 inhab.. is the Mylae of antiquity. 

Myliv was founded at. a very early period by colonists from Messana- 
Zancle, who in 648 quitted the settlement and proceeded to Ilimera. The 
territory remained subject to the Messenians, until Laches in 427 made it 
over to the inhabitants of Khegium. In 394. however, the Messenians again 
possessed themselves of the town, and alter it had been destroyed by 
Agathocles re-erected it. Here in 260 Duilius gained the first naval victory 
of the Romans, having by means of his boarding-bridges converted the 
naval into a species of land-contlict. Xo ancient, remains have been dis- 
covered here, as in the middle ages Milazzo was frequently altered and 
repeatedly besieged. The castle in front of which the town is situated, 
erected by Charles V., and restored in 1643, resisted the sieges it sus- 
tained from the Due de Vivonne in 1675 and during the Spanish war 
of succession. When Garibaldi was about to take Messina in 1860 he was 
here obliged to disable the Neapolitan general Bosco who threatened his 
Hank. Marching from Barcellona he attacked Bosco on July 20th and drove 
him back into the castle, where that general capitulated on condition of 
an unmolested retreat. The dead, 750 in number, were interred in a large 
pit. on the r. side of the road, immediately before the town is reached. 

Milazzo possesses a fine harbour. A walk on the admirably- 
cultivated promontory, whence are obtained beautiful glimpses 
through the foliage of the sea on both sides, glittering far be- 
neath, is strongly recommended. At the extremity stands a light- 
house. Extensive tunny-fisheries. 

From Milazzo to Messina 20 ' / 2 M. The road traverses the 
plain of the coast to Spadtifora. In the bay to the 1. the fleet 
of Sextos Pompeius was annihilated by Agrippa. On the heights 

"27 S Route 31. RAMETTA. 

to the r. stands <S. Pietro (Sampieri), Sicil. Monforte, and higher 
mi the mountain, on a summit surrounded by precipitous cliffs, 
the small town of Bametta, in which the Christians maintained 
themselves till 965. From Spadafora the road ascends to Divieto, 
Bavuso (Weil. Bauso), and Oesso, where the Saracens remained 
until a late period. The luxuriant fertility of the fields soon 
diminishes, and the zone of the heath and grass, with which the 
precipitous slopes of the Neptunian Mts. are clothed, is reached. 
The summit, the so-called Telegraph, or Colle di San Rizzo 
(1722 ft.), commands a view of the strait of Messina; to the J. 
the Faro, opposite to it Scilla in Calabria, then on a projecting 
angle S. Giovanni, numerous villages, and farther to the r. 
Reggio. The forests of the lofty Aspromonte occupy a large 
portion of the Calabrian peninsula. In front of the spectator 
extends the sickle (Zancle) shaped harbour of Messina ; the road 
descends to a profound and sinuous ravine, through which the 
gate of the town is reached in 1 hr. 

Walkers or riders may descend from the summit by a preci- 
pitous footpath to the picturesque ruins of the Norman convent 
of S. Maria della Scala, or della Valle, commonly called Abba- 
diazza. Portions of the church, e. g. the W. portal, date from 
the i'2th cent. William II. and Constantine endowed the church 
munificently. AVhen Peter of Arragon with the beautiful Ma- 
thilde Alaimo-Scaletta was on his return to Messina, the siege 
of which had just been raised by Charles of Anjou, the inha- 
bitants and their gallant commandant Alaimo received him here 
with every demonstration of joy (Oct. 2nd, 1*282). After the 
plague of 1347 the nuns removed to the town, thenceforth em- 
ploying the convent as a farm-building only. This was prohi- 
bited by the Council of Trent, in consequence of whicli the 
convent fell to decay and is now a complete ruin in a desolate 
situation, but an object of interest to architects and artists. 
Messina, see p. 279. 

From Termini a road traverses the interior of the island to Leon/orle, 
liut is only partially completed. This was the route usually pursued by 
the Arabians on their predatory incursions into the interior from Palermo. 
It has also frequently been traversed by the Greeks and Normans, and has 
been the scene of many a sanguinary encounter. The road ascends by the 
t'iunie Torto to Cerda, crosses the mountain, and descends to the valley of 
the Fiuiue Grande and the small towns of Sclafani (marble sarcophagus in 
I he church) and Caltavuturo (18 M. from Termini). The latter is of Sara- 
cenic origin ( Ka/at-Abi-T/tattr) and was taken by Roger I. who granted it 
to his daughter Mathilde. It now contains 5129 inhab. The road ascends 
thence to Polizii, situated on a lofty rock (3008 ft.), a town fortified by 
Hoger I., and of considerable importance in the middle ages. On the moun- 
tain which is crossed hence to (6 31.) Petralia, rise the Himera Meridionaiis 
(Fiume tialso) and the Himera Sepleiitrionalis (Fivme Grande), which the 
ancients believed to possess one common source. Petralia Sottaita and 
Xoprana are two country-towns in ;i fertile district with imposing moun- 
tainous environs, occupying the site of the ancient Petraea. To the S., on 
the mountain-rirt;_ r e, Bnonpietro and Alimena. The latter was conquered by 
the Saracens in 843, and is probably the ancient Jhntkhara. From PetraJi'a 

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MESSINA. :Si'. Route. 279 

the road traverses a, lofty mountain-ridge to (6 M.) Gangi, a town with 
10,552 inliab. , the ancient Sikelian Enguium, originally a Cretan, i e. a 
Phoenician colony, where in Cicero's time a celebrated temple of Magna 
Mater (or Aschera), despoiled by Verres, was situated. One of the best 
Sicilian painters of the 17th cent., known as Lo Zoppo (the lame), was also 
surnamed u di Gangi\ The bridle-path leads hence through a fertile tract 
lo (9 M.) Sperlinga (2592 ft.), which alone in 1282 showed partiality to the 
French, whence the saying 'Quod Siculis placuit sola Sperlinga negavit 1 ; 
thence to (3 M.) Xicosia, with 14.731 inhabitants who still employ th* 1 
Lombard dialect, a town of an entirely mediaeval aspect, regarded as more 
behind the age than any other in Sicily. The road then passes in the 
vicinity of Rocca di Sarno, where the brave Somian Serlo perished through 
treachery, and leads to Leonforte (p. 268). 

32. Messina. 

Arrival. The vessels anchor in the middle of the harbour. To the 
E. are situated the old quarantine buildings, or lazzaretto. and the citadel, 
between which lies the Protestant cemetery. To the W. stretches the city, 
nearly in the middle of which, on the water's edge, is the Sanita (PI. 11), 
where passengers are landed in small boats (tariff l \? fr. , or with luggage 
1 fr.). Luggage is slightly scrutinised at the dogana by officers of the 
municipal customs. Porter for ordinary luggage from the Sanita to the 
Dogana, and thence to a hotel, 1 fr. 

Hotels. *La Vittoria (PI. a), Strada Garibaldi 66, R. from 2'| 2 , L. 
and A. 1>|2, B. l'| 2 , D. 4 fr., pension 12 fr. per day. *Albeego e Tbattokia 
i)i Venezia, Strada della Neve 7 and 11, second class, R. 2!|2, L. '|s fr. — 
Albergo Centrale, Strada Tcatro della Munizione 2; Hotel di Bologna, 
Strada S. Camillo 6; Trinauria and Albekgo (TItalia, both in the Strada 
Garibaldi; Albergo di Milano, Strada del Pozzo Leone 53; L'nione, Piazza 
del Duomo 38. 

Restaurants. * Cafe iVuovo, on the ground-floor of the Teatro Vittorio 
Emanuele ; *Ristoratore Nazionale, Strada Pozzo Leone 39 ; *Ristoratore di 
Venezia, see above; Rirtorante di Sicilia, Strada Garibaldi 121, first floor; 
Unione, at the inn of that name. — Cafes. Best ices af the *Peloro, Corso 
Cavour, Piazza delf Annunziafa; Cafe Xuoro, see above; Ellenico; Italia, 
on the quay; "Gaffe di Roma, Strada Garibaldi 280. opposite the town- 
gardens, where a band frequently plays. — Beer at the Bin-aria Svizzera, 
Strada Garibaldi 219, 40 c. per bottle, Vienna beer 1 fr. 

Fiacres. Per drive in the town '|s fr.; to or from the station, with 
luggage, 1 fr. 

Reading Room (Gabinetto di Lettura) on the ground-floor of the Teatro 
Vittorio Emanuele. — The Casino delta Bona , on the first floor of the 
theatre, entered from the side-street to the r., and the Casino degli Esteri, 
Strada Garibaldi 244, are clubs to which strangers introduced by a member